metaphor creativity

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Published on March 18, 2008

Author: Christian

Source: authorstream.com

Lexical databases as resources for linguistic creativity: Focus on metaphor:  Lexical databases as resources for linguistic creativity: Focus on metaphor Birte Lönneker University of Hamburg, Germany Research Center of the Slovenian Academy, Ljubljana Introduction:  Introduction Metaphor is a form of linguistic creativity: the more novel, the more creative There are several types of novel metaphors Novel metaphors are rare By studying conventionalized metaphors and their novel extensions, we can learn more about creative metaphors A conceptual metaphor:  A conceptual metaphor CHANGE IS MOTION Conventional lexical metaphors illustrate the metaphorical mapping: The Financial Times 30-share index tumbled 34.9 to [...]. [...] profit margins fell to 3.9% from 5.8% a year earlier, as general expenses soared nearly sevenfold. [...], service-industry employment rose about 200,000, against a 2.7 million drop in goods-producing jobs. Change abstract size Change physical location Systems for text understanding and generation need knowledge resources:  Systems for text understanding and generation need knowledge resources “general expenses soared” to soar1 [SUBJ: airplane, flying object] to soar2 [SUBJ: abstract entity (with location on abstract scale)] Lexical databases as resources:  Lexical databases as resources Questions: To which extent do current lexical databases provide information on conventional metaphor? (... which is creatively extensible) Which representation structures do exist? are still needed? Examples of lexical databases:  Examples of lexical databases Princeton WordNet: English, ongoing WN 2.0: 115,000 concepts free! EuroWordNet: eight European languages ca. 15,000 concepts for German ca. 23,000 concepts for French available from ELRA/ELDA WordNet structuring principles:  WordNet structuring principles Synsets are sets of synonyms or near-synonyms referring to the same concept, e.g. {tumble, topple} (the concept of ‘falling down, as if collapsing’) Relations characterize the way in which two synsets are connected, e.g. {tumble, topple} HAS_HYPERONYM {descend, fall, go down, come down} ANTONYMY:  ANTONYMY MOTION CHANGE {travel, go, move, locomote} {change magnitude} {descend, fall, go down, come down} {decrease, diminish, lessen, fall} {tumble, topple} {decline, go down, wane} {drop} {tumble} {rise, lift, arise, move up, go up, come up, uprise} {increase} {soar, soar up, soar upwards, surge, zoom} {wax, mount, climb, rise} {soar} [...] {drop} Lexical Metaphors in WordNet 2.0 ANTONYMY First consequences for knowledge-based systems:  First consequences for knowledge-based systems Knowledge Acquisition: Lexical databases as resource for representing the structure of the source and target domain Evaluation: Reference to a common general lexical resource can facilitate the comparison of different systems that deal with metaphor. The Hamburg Metaphor Database:  The Hamburg Metaphor Database Currently, wordnets do not directly relate conceptual domains that underly metaphoricity. The mapping is reflected only indirectly by parallel polysemy (if at all). Aim of the Hamburg Metaphor Database: Study how information on metaphors could better be represented in Wordnets Hamburg Metaphor Database Resources:  Hamburg Metaphor Database Resources Corpora: Collected for Master Theses Languages: German and French Lexical database: EuroWordNet in German and French Domain names: Free list of conceptual domains and mappings (Lakoff et al. 1991) Hamburg Metaphor Database Methodology:  Hamburg Metaphor Database Methodology Identify metaphorically used word in corpus texts Enter corpus context (sentence, phrase) Annotate the lexical metaphor with synset information from EuroWordNet domain information from metaphor list (additional) domain information in German Hamburg Metaphor Database Example:  Hamburg Metaphor Database Example Case Study:  Case Study Input: 22 results from the Hamburg Metaphor Database for the source domain BUILDING (BAUWERK) Target domains: CREATING (ACTION), ORGANIZATION, ... Lexical metaphors: e.g. architect, construction, debris, foundation, pillar Representation of the BUILDING Source Domain in EuroWordNet:  Representation of the BUILDING Source Domain in EuroWordNet destroy create architect building building part build foundation debris {bauen:2} {fabriquer:4 construire:2 ...} {Architekt:1 ...} {architecte:1 designer:1 ...} {Gebäude:1} {édifice:1 ... construction:6} {Gebäudeteil:1} {élément de construction:1} {Fundament:1 Grundfeste:N} {Fassade:N} {Säule:N} {bâtir:N ériger:1 élever:8 ...} {créer:13 réaliser:3} {socle:N} {Aufbau:N} {Trümmer:N} {zertrümmern:N in Trümmer legen:N} {zerstören:1} {anfertigen:1 fabrizieren:1 fertigen:1 herstellen:3 ...} {erschaffen:1 erzeugen:2 machen:5 schaffen:3} {créer:1 faire:13} create {créateur:1} creator HAS_ MERO_ PART INVOLVED_ RESULT INVOLVED_ RESULT INVOL- VED_ AGENT CO_ AGENT_ RESULT XPOS_NEAR_ SYNONYM More consequences for knowledge-based systems:  More consequences for knowledge-based systems + Much more relation types in EuroWordNet than in Princeton WordNet Therefore, domain-internal relations can be denser -- Polysemy not represented in EuroWordNet: for most lexemes, we find only literal meanings Some relation types not sufficiently instantiated Mapping:  Mapping Relate central synset of source domain to corresponding concept in target domain directly in lexical resource (EWN) Target domain: same structure as source domain Target domain: lexical items have attested or potential metaphorical meaning, related to that of the central synset in the same way as in the source domain. Slide18:  The BUILDING Domain in EWN destroy create architect building building part build foundation debris {bauen:2} {fabriquer:4 construire:2 ...} {Architekt:1 ...} {architecte:1 designer:1 ...} {Gebäude:1} {édifice:1 ... construction:6} {Gebäudeteil:1} {élément de construction:1} {Fundament:1 Grundfeste:N} {Fassade:N} {Säule:N} {bâtir:N ériger:1 élever:8 ...} {créer:13 réaliser:3} {socle:N} {Aufbau:N} {Trümmer:N} {zertrümmern:N in Trümmer legen:N} {zerstören:1} {anfertigen:1 fabrizieren:1 fertigen:1 herstellen:3 ...} {erschaffen:1 erzeugen:2 machen:5 schaffen:3} {créer:1 faire:13} create {créateur:1} creator HAS_ MERO_ PART INVOLVED_ RESULT INVOLVED_ RESULT INVOL- VED_ AGENT CO_ AGENT_ RESULT XPOS_NEAR_ SYNONYM {…:N} Instead of a conclusion...:  Instead of a conclusion... Further topics: Literal-figurative inconsistencies in current lexical databases! World knowledge (relations) in lexical resources? Your questions!?

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