Mertens IRI2007 Prague

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Published on November 6, 2007

Author: Rosalie

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Progress on Developing an Empirical Ionospheric E-Region Solar-Geomagnetic Storm Correction to the IRI Model Using TIMED/SABER Data:  Progress on Developing an Empirical Ionospheric E-Region Solar-Geomagnetic Storm Correction to the IRI Model Using TIMED/SABER Data C. J. Mertens1, Dieter Bilitza2, and X. Xu3 1 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA USA 2 George Mason University, Greenbelt, Mayland, USA 3 SSAI, Inc., Hampton, Virginia, USA IRI/COST 296 Workshop Prague, Czech Republic July 10-14, 2007 Outline:  Outline TIMED/SABER Instrument Derivation of E-region Proxy: NO+(v) 4.3 um VER NO+(v) VER during April 2002 and Halloween 2003 solar-geomagnetic storm Path toward E-region storm-time correction parameterization for IRI Slide3:  74.1° inclination 625 km circular 4 remote sensing instruments Slide4:  SEE TIDI GUVI TIDI Slide5:  To improve knowledge of structure, energetics, chemistry, and dynamics between 60 km to above 180 km SABER Science Goal Slide6:  SABER Experiment Viewing Geometry and Inversion Approach TANGENT POINT Zo Z }Zo R(Zo) Slide7:  The SABER Experiment  SABER measures infrared Earth limb emission in 10 distinct spectral channels Channel Wavelength Science Measurement Altitude Range CO2 15.2 mm Temperature, pressure, cooling rates 15 -100 km CO2 15.2 mm Temperature, pressure, cooling rates 15 -100 km CO2 14.8 mm Temperature, pressure, cooling rates 15 -100 km O3 9.6 mm Day and Night Ozone, cooling rates 15 - 95 km H2O 6.3 mm Water vapor, cooling rates 15 - 80 km CO2 4.3 mm Carbon dioxide, dynamical tracer 90 -160 km NO 5.3 mm Thermospheric cooling 100 - 300 km O2(1D) 1.27 mm Day O3, solar heating; Chem. Heating 50 -100 km OH(u) 2.0 mm Chemical Heating, photochemistry 80 -100 km OH(u) 1.6 mm Chemical Heating, photochemistry 80 -100 km Motivation for using nighttime SABER 4.3 um measurements to study E-region response to solar-geomagnetic storms:  Motivation for using nighttime SABER 4.3 um measurements to study E-region response to solar-geomagnetic storms SABER nighttime 4.3 um limb emission enhancements during April 2002 and Halloween 2003 solar-geomagnetic storms, which correlate with NOAA/POES precipitating electron measurements. Bin-averaged raw data Simulations of SABER 4.3 um limb emission for auroral electron dosing consistent with NOAA/POES observations during April 2002 storm with chemical excitation of NO+(v) and subsequent 4.3 um emission:  Simulations of SABER 4.3 um limb emission for auroral electron dosing consistent with NOAA/POES observations during April 2002 storm with chemical excitation of NO+(v) and subsequent 4.3 um emission NO+(v) Chemical Production N2+ + O  NO+(v) + N(4S) + 2.08eV (vmax=10)  NO+(v) + N(2D) + 0.69eV (vmax=2) N+ + O2  NO+(v) + O(1S) + 2.43eV (vmax=8)  NO+(v) + O(1D) + 4.66eV (vmax=18)  NO+(v) + O(3P) + 6.63eV (vmax=28) O+ + N2  NO+(v) + N(4S) + 1.1eV (vmax=3) O2+ + NO  NO+(v) + O2(X) + 2.83eV (vmax=9)  NO+(v) + O2(a) + 1.85eV (vmax=6)  NO+(v) + O2(b) + 1.20eV (vmax=4) FLIP Simulation (1) (2) (3) (4) Auroral dosing: Q = 9 ergs/cm3/s; Eo = 6 keV Slide10:  Total CO2(n3)/NO+(v) emission contributions to SABER 4.3 um spectral bandpass CO2(n3)/NO+(v) ro-vibrational band contributionsto SABER 4.3 um spectral bandpass Auroral dosing: Q = 9 ergs/cm3/s; Eo = 6 keV Justification and determination of E-region proxy for response to solar-geomagnetic disturbances:  Justification and determination of E-region proxy for response to solar-geomagnetic disturbances Conclusions from observations and simulations Simulations of 4.3 um limb radiance based on NO+(v) excitation and emission using auroral electron energy characteristics from NOAA/POES produce enhancements in nighttime 4.3 um emission consistent with SABER observations during the recent solar storms Thus, isolate NO+(v) component of SABER 4.3 um limb emission measurements and use as observation-based tool for analyzing E-region ion-neutral chemistry. NO+(v) 4.3 um Volume Emission Rate (VER) is an excellent proxy for studying E-region chemistry Observe response of E-region to solar-geomagnetic disturbances Analyze E-region chemistry and energy transfer processes Derive NO+(v) VER from SABER