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Published on February 13, 2008

Author: Reaa

Source: authorstream.com

都柏林核心集:  都柏林核心集 Outline:  Outline Introduction to Dublin Core Dublin Core Metadata Element Set Dublin Core in the Real World Extending Dublin Core Encoding Dublin Core Introduction to Dublin Core:  Introduction to Dublin Core Background:  Background An attempt to improve resource discovery on the Web Demand for resource discovery Demand for resource description Demand for resource evaluation Now adopted by many resource description communities Museums, libraries, government agencies, and commercial organizations Dublin Core的緣起:  Dublin Core的緣起 都柏林核心集是1995年3月由OCLC和NCSA所聯合贊助的研討會,在邀請五十二位來自圖書館、電腦、網路方面的學者和專家,共同研討下的產物 研討會的中心問題是如何用一個簡單的metadata記錄來描述種類繁多的電子物件? Primary Goal of Dublin Core:  Primary Goal of Dublin Core 建立一套描述網路上電子文件特色的方法,來協助資訊檢索 提供一套簡易的資料描述格式,來滿足大多數非圖書館專業人員的需求 Building an interdisciplinary consensus about a core element set for resource discovery Simplicity of creation and maintenance Semantic Interoperability (Commonly understood semantics) International Consensus Flexible extensibility Metadata modularity on the Web Dublin Core處理的對象:  Dublin Core處理的對象 根據研討會的報告,都柏林核心集處理的對象,將祇限於「類文件物件」(Document-Like Objects,簡稱DLO) 事實上,對於非DLO,甚至非電子檔案都可以用Dublin Core著錄 DLO是一種可用類似描述傳統印刷文字媒體方式,加以描述的電子檔案 都柏林核心集祇規範那些在大多數情況下,必須提及的資料特性 設計原理:  設計原理 同時具有意義明確、彈性、最小規模等三項特色 設計上秉持的原則:內在本質原則、易擴展原則、語法獨立原則、無必須項原則、可重覆原則、可修飾原則 內在本質原則(Intrinsicality) :  內在本質原則(Intrinsicality) 祇描述跟作品內容和實體相關的特質,例如主題(Subject)屬於作品的內在本質。但是收費和存取規定,則屬於作品的外在特質 因為著錄資訊全來自資料本身,並不須要再額外去找其他的參考來源,很顯然的可以大幅減輕著錄者的負擔,對各種專業人士來說,也是較可被接受的一種方式 易擴展原則(Extensibility):  易擴展原則(Extensibility) 應允許地區性資料以特定規範的方式出現,也應保持metadata日後易擴充的特性,以及保有向後相容的能力 此原則是為了適應全球網路的作業環境,因眾多的站台各有自己獨特的資料種類和需求,因此必須有適當的彈性 無必須項原則(Optionality):  無必須項原則(Optionality) 所有資料項都是可有可無的選擇項,以保持彈性和鼓勵各種專業人士參與製作 傳統的圖書館著錄格式如 MARC等,都有必須著錄項,如題名項和作者項等,主要不外乎是要維持一定的著錄品質。但為了鼓勵著錄,和強調有資料總比沒資料好的原則,都柏林核心集決定不硬性規定任何必須著錄項 可重覆原則(Repeatability):  可重覆原則(Repeatability) 所有資料項均可重覆 此原則進一步簡化許多著錄規則,如在此一原則下,將不區分作者的排名。傳統上為了決定第一作者或是題名,著錄規則中往往有很多的篇幅來規範。從檢索的角度來看,讀者何嘗在意一本書內的排名次序,眾多的題名,也可藉由電腦的輔助,輕易來加以檢索或處理 可修飾原則(Modifiability):  可修飾原則(Modifiability) 資料項可用修飾詞(Qualifier)來進一步修飾其意義 這原則使都柏林核心集非常有彈性,可同時滿足圖書館專業和非專業人員的需求。對欲維持一定品質的專業人員而言,透過附加修飾詞的方式,可明確指出所使用的資訊來自何處 When should I Use DC:  When should I Use DC You have a rich standard, need simpler one You want to disclose your data to other communities using commonly understood semantics You want to provide unified access to databases with different underlying schemas You need core description semantics and don’t feel compelled to invent them anew. Dublin Core Metadata Element Set:  Dublin Core Metadata Element Set An Element is a property of a resource. As intended here, "properties" are attributes of resources -- characteristics that a resource may "have", such as a Title, Publisher, or Subject. Dublin Core Element Sets:  Dublin Core Element Sets Title Creator Subject Description Publisher Contributor Date Type Format Identifier Source Language Relation Coverage Rights 15 elements of descriptive metadata Classification of DC Element Set:  Classification of DC Element Set Content Coverage Description Type Relation Source Subject Title Intellectual property Contributor Creator Publisher Rights Instantiation Date Format Identifier Language Reference:  Reference http://dublincore.org/ http://dublincore.org/documents/ http://dublincore.org/documents/usageguide/ http://www.dublincore.org/documents/dces/ http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-terms/ http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-type-vocabulary/ Title:  Title The name given to the resource by the Creator or Publisher 若有數個可能的名稱可選擇,則用重複的Title 若用以描述HTML 檔,將該檔的<Title>內容放入 Examples Title = A Pilot's Guide to Aircraft Insurance Title = The Sound of Music Title = Green on Greens Title = AOPA's Tips on Buying Used Aircraft Creator or Author:  Creator or Author The person or organization primarily responsible for creating the intellectual content of the resource. authors: written documents artists, photographers, or illustrators: visual resources. 若有多個Author,則用重複的Creator,順序是按照Resource給定的Author順序 Creator or Author (Cont.):  Creator or Author (Cont.) Personal Creator 先姓再名 若搞不清楚姓與名,則按照Resource上的寫法 Examples Creator = Duncan, Phyllis-Anne Creator = Melendez Santiago, Maria Luz Creator = Maimonides Creator = Park Sung Hee Creator or Author (Cont.):  Creator or Author (Cont.) Organizational creator 若組織是有Hierarchy的,由大到小,中間以句點分開。但若是搞不清楚Hierarchy,照寫。 