MFT Girls Research Methods Poster Project Presentation

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Information about MFT Girls Research Methods Poster Project Presentation
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Published on April 26, 2014

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The MFT Girls presents:: The MFT Girls presents: Organic Foods vs. Non-Organic Foods By: Shaffrayne Solomon, Britni Dearden , Nicole Serrano, & Lauren Oberlander PowerPoint Presentation: Method Discussion Organic Food vs. Non-Organic Food Shaffrayne Solomon, Britni Dearden, Nicole Serrano, & Lauren Oberlander AZUSA PACIFIC UNIVERSITY Logo (optional) Chart #1 Chart #2 References Literature Review Results Logo (optional) Data was collected from seventeen participants from Azusa Pacific University. All participants were within the Graduate level programs and were a mixture between males and females and were at least 21 years of age. Specifically, there were fifteen participants who were recognized in this study and the other two were excluded. Importance of Food Costs Preference for Organic or Non-Organic Food  The overall results resulted in a general theme of the participants for the most part knowing that organic foods are healthier for you, wanting to eat healthier, however the most important factors are price of the food and the distance to get food. When looking at the results it is interesting to see that our results confirm the majority of the research that was covered in the literature review. Due to the growing popularity of the consumption of organic foods, we believed that there would be much evidence to support that. We believed that people are becoming more aware of the health and environmental benefits and that seems to be true. Cajic, Natalie (2013). Organic makes a move. Canadian Grocer, 127, 39-41. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1445474783?accountid=8459 V arious journal articles report that most people buy organic food for the health benefits. However , along with the health benefits we find that there are other reasons behind the purchase and consumption of organic food. It is also found that there is research to show that the purchase and consumption of organic food can be ethnically and culturally based. One of the studies in the review explores the reasons why the behavior of consumers in the UK and Germany has been so different despite both groups of consumers holding similar beliefs about organic foods. Regardless of similar attitudes, cultural differences will cause consumers to seek different values, and means of attaining those values. PowerPoint Presentation: Literature Review In the majority of these articles, it is clear that most people buy organic food for the health benefits. However, in the research, along with the health benefits we find that there are other reasons behind the purchase and consumption of organic food. It is also found that there is some research to show that the purchase and consumption of organic food can be ethnically and culturally based. There are three specific studies that we found that contribute to this idea. According to Baker, Engelken, and Thomas (2004), their study explores the reasons why the behavior of consumers in the UK and Germany has been so different despite both groups of consumers holding similar beliefs about organic foods. This was done by looking at the underlying values motivating food choice behavior using means-end theory and Laddermap 5.4 software. The findings of this research confirm that despite similar attitudes, cultural differences will cause consumers in the UK and Germany to seek different values, and means of attaining those values. Cajic (2013) took a study from an organic market in Canada and this showed that more Canadians buy organic produce that what was believed and that certain specific products are growing in popularity. When looking at this specific ethnicity there are differences in their beliefs and actions. They will likely pay more for organic food that is good for them than the average Canadian. They also believe that organic foods are better for the environment because they are farmed differently. This study also showed that 98% of Canadians expect to continue to buy more organic foods just within the next year. The study by Beresford, Curl, Diez-Roux, Hajat, Kaufman, Moore, and Nattleton (2013) 4064 participants between the ages of 53 and 94 from multi ethnic backgrounds were surveyed. It was found that those surveyed were found to purchase organic fruits and vegetables frequently or almost always. There was a 21% higher chance that women are more likely to buy organic foods than men. It was also found that those with a higher education as well as younger participants were more likely to purchase organic foods. PowerPoint Presentation: Literature Review There were also similar findings from an anonymous article (2011) titled: Thomson Reuters-NPR Health Poll: More Than Half of Americans Prefer Organic Foods. In this study it was shown that when given the choice most people will choose organic foods. This poll also showed that the most common groups to consume organic foods are people with a high education and they are younger. What this poll also brings to our attention is another common reason to buy organic foods is that it is free from