Published on March 1, 2014
as reported by Marvin B. Gonzaga BSED – Bio. Sci.
Demonstration/Performance • Used to illustrate a general principle with a concrete example or to provide a model of a skill, which students can practice. Description of what is to be shown and a list of main points Demonstration proper with a running narrative Students are given the opportunity to perform the procedure
• Aimed at comprehension or application of general principle to a specific instance. It is designed to teach a skill or procedure. Advantages Disadvantages Maximizes the efficiency of Does not work well in large student participation by providing groups unless the details are a good model. large enough to be seen by all. Student interest is usually very high because of their active involvement. Setting up is very time consuming. Often the only way of conveying complex operations required in some skilled tasks. They don’t always go as planned. If the students will be practicing the skills, set up time and equipment costs are large.
Suggestions for Maximizing Effectiveness: 1. Keep demonstrations simple and straightforward. • Most useful to either highlight a principle for clarification 2. Precede the demonstration with a description. or make it memorable or as a preliminary to student 3. Do everything area. practice in a skill to make the demo work the first time. 4. Use the same equipment that the students will be using. 5. Be sure everybody can see clearly. 6. Give a step-by-step description of your actions. 7. Review the major steps and ask a few key questions. 8. During student practice time, be available, circulate, answer questions, and make suggestions.
Demonstrations require a lot of preparation time and must be supported with various audio-visuals. They are particularly useful in teaching skills and are more teacher-centered than studentcentered. There are several adaptations of demonstrations: Projects Peer Tutoring Research Papers Practice Field Trips On-The-Job Trainings Simulated Experiences Videotapes
Discussion • Intended to be a free give and take between instructor and students on current topic of concern in the course. • Characterized by probing questions from the instructor designed to elicit student: Interpretations Opinions Questions
Low Cognitive Level: When the instructor questions are closed-ended, factual questions. High Cognitive Level: The discussion can provide the opportunity for learning analysis and evaluation skills. The discussion also serves as a common method for the exploration of attitudes.
Advantages Disadvantages 1. Students are actively involved in processing information and ideas. 1. It is the least effective method for conveying factual information. 2. Student needs and interests are dealt with more readily and spontaneously. 2. Can be very time-consuming and unfocused. 3. Student diversity of backgrounds can be exploited in the generation of ideas, approaches and examples. 3. At first, the instructor has difficulty in getting the students involved and the temptation to slip into a review or mini-lecture is great. 4. Students practice formulating questions and communicating ideas. 4. Class size must be restricted. 5. Can be used to examine student attitudes.
• Discussion serves best when the students have a background in the content of the discussion, through their coursework or because the discussion focuses on some common experience/problem. • It is used when the instructor wants the students to practice analysis and evaluation or to examine opinions.
Purpose: involve students in content transmittal Limited to small groups and require considerable time Does not require much audio-visual support Variations include: debate, panel discussion, reviews interviews, etc.
4. Case Study
Description • In this method, a situation drawn from real life is followed step-by-step to illustrate a general principle or problem solving strategy. Unsophisticated Students • Borders on a lecture • The instructor gives general principles and have the students identify the specific materials they have at hand. Advanced Students • The students are expected to study the materials and generate the illustrated principles and questions from the specifics.
Cognitive Advantages Level Disadvantages 1. The students’ level of 1. Case preparation is time involvement is much greater than • Some factual learning occurs, mostly the instructor. of consuming for in the form in a lecture. general principles. Students •2. Provides a method is of The case higher level primarily2.aimed atneed time to scan the the application of cognitive learning than plain materials or outline main points general principles to specific instances information. analysis lecture. and critical or at the and evaluation of themore 3. The cases tend to be situation. 3. Students need a base of interesting since they are drawn from real life. information about the process or problem area. 4. The learning is generalized more readily to other real life situations. 4. There is a tendency to overcomplicate cases drawn from real life by giving too much detail. 5. The instructor can still maintain a high degree of control over the class flow. 5. Case study lends itself best to smaller classes.
Most Effective Suggestions for Maximizing Effectiveness: Common Use • Case studies are most useful when students are learning 1. Make clear to the students what the process is a process of information analysis or question asking. and follow it closely in the case analysis. • They are particularly beneficial if which will draw on go 2. Select sample students cases the students can through several cases sequentially , when the instructor the students’ backgrounds or interests. begins by directing the process andfor using a shifts to 3. Be clear in what the objectives gradually case allowing the students to direct the process. are. 4. Don’t make the cases too complex. 5. If more than one case will be used, move from simple to complex cases. 6. Avoid the temptation to answer your own questions. 7. Be well versed in the case details and alternatives yourself.
THE END (FOR NOW) Thanks for Listening! (Naa pay part 2)
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