Examples Creator = United States. Internal Revenue Service Creator = Federal Aviation Administration. Aviation Safety Program NOT Aviation Safety Program of the Federal Aviation Administration Art Institute of Chicago Baltimore County Medical Society Creator or Author (Cont.):  Creator or Author (Cont.) 若Creator與Publisher相同,勿在Publisher中重複 一般而言 個人: Creator 組織: Publisher 責任比較輕的: Contributor Subject or Keywords :  Subject or Keywords The topic of the resource Use keywords or phrase Use of controlled vocabularies (MeSH) and formal classification schemes (DDC, LCC) is encouraged Select subject keywords from Title or Description Choose the most significant and unique words for keywords Subject or Keywords (Cont.):  Subject or Keywords (Cont.) Examples Subject = Aircraft leasing and renting Subject = Olympic skiing Subject = Street, Picabo Subject = heart attack Subject = Myocardial Infarction; Pericardial Effusion (MeSH) Subject = Vietnam war Subject = Vietnamese Conflict, 1961-1975 (LCSH) Description:  Description A textual description of the content of the resource Abstracts: document-like objects Content descriptions: visual resources 由於Description可做為Evaluation與檢索之用,必須小心著錄 Description should be limited to a few brief sentences 對於非文字形態的描述,則可在Description中給定一Link到該描述 Publisher:  Publisher The entity responsible for making the resource available in its present form publishing house, a university department, or a corporate entity If Creator and Publisher are the same, do not repeat the name in the Publisher Examples Publisher = Moguls Anonymous Publisher = Microsoft Corporation Contributor:  Contributor A person or organization not specified in Creator who has made significant contributions to the resource but whose contribution is secondary to any person or organization specified in Creator Editor, transcriber, and illustrator Date:  Date A date associated with an event in the life cycle of the resource. Typically, Date will be associated with the creation or availability of the resource. Recommended best practice for encoding the date value is defined in a profile of ISO 8601 (http://www.w3.org/TR/NOTE-datetime) Examples(YYYY-MM-DD) Date = 1999-03-02 Date = 1999-03 Date = 1999 Date = 1999-03-02T19:05:02+08:00 Date = 1999-03-02T19:05+08:00 Resource Type :  Resource Type The nature or genre of the content of the resource. Type includes terms describing general categories, functions, genres, or aggregation levels for content. 作品的類型或所屬的抽象範疇,例如網頁、 小說、 詩、 技術報告、 字典等 Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary http://www.dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-type-vocabulary/ Text, Image, sound, data, software, interactive, physical object… To describe the physical or digital manifestation of the resource, use the FORMAT element Resource Type (Cont.):  Resource Type (Cont.) Text A text is a resource whose content is primarily words for reading. For example - books, letters, dissertations, poems, newspapers, articles, archives of mailing lists. Note that facsimiles or images of texts are still of the genre text. Image An image is a primarily symbolic visual representation other than text. For example - images and photographs of physical objects, paintings, prints, drawings, other images and graphics, animations and moving pictures, film, diagrams, maps, musical notation. Note that image may include both electronic and physical representations. Resource Type (Cont.):  Resource Type (Cont.) Sound A sound is a resource whose content is primarily intended to be rendered as audio. For example - a music playback file format, an audio compact disc, and recorded speech or sounds. Dataset A dataset is information encoded in a defined structure (for example, lists, tables, and databases), intended to be useful for direct machine processing. Software Software is a computer program in source or compiled form which may be available for installation non-transiently on another machine. For software which exists only to create an interactive environment, use interactive instead. Resource Type (Cont.):  Resource Type (Cont.) InteractiveResource An interactive resource is a resource which requires interaction from the user to be understood, executed, or experienced. For example - forms on web pages, applets, multimedia learning objects, chat services, virtual reality. PhysicalObject An inanimate, three-dimensional object or substance. For example -- a computer, the great pyramid, a sculpture. Note that digital representations of, or surrogates for, these things should use Image, Text or one of the other types. Resource Type (Cont.):  Resource Type (Cont.) 