metal organic framework-carbon capture and sequestration

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Information about metal organic framework-carbon capture and sequestration
Education

Published on February 17, 2014

Author: vasisiddiqui

Source: slideshare.net

Description

MOF is a porous crystal like a spunge having an enormous surface area and provide much more rooms for storage the gases preferentially hydrogen and carbon dioxide and work as storage for next generation fuel.

Presented byVASI UDDIN SIDDIQUI GD-5405 ALIGARH MUSLIM UNIVERSITY, ALIGARH U.P 1 Mg-MOF-74

Contents: Introduction  Climate Change and CO2 Emission  Research Motivation and Objective  Approach and Methodology  Conclusions  References 2

Introduction:-  The award of Nobel Prize to Charles J Pedersen, Donald J Cram and Jean-Marie Lehn in 1987 marked the emergence of a new branch of chemistry, namely supramolecular chemistry. “Chemistry beyond the molecule” …… LEHN Says 3

“The understanding of intermolecular interactions in the context of crystal packing and the utilization of such interactions in the design of new solids with desired physical and chemical properties” According to GAUTAM R DESIRAJU Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore “MOF is a porous crystal or say porous sponges with ultrahigh porosity and enormous internal surface area” According to Omar Yaghi Chemistry Professor, UC Berkeley Director, Molecular Foundry, Berkeley Lab 4

MOF basics: MOF= Metal Organic Frameworks; organic-inorganic hybrid materials Metal centre or cluster (inorganic part) Linker (organic part) Metal Organic Framework (coordination polymer) 5

Climate Change and CO2 Emission  About 69 % of all CO2 emissions and 60% of all Greenhouse gas emissions are energy related.  It is expected that the energy consumption will increase by 57 % by 2030 according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA).  Approximately 60 % of global warming effects are attributed to carbon dioxide emission. There are two potential sources of carbon dioxide emissionI.Fossil fuelled power plants, II.Transportation 6

Carbon Capture and Sequestration/Storage/geosequestration Separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from major industrial sources and its deep geological storage, safely and permanently deep underground. CCS is currently the only technology that will allow us to decrease greenhouse gas emissions.  How does Carbon Capture Work • Currently carbon capture or carbon dioxide capture is carried out using amine scrubbing. • Over 50 million tonnes of CO2 are currently stored geologically every year around the world, often as part of oil recovery operations. 7

A simplified overview of the carbon capture and storage process. CAPTURE 85-90 % TRANSPORT STORAGE 8

Research Motivation and Objective  Explore the possibility of another form of carbon capture i.e. Molecular Organic Frameworks - and their potential impact in lowering the parasitic energy cost inherent in carbon capture. 9

Metal-Organic Frameworks are a possible path to follow to solve the parasitic energy problem. I.With comparatively low specific heats II.High selectivity III.The possibility of tunablility Metal-organic frameworks could be the material that makes clean coal a reality. 10

Approach and Methodology:Removal of CO2 from gas streams: flue gas (4-14%), natural gas (2-50%) Present technology: Amine scrubbing in an aqueous solution Weaknesses: corrosivity low surface area pure water needed high energy cost Solid sorbents! Can a better process be developed based on solid sorbents?  Possible weaknesses: Heat transfer, Sorbent cost (?), powder transfer or gas switching (?) 11

Why MOFs?  A number of modified mesoporous materials have been studied as CO2 absorbents  Advantages of MOFs  Highly crystalline  Similar to zeolites  Highly porous  Much more advantage over nanoparticles. • A MOF material has the world record in powder specific surface area: >6000 m2/g! 12

Design and synthesis of MOFs MOF’s have been synthesized in two ways1. Conventional method i.e. Solvo-thermal techniques, crystals are grown with metal and organic building blocks in organic solvents, generally at 80-130 °C 2. Unconventional method i.e. Mechanochemical methods, grinding, to produce Quantitative yields of small MOF particles can be obtained in short reaction times, normally in the range of 10-60 min. 13

MOFs of the present study: “Open metal site MOFs preferentially adsorb carbon dioxide over nitrogen or methane” “e.g. Mg-MOF-74 with its unique pyramidal geometry is especially selective for carbon dioxide over other greenhouse gases and has an exceptionally large storage capacity.” ……. Jeff Kortright Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division . 14

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Conclusions: In order to develop sustainable and renewable energy sources we need a way to decarbonize our current infrastructure and i.e. what metal-organic frameworks can do.  India is the world’s third-largest coal consumer. Coal accounts for 62% of the country’s energy supply and its use is expected to grow rapidly (IEA, 2007).  Nearly 75% of the coal produced in India is used in electricity generation, the remainder being used in the steel, cement, and fertiliser industries.  While coal will never be a "green" technology we can at least make it less brown.  Apart from all this the MOF have several number of applications likeDrug Storage and Delivery Hydrogen storage Separations And the researches are going on……… 16

References:1. www.ias.ac.in/pubs/splpubs/pjubileebook/35.pdf 2. Carbon dioxide capture-related gas adsorption and separation in metal-organic frameworks ;Jian-Rong Li a, Yuguang Mab, M. Colin McCarthyb, Julian Sculleya, Jiamei Yub,c,Hae-Kwon Jeongb,c, Perla B. Balbuenab,c, Hong-Cai Zhoua,c. 3. http://www.co2crc.com.au/dls/factsheets/What%20is_CCS.pdf 4. http://www.co2crc.com.au/dls/factsheets/Chemistry_of_solvent.pdf 5. Sathre, R.; Masanet, E. Prospective life-cycle modeling of a carbon capture and storage system using metal-organic frameworks for carbon dioxide capture. RSC Adv., 2013, 3, 4964-4975. 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_capture_and_storage 7. http://sciencereview.berkeley.edu/read/fall-2012/mofiosos/ 8. http://jobs.sgsna.com/sites/sgs/images/sp-automotive-img.jpg 9. http://www.sadgurupublications.com/ContentPaper/2012/1_134_ACPI_2(2)2012_P.pdf 10. http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/CCS_2008.pdf 11. Synthesis of metal-organic frameworks: A mini review,Yu-Ri Lee, Jun Kim, and Wha-Seung Ahn†Korean J. Chem. Eng., 30(9), 1667-1680 (2013) DOI: 10.1007/s11814-013-0140-6 17

12. www.ias.ac.in/pubs/splpubs/pjubileebook/35.pdf 13. Liu et al. Recent advances in carbon dioxide capture with metal-organic frameworks. Greenhouse Gas Sci. Technol. 2:239-259 (2012) 14. Crystal engineering: A brief overview GAUTAM R DESIRAJU,J. Chem. Sci., Vol. 122, No. 5, September 2010, pp. 667–675 15. http://certifiedsolar.net/uncategorized/feature/the-water-cost-of-carbon-capture/ 16. http://sciencereview.berkeley.edu/read/fall-2012/mofiosos/ 17. http://www.co2crc.com.au/aboutccs/capture 18. http://www.co2crc.com.au/dls/factsheets/What%20is_CCS.pdf 19. http://research.che.tamu.edu/groups/Seminario/nanotechnology/U4metal%20Organic%20Frameworks.pptx 18

It was “maybe a useless compound in the sense that it’s not going to be put in every power plant to capture carbon dioxide, but it stands for young people as an example of some achievement that was thought impossible but now is possible. That to me should always be part of working in science—to inspire young people. It’s an important application.” Omar Yaghi Chemistry Professor, UC Berkeley Director, Molecular Foundry, Berkeley Lab 19

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