pesticides. In the study by Rebik (2011) it discusses just how much pesticides play a role in choosing between organic and non-organic food. It is also mentioned that we are shopping at a store, we see a sticker that says organic and we believe it. This study also encourages that if organic food is what people want; buying organic food that is locally grown is a great alternative. As mentioned in the study above labeling of the food can be a huge factor in why people choose to buy organic food. Bezawada and Pauwels (2013) expressed that organic foods are bought based on health reason, nutritional value and environmental concerns. However, it had been found that labeling had an important influence on the purchase of organic foods. If the labels were more detailed that equated that it must be healthier and “more” organic. It is easy to see that there are many obvious reasons why people choose organic foods. Carlson, Kareklas, and Muehling (2014) found that there are egotistic and altruistic reasons for the purchase and consumption of organic foods. The first egotistic reason is that people believe that organic foods are healthier for them, and the altruistic reason is that consuming organic foods is better for the environment. It was also found that when advertisements aimed at these demographics people responded more positively to them. PowerPoint Presentation: Literature Review Sundqvist and Tarkianen (2009) looked into the reasons why people do or do not purchase organic foods. In the act of grocery shopping they found that more involvement was required when shopping for organic foods. This study does once again confirm that people do purchase organic foods because of health and environmental reasons. It also found that those who do buy organic foods do not do so consistently. Even those that do buy organic foods consistently they are a very small group. Fotopoulos and Krystallis (2002) look at organic products that are appropriate for “green” consumers. Using the labels of unaware, aware non-users, and aware users they were able to determine the beliefs of each group and find out what was their motivation behind their stance when it comes to organic foods. According to Aikaterini, Gemma, Harper, and Makatouni (2002) it was also found that health reasons are important in choosing organic foods. It also explained that it is more likely that middle aged women will be consuming organic foods the most. Although health benefits were of great importance, it was found that people are consuming organic foods because of the welfare of animals. In the article by Sutherland, Sutherland, and Webster (2013) researchers studied the health of the organic animals being used for organic food. It is reassuring to customers to know that the organic procedures are different from the non-organic and that they will be consuming little to no chemicals in their food. Despite the most common reasons of consumption of organic food being health reasons, the article by Elizabeth Fuhrman (2005) claims that the health benefits are not that significant. Although the purchase of organic foods has gone up, it seems that this article believes that consuming organic foods, will truly not benefit your overall health. PowerPoint Presentation: Method Participants Data were collected from seventeen participants from Azusa Pacific University. All participants were within the Graduate level programs and were a mixture between males and females and were at least 21 years of age. Demographically, Azusa Pacific University is composed primarily of Caucasian students of middle to upper class, however the participants were not required to fill out demographic information to complete the survey. All graduate participants from Azusa Pacific University chose to participate in this study voluntarily and were not forced to participate. Two of the seventeen participants were excluded from the study because they failed to follow the instructions of the survey. These two participants chose to not complete the entire survey and therefore their answers of the questions they chose to answer, were not included in this study. Specifically, there were fifteen participants who were recognized in this study and the other two were excluded. Materials The materials used within this study were SurveyMonkey, group section in Forums on Sakai, as well as email contacts. SurveyMonkey was a way to allow for participants to access the survey online and receive the results right away of each participant. The group section in Forums on Sakai was utilized for each member involved in preparing this study to converse and share ideas about the study. This was an area where data could be shared. Emails were utilized as a way to contact members involved in creating the research study. Email contacts were also utilized to contact participants and ask if they would like to voluntarily participant in this study. The link to SurveyMonkey with this survey was attached to each email sent to each participant. PowerPoint Presentation: Method Design and Procedure Throughout composing this survey Azusa Pacific Universities survey coordinators, and the OIRA, helped review the survey to make sure it was prepared to administer to the participants. The survey used in this study included 10 questions. 