若該Resource有多種主要形式,可採用重複的Type來描述 Electronic art exhibition catalog Type=image Type=text Multimedia educational program with interactive assignments Type=text Type=image Type=software Type=interactive Because different communities or domains are expected to use a variety of type vocabularies, best practice to ensure interoperability is to include at least one general type term in addition to the domain specific type term(s), in separate Type element iterations Format:  Format The physical or digital manifestation of the resource Format may include the media-type or dimensions of the resource. Examples of dimensions include size and duration Format may be used to identify the software, hardware, or other equipment needed to display or operate the resource. Should be selected from an list For example, the list of Internet Media Types [http://www.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/media-types/media-types] defining computer media formats). Format (Cont.):  Format (Cont.) In addition to the specific physical or electronic media format, information concerning the size of a resource may be included in the content of the Format element if available. In resource discovery size, extent or medium of the resource might be used as a criterion to select resources of interest, since a user may need to evaluate whether they can make use of the resource within the infrastructure available to them. Example 1 TYPE = image FORMAT = image/gif 640*512 pixels Example 2: The Bronco Buster TYPE = physical object FORMAT = bronze 22 in Identifier:  Identifier An unambiguous reference to the resource within a given context URL/URN, ISBN, DOI… Can also be used for local identifiers (e.g. ID numbers or call numbers) assigned by Creator It should not be used for identification of the metadata record itself Examples Identifier = http://www.nctu.edu.tw Identifier=0385424728 [ISBN] Identifier=H-A-X 5690B [publisher number] Source:  Source Information about a second resource from which the present resource is derived Recommended practice is to use Relation The present resource may be derived from the Source resource in whole or in part. Recommended best practice is to identify the referenced resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system Example Source="RC607.A26W574 1996" [where "RC607.A26W574 1996" is the call number of the print version of the resource, from which the present version was scanned] Source="Image from page 54 of the 1922 edition of Romeo and Juliet" Language:  Language The language of the intellectual content of the resource Recommended best practice is to use RFC 3066 which, in conjunction with ISO639, defines two- and three-letter primary language tags with optional subtags. Examples include "en" or "eng" for English, "akk" for Akkadian", and "en-GB" for English used in the United Kingdom Coded or textual information can be used If the content is in more than one language, the element may be repeated. Language=en-US Language=Primarily English, with some abstracts also in French Relation (Cont.):  Relation (Cont.) An identifier of a second resource and its relationship to the present resource Recommended best practice is to identify the referenced resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system IsPartOf -- HasPart IsVersionOf -- HasVersion IsFormatOf -- HasFormat References -- IsReferencedBy IsBasedOn -- IsBasisFor Requires -- IsRequiredBy Relation (Cont.):  Relation (Cont.) Expression Title="the present resource“ Relation="relationship-type [space] unique identifer for the related resource" Because the refined terms used with Relation provide significantly more information to a user than the unqualified use of Relation, implementors who are describing heavily interrelated resources might choose to use qualified Dublin Core Coverage:  Coverage The extent or scope of the content of the resource Coverage will include spatial location (a place name or geographic coordinates), temporal period (a period label, date, or date range) or jurisdiction (such as a named administrative entity). Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary and to use, where appropriate, named places or time periods in preference to numeric identifiers such as sets of coordinates or date ranges Examples Coverage=1995-1996 Coverage=Boston, MA Coverage=17th century Coverage=Upstate New York Rights Management:  Rights Management Information about rights held in and over the resource Rights Management A rights-management statement An identifier linking to a rights management statement An identifier linking to a service providing information about rights management for the resource Rights information often encompasses Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), Copyright, and various Property Rights. If the rights element is absent, no assumptions can be made about the status of these and other rights with respect to the resource Right = http://cs-tr.cs.cornell.edu/Dienst/Repository/2.0/Terms Audience:  Audience A new element in the qualified DC A class of entity for whom the resource is intended or useful. A class of entity may be determined by the creator or the publisher or by a third party Audience terms are best utilized in the context of formal or informal controlled vocabularies. None are presently recommended or registered by DCMI, but several communities of interest are engaged in setting up audience vocabularies. Examples: Audience="elementary school students" Audience="ESL teachers" Audience="deaf adults" Dublin Core in the Real World:  Dublin Core in the Real World DC in the Real World:  DC in the Real World DC originally designed with electronic resources in mind Physical resources are fundamentally different Issues of surrogacy become more important Genre, Type, and Format models very greatly Difficult to remember what is being described, and which characteristics of the resource and its surrogates are correct Introducing Physical Objects:  Introducing Physical Objects Aspects of the real world are key to what museums do Physical objects have dimensions 23 * 46 cm 12 * 52 * 18 in 18.6 cm3 Physical objects have a form Oil on canvas Tadcaster limestone Stainless steel Introducing Physical Objects (Cont.):  Introducing Physical Objects (Cont.) Physical objects change over time Constructed between AD524 and 873 Repaired in AD1270 Incorporated into ornamental arch in AD1320 Physical objects move Cast in Beijing Used in Shanghai Taken to Hong Kong On display in Taipei Introducing Physical Objects (Cont.):  Introducing Physical Objects (Cont.) Physical objects are associated with people Written by William Shakespeare Acquired by Lord Elgin Decreed by the Emperor Hadrian Associated with Prince Charles Edward Stuart Physical objects are contextualized Fired at the Battle of Trafalgar Carried on Apollo 11 from the moon Printed on the first printing press Salvaged from the Titanic Introducing Collections :  Introducing Collections Museum objects, whether original or surrogate, are normally part of a collection Collections may be ‘real’ the Sutton Hoo hoard the Chinese Warriors …an aspect of the process by which objects enter the museum… the Burrell Collection Solomon Guggengeim’s art collection … or simply practical Coins at the British Museum the Tate Gallery’s collection of works by Da Vinci Introducing Surrogacy:  Introducing Surrogacy Many of the resources we describe are surrogates for something else a Photograph of King Tutankhamen’s death mask a Photograph of a statue of George Washington a film of President Kennedy’s assassination a sound recording of Neil Armstrong’s “One small step for man…” speech on the moon a copy of the Mona Lisa a model of the Great Wall of China a reproduction of the Chinese Warriors Issues of Surrogacy:  Issues of Surrogacy Many of the resources we describe are surrogates for something else We need to be clear whether we are describing the resource or its surrogate the sculptor of a statue is often not who person who made its photographic surrogate the model of the Great Wall of China is unlikely to have been created at the same date as the Great Wall of China itself the format of a computer image of the Mona Lisa (image/jpeg ?) is not the same as the format of the original painting (oil on canvas) 1:1 Principle:  1:1 Principle A discrete resource should have a discrete metadata record Resolve issues over original versus surrogate and item versus collection Associated resources should be linked together by means of the Relation element in DC 1:1 Principle (Cont.):  1:1 Principle (Cont.) In a record describing a photo of “MOULIN DE LA GALETTE” on a web page Renoir is not the creator of the image The image was not created during the 19 century … but you might include these as Subject terms, and you could usefully provided a link to the record describing the real painting via DC’s Relation element 1:1 Principle (Cont.):  1:1 Principle (Cont.) Equally, in describing the painting itself http://www.cc…/…/moulin.jpg is not the Identifier of the painting but you might link to this image via Relation, just to show people what the painting looks like. Extending Dublin Core:  Extending Dublin Core Extending DC?:  Extending DC? <Creator> Paul Paul Inc. ? Paul xyz ? xyz Paul ? <Creator> <fore name> Paul  Paul Inc.  