observations of 4.3 um limb emission Remove CO2(n3) 4.3 um emission contribution SABER T(p) and Composition Data (10-120 km) NRLMSIS-00 Model Data (120-200 km) Simulate 4.3 um limb emission using SABER non-LTE radiation transfer algorithms Abel inversion on residual radiance Slide12:  SABER-derived NO+(v) 4.3 um VER profiles corresponding to peak auroral dosing during April 2002 and Halloween 2003 solar storms Slide13:  Two-level System Radiative/Collisional Processes u l Non-LTE Radiation Transfer Multi-Level System:  Non-LTE Radiation Transfer Multi-Level System Effective Two-level System(s) + Iteration: Vibrational Temperature (Tv): Non-LTE Radiation Transfer CO2 Tv Model Processes:  Non-LTE Radiation Transfer CO2 Tv Model Processes Radiative Earthshine (low altitude) Atmospheric exchange Solar Excitation (Pumping) Collisional V-T (N2, O2, O(3P)) V-V (CO2, O2(v), N2(v), O(1D), OH(v)) Slide16:  15 mm Tv’s needed to compute source functions for 15 mm channel: (e) 4.3 mm, 2.7 mm, and 2.0 mm Tv’s needed to compute source functions for 4.3 mm channel: (a)-(d) 4.3 mm, 2.7 mm, and 2.0 mm Tv’s collisonally/radiatively coupled to 15 mm Tv’s: (f) Auroral Non-LTE CO2 Tv Model:  Auroral Non-LTE CO2 Tv Model Start with SABER CO2 Tv model Excitation of N2(1) by OH(v) (Lopez-Puertas et al., 2004) OH(v) derived using SABER-observed OH(v) 2.0 um VER and OH(v) kinetics model (Mlynczak et al., 1998) Influence of OH(v)-N2(1)-CO2(n3) Coupling:  Influence of OH(v)-N2(1)-CO2(n3) Coupling Local N2(1)-OH(v)-CO2(n3) V-V production near 85 km has significant effect on 4.3 limb emission above 85 km due non-local radiative exchange Assessment of Electron-N2(v)-CO2(n3) Coupling:  Assessment of Electron-N2(v)-CO2(n3) Coupling Analysis of SABER-derived NO+(v) VER relies on accurately and reliably removing CO2(n3) 4.3 um emission Complexities due to auroral influences of CO2(n3) infrared emission Auroral electrons excite N2(v) N2(v) resonantly coupled to CO2(n3) through V-V transfer Electron-N2(v)-CO2(n3) Coupling:  Electron-N2(v)-CO2(n3) Coupling Electron-N2(v)-CO2(n3) Coupling (Parameterization from FLIP) (Richards, 2002; Newton et al., 1974) N2 + e*  N2(v) + e* N2 + e*  N2(a;v) + e* N2 + O(1D)  N2(v) + O(3P) N(4S) + NO  N2(v) + O(3P) N2(v’) + eth  N2(v) + eth N2(v’) + O(3P)  N2(v) + O(3P) N2(v’) + N2(v)  N2(v’-1) + N2(v+1) CO2(n3) + N2(v)  CO2(n3-1) + N2(v+1) Auroral Non-LTE CO2 Tv Model:  Auroral Non-LTE CO2 Tv Model Extend standard CO2(n3)-N2(1) coupling to include Simulate auroral electron N2(v) production rate using FLIP model and NOAA/POES measurements of auroral electron energy characteristics Chemical N2(v) production rates Direct auroral electron N2(v) excitation Inelastic collision of N2(v) with ambient electrons Slide24:  Simulation of N2(v) Production Rates: Quiescent Conditions Slide25:  N2(2): N2 + O(1D)  N2(2) + O O2+ + e-  O(1D) + O N+ + O2  O(1D) + NO+ N2(4): N(4S) + NO  N2(4) + O NO+ + e-  N(4S,2D)+O N(4S,2D) + O2  NO + O Simulation of N2(v) Production Rates: Auroral Dosing Slide26:  N2(2): N2 + O(1D)  N2(2) + O O2+ + e-  O(1D) + O N+ + O2  O(1D) + NO+ N2(4): N(4S) + NO  N2(4) + O NO+ + e-  N(4S,2D)+O N(4S,2D) + O2  NO + O Simulation of N2(v) Production Rates: Auroral Dosing (Worst Case) Slide27:  Simulation of Auroral N2(v) Production Rates Production rates based on auroral dosing for peak NO+(v) VER Production rates based on peak auroral dosing (worst case) Slide28:  +: Ionization Cross Sections * : Excitation Cross Sections Slide29:  Influence of Auroral N2(v) Production Rates on SABER 4.3 um Limb Radiance Auroral N2(v) production rates only influence the 4.3 um emission above 140 km. The characteristic energy plays an important role. This is due to the larger low-energy spectral electron flux -- the peak N2(v)-electron impact cross section occurs at ~ 2 eV -- for low characteristic energy compared to large characteristic energy. Slide30:  Interplanetary Conditions for April 2002 Storm Period ACE data from CDAWeb Slide31:  Auroral Input and Geomagnetic Indices for April 2002 Storm Period Dst: CDAWeb; HP: NOAA/SEC Slide32:  Mapped NOAA/POES Auroral Electron Energy Flux: April 2002 Storm Expansion of auroral oval coincident with southward turning IMF Bz Slide33:  SABER NO+(v) VER at 110 km: April 2002 Storm Period Note: April 18 and 22 plots are based on relatively few profiles! NO+(v) VER