8 of the questions were quantitative multiple choice questions which ranged from strongly agree, agree, neither agree or disagree, disagree, or strongly disagree. Further, the 2 qualitative questions were open ended questions regarding what impacted a person’s decision to purchase or not purchase organic food. Participants were recruited from Azusa Pacific University, and all participants were from the graduate program of clinical psychology. The participants were recruited through email as well as personally through the Azusa Pacific University. Following, the recruitment, students were emailed with a link to the SurveyMonky questionnaire to allow them to fill out the given survey. All survey responses were kept confidential, and participants were informed of this. PowerPoint Presentation: Results The overall results resulted in a general theme of the participants for the most part knowing that organic foods are healthier for you, wanting to eat healthier, however the most important factors are price of the food and the distance to get food. I prefer “organic food over non-organic food” resulted in the majority strongly agreeing at 41% with the statement and 23% being neutral, 23% agreeing, 6% disagreeing and 11% strongly disagreeing (Chart #1). Participants for the most part strongly agreeing to “When trying to decide to purchase organic food over non-organic food, the cost of the food is very important to me.” with 47%, and the rest of the participants responding with 11% strongly disagree, 11% disagree, and 29% agree. Note that it was interesting that there were no responses for neither agree nor disagree. The question “I will travel any distance necessary to buy the groceries I need.” was an overwhelming 52% response of disagree, While 11% strongly disagree, 17% neither agree nor disagree, 11% with agree, and 5% with strongly agree. When participants were asked “I feel that there are benefits to consuming organic foods over non-organic foods” 52% agreed, and 47% strongly agreed (Chart #3). This shows that all participants agree that organic foods are more beneficial to consume than non-organic foods. When it comes to the taste preference of organic foods over non-organic foods, the majority responded 41% with agree, 23% agree, 23% disagree, 11% neither agree nor disagree. When participants were asked if they believe non-organic foods are not healthy for them, 41% responded as neither disagreeing nor agreeing, 23% responded as agreeing, 17% responded as disagreeing and 17% responded as strongly agreeing. PowerPoint Presentation: Results Participants were also asked if they believed purchasing organic foods contribute to their overall health and well-being, the majority being 52% responded with agree, 29% with strongly agree, 11% as neither agree nor disagree and 5% as disagree. It was also found that about 70% of the population varied between agree and strongly agreed in regards to the environment being positively impacted by their consumption of organic foods. There were two qualitative questions that were asked in this study: “Briefly explain why you consume organic foods.” and “What encourages you to choose either organic food or non-organic food?” After reviewing “Briefly explain why you consume organic foods” it appeared that most participants reported that their main reasons for eating organic foods is due to wanting to “be” and eat healthier and to avoid harmful chemicals or pesticides. When asked “What encourages you to choose either organic food or non-organic food?” most responded Price or cost of food was most important in deciding if they would or would not purchase organic foods. These results were surprisingly extremely clear with the themes of people wanting to eat, or knowing they should eat, or preferring to eat organic foods (Table). However one of the strongest factors in deciding if a person invests in organic foods are the price (Chart #2). Affordable food is something that is very important to consumers and will in the end be the biggest deciding factor. PowerPoint Presentation: Chart #1 Preference for Organic or non-Organic Food PowerPoint Presentation: Chart #2 Importance of Food Costs PowerPoint Presentation: Chart #3 Benefits PowerPoint Presentation: Table PowerPoint Presentation: Discussion When looking at the results it is interesting to see that our results confirm the majority of the research that was covered in the literature review. Due to the growing popularity of the consumption of organic foods, we believed that there would be much evidence to support that. We believed that people are becoming more aware of the health and environmental benefits and that seems to be true. In our initial predictions, it seems that perhaps we did not expect such a high percentages to agree or strongly disagree. Due to the fact that that the consumption of organic foods has become more popular in the recent years, we expected more participants to prefer healthier options. In this process we were also able to find that there are limits participants are going to set when it comes to the purchase of organic foods. The results seem to prove that there is significant adequacy in our study. As mentioned before, the research in the literature review showed that participants were very aware of the health benefits, the environmental benefits, and the cost of their food. Our research also proved that this is what most