Paul xyz  xyz Paul Extending DC (Semantic Refinement):  Extending DC (Semantic Refinement) Improve descriptive precision by adding sub-structure (element qualifier and value qualifier) Creator First Name Surname Affiliation Contact Info. Element Qualifier:  Element Qualifier Refine or enhance the meaning of DC by adding qualifiers to DC elements Creator (DC.Creator) Surname (DC.Creator.Surname) Firstname (DC.Creator.Firstname) Date (DC.Date) Created (DC.Date.Created) LastModified (DC.Date.LastModified) Element Qualifier (Cont.):  Element Qualifier (Cont.) Also called element refinement An Element Refinement is a property of a resource which shares the meaning of a particular DCMI Element but with narrower semantics. In some application environments (notably HTML-based encodings), Element Refinements are used together with Elements in the manner of natural-language "qualifiers" (i.e., adjectives). However, since Element Refinements are properties of a resource (like Elements), Element Refinements can alternatively be used in metadata records independently of the properties they refine. In DCMI practice, an Element Refinement refines just one parent DCMI property. Value Qualifier:  Value Qualifier Refine or enhance the interpretation of the value Date=1994-05-02 (Scheme=ISO8601) Language=es (Scheme=rfc1766) Subject=Myocardial Infraction; Pericardial Effusion (Scheme=MeSH) Value Qualifier (Cont.):  Value Qualifier (Cont.) Also called Encoding Scheme An Encoding Scheme provides contextual information or parsing rules that aid in the interpretation of a term value. Such contextual information may take the form of controlled vocabularies, formal notations, or parsing rules. If an Encoding Scheme is not understood by a client or agent, the value may still be useful to a human reader. There are two types of Encoding Scheme Vocabulary Encoding Schemes: indicate that the value is a term from a controlled vocabulary, such "China - History" from LCSH Syntax Encoding Schemes: indicate that the value is a string formatted in accordance with a formal notation, such as "2000-01-01" as the standard expression of a date. Dumb-Down Principle:  Dumb-Down Principle The use of qualifiers as an additional level of detail introduces the situation where a client can encounter collections of resources that are described using DC with qualifiers that are unknown to the client application. This can happen either because the client does not support qualifiers and the collection does, or the collection supports specialized qualifiers developed by implementors for specific local or domain needs. The useful interpretation of such descriptions will depend on the ability to ignore the unknown qualifiers and fall back on the broader meaning of the element in its unqualified form Dumb-Down Principle (Cont.):  Dumb-Down Principle (Cont.) The qualification of Dublin Core Elements is guided by a rule known colloquially as the Dumb-Down Principle. A client should be able to ignore any qualifier and use the value as if it were unqualified. While this may result in some loss of specificity, the remaining term value (minus the qualifier) must continue to be generally correct and useful for discovery. Qualification is therefore supposed only to refine, not extend the semantic scope of an Element. Extending DC (Modular Approach):  Extending DC (Modular Approach) Modular extensibility… Additional elements to support local needs Complementary packages of metadata Encoding Dublin Core:  Encoding Dublin Core Encoding Dublin Core:  Encoding Dublin Core HTML Unqualified Qualified Overloaded content (HTML 3.2) Additional attribute (HTML 4) Encoding sub-element XML and RDF Use a RDBMS-enabled tool Semantic, Structure, Syntax:  Semantic, Structure, Syntax Encoding DC -- Unqualified:  Encoding DC -- Unqualified <HEAD> <META NAME=“DC.Title” CONTENT=“NCTU DL”> <META NAME=“DC.Subject” CONTENT=“Digital Library, Metadata”> </HEAD> Encoding DC – Qualified (HTML 3.2):  Encoding DC – Qualified (HTML 3.2) <HEAD> <META NAME=“DC.Subject” CONTENT=“ (SCHEME=MESH) (LANG=EN) Myocardial Infarction; Pericardial Effusion”> </HEAD> Encoding DC – Qualified (HTML 4):  Encoding DC – Qualified (HTML 4) <HEAD> <META NAME=“DC.Subject” SCHEME=“MESH” LANG=“EN” CONTENT=“ Myocardial Infarction; Pericardial Effusion”> </HEAD> Encoding DC – Sub-Elements:  Encoding DC – Sub-Elements <HEAD> <META NAME=“DC.Date.Created” CONTENT=“ (SCHEME=ISO8601) 2000-03-18”> <META NAME=“DC.Date.Modified” SCHEME=“ISO8601” CONTENT=“2000-03-20”> </HEAD>

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