morphology correlates with auroral oval direct electron energy deposition + emission Slide34:  SABER NO+(v) VER at 130 km: April 2002 Storm Period Note: April 18 and 22 plots are based on relatively few profiles! Slide35:  Note: SEPs contaminated ACE SWEPAM: 10/28-10/20 and 11/03 ACE data from CDAWeb Interplanetary Conditions for Halloween 2003 Storm Period Slide36:  Auroral Input and Geomagnetic Indices for Halloween 2003 Storm Period Dst: CDAWeb; HP: NOAA/SEC Slide37:  Mapped NOAA/POES Auroral Electron Energy Flux: Halloween 2003 Storm Intense flux 24 October and 4 November coincident with solar wind dynamic pressure Slide38:  SABER NO+(v) VER at 110 km: Halloween 2003 Storm Period NO+(v) VER morphology correlates with auroral oval direct electron energy deposition + emission. More intense and broader than April 2002 storm. Note: November 2 plot is based on relatively few profiles! Slide39:  NO+(v) VER morphology resembles auroral oval in some cases. Note: November 2 plot is based on relatively few profiles! SABER NO+(v) VER at 130 km: Halloween 2003 Storm Period Discussion:  Discussion Initial study suggests that observation-based NO+(v) VER profiles can be accurately derived from SABER nighttime 4.3 um limb emission measurements during strong aurora below 140-160 km. Removal of CO2(n3) background 4.3 um emission not compromised by (indirect) auroral effects on coupled CO2(n3)-N2(v) states. Separating background 4.3 um emission from auroral enhanced NO+(v) 4.3 um emission is feasible NO+(v) VER excellent proxy for studying E-region response to solar-geomagnetic storms and E-region chemistry and energetics Continued investigations E-region chemistry Quantify the exothermic reactions responsible for NO+(v) Derive NO+(v) nascent distributions and collisional quenching rates Quantify role of composition effects using TIMED/GUVI-derived O/N2 ratios and FLIP model simulations. Slide41:  NO+(v) Chemical Production N2+ + O  NO+(v) + N(4S) + 2.08eV (vmax=10)  NO+(v) + N(2D) + 0.69eV (vmax=2) N+ + O2  NO+(v) + O(1S) + 2.43eV (vmax=8)  NO+(v) + O(1D) + 4.66eV (vmax=18)  NO+(v) + O(3P) + 6.63eV (vmax=28) O+ + N2  NO+(v) + N(4S) + 1.1eV (vmax=3) O2+ + NO  NO+(v) + O2(X) + 2.83eV (vmax=9)  NO+(v) + O2(a) + 1.85eV (vmax=6)  NO+(v) + O2(b) + 1.20eV (vmax=4) NO+(v) Loss Mechanisms NO+(v)  NO+(v-1) + hn NO+(v)  NO+(v-2) + hn NO+(v) + N2  NO+(v-1) + N2 N++O2 z < 140 km N2++O z > 140 km O++N2 z > 160 km NOAA/POES Electron Input FLIP Simulations (Ion/Neutral Concentrations) NO+(v) Steady-State Distributions NO+(v) Radiation Transfer Color Key: Sought-After Unknowns Derive Unknown NO+(v) Chemical/Kinetic Processes/Rates Programmatic Overview:  Programmatic Overview Study nighttime enhancements of thermospheric infrared radiative emission at 4.3 um observed from TIMED/SABER as a means of analyzing the response of the ionospheric E-region to solar-geomagnetic storms Derive profiles of NO+(v) volume emission rates (VER) from SABER 4.3 um limb emission measurements and use as a proxy for E-region response to solar-geomagnetic storms Current Science investigations E-region chemistry Quantify the exothermic reactions responsible for NO+(v) Derive NO+(v) nascent distributions and collisional quenching rates Quantify role of composition effects using TIMED/GUVI-derived O/N2 ratios and FLIP model simulations. Project Funded by NASA Heliophysics Guest Investigator Program Programmatic Overview:  Programmatic Overview Develop empirical E-region storm model for IRI electron and NO+ densities E-region proxy: SABER-derived NO+(v) 4.3 um VER Storm-time correction factor Defined as the ratio of storm-time NO+(v) 4.3 um VER to quiescent climatology Based on integral-ap convolved with impulse response functions Storm model develop for all magnetically disturbed periods contained in the SABER dataset from 2002-2009 Recently Funded Project: NASA LWS/TR&T Program Co-I: Dieter Bilitza NASA Postdoctoral Fellow: Jose Fernandez (Arecibo) Slide44:  Storm-Time Correction Factor: Ratio of storm-time NO+(v) 4.3 um VER to quiescent climatology Based on integral-ap convolved with impulse response functions Empirical E-Region Storm Model Development Slide46:  Storm model develop for all magnetically disturbed periods (day-average Kp > 4)contained in the SABER dataset from 2002-2009

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