people found important in our study as well. The literature review also found that there were higher percentages of women consuming organic foods. Unfortunately in our study we did not ask whether our participants were male or female so we were unable to distinguish what impact that would make in our study. PowerPoint Presentation: Discussion In terms of generalizability these results can easily be generalized to other groups and settings. Our focus group was graduate students although the age range was not set. Due to the fact that there is no set age when people can become a graduate student, our age range was not specific. Since our results can be generalized, these methods could be used with any age range and could even be made more specific by finding out the gender of the participants. The results that were gathered from our study and the questions that we asked were very relevant to the study. Basic questions were asked about the beliefs of consuming organic foods and we also used two qualitative questions: “Briefly explain why you consume organic foods.” and “What encourages you to choose either organic food or non-organic food?” This allowed us to get personal feedback from each participant about their personal motivations for purchasing and consuming organic foods. Due to the fact that the popularity of organic foods is growing more rapidly, it can be very helpful to further research this topic. There are different age groups that can be addressed and gender obviously plays an important role in the consumption of organic foods over non-organic foods. One thing seems to be clear from our research as well as those in our literature review, it is important to participants when they are buying organic food that it is good for them, the environment, and is affordable. PowerPoint Presentation: References Anonymous (2011). Thomson Reuters-NPR health poll: More than half of Americans prefer organic foods. Trade Journals . Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/898616948?accountid=8459 Baker, Susan, Thomson, Keith E., & Engelken, Julia (2004). Mapping the values driving organic food choice: Germany vs the UK. European Journal of Marketing, 38 , 995- 1012. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/237025116?accountid=8459 Bezawada, Ram & Pauwels, Koen (2013). What is special about marketing organic products? How organic assortment, price, and promotions drive retailer performance. Journal of Marketing, 77 , 31-51. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?sid=0f0b7407-d31e-411e-bc98- 2e31cb91b7e0@sessionmgr114&vid=1&resultId=1&theDisplayFormat=CitationAn dFullText&ReturnUrl=%252fehost%252fresults%252fresultlist%253fsid%253d0f0b 7407- d31e-411e-bc98- 2e31cb91b7e0%2540sessionmgr114%2526vid%253d1%2526resultId%253d_resu ltId_ Cajic, Natalie (2013). Organic makes a move. Canadian Grocer, 127, 39-41. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1445474783?accountid=8459 Curl, Cynthis L., Beresford, Shirley A., Hajat, Anjum, Kaufman, Joel D., Moore, Kari, Nattleton, Jennifer A., & Diez-Roux Ana V. (2013). Association of organic produce consumption with socioeconomic status and the local food environment: Multi- ethnic study of atherosclerosis. PLoS One, 8. Retrieved from http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0069778 PowerPoint Presentation: References Fotopoulos, C. & Krystallis, A. (2002). Organic product avoidance: Reasons for rejection and potential buyers’ identification in a countrywide survey. British Food Journal, 104 , 3-5. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/225120589?accountid=8459 Fuhrman, Elizabeth (2005). Organic opportunities. Beverage Industry, 96 , 28-32. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/196492681?accountid=8459 Gemma C. Harper, Aikaterini Makatouni (2002). Consumer perception of organic food production and farm animal welfare. British Food Journal , 104 , 287 – 299. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=870640 Kareklas, Ioannis, Carlson, Jeffrey R., & Muehling, Darrel D. (2014). “I eat organic for my benefit and yours”: Egoistic and altruistic considerations for purchasing organic food and their implications for advertising strategies. Journal of Advertising, 43 , 18- 32. doi:10.1080/00913367.2013.799450 Rebik, Dana (2011). Organic vs. non-organic: choosing produce based on pesticide exposure. McClatchy – Tribune Business News. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/898616948?accountid=8459 Sutherland, Mhairi A., Webster, Jim, & Sutherland, Ian (2013). Animal health and welfare issues facing organic production systems. Animals, 3, 1021-1035. Retrieved from http://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/3/4/1021 PowerPoint Presentation: References Tarkiainen, Anssi & Sundqvist, Sanna (2009). Product involvement in organic food consumption: Does Ideology Meet Practice? Psychology and Marketing, 26 , 844- 863. doi:10.1002/mar.20302 Vosburgh, Robert (2005). Time for an organic summit to set definitive standards. Supermarket News, 53 , 12. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/230681504?accountid=8459 Thank You for Watching!: Thank You for Watching! Organic Foods vs. Non-Organic Foods By: Shaffrayne Solomon, Britni Dearden , Nicole Serrano, & Lauren Oberlander

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