Mentoring using A3 Thinking

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Published on April 22, 2014

Author: LeanUK

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By David Brunt and John Kiff of Lean Enterprise Academy shown at the Lean Summit 2010 - New Horizons for Lean Thinking on 2/3 November 2010

www.leanuk.org David Brunt & John Kiff November 2nd & 3rd 2010 Lean Enterprise Academy1 “Managing to Learn” Mentoring Using A3 Thinking

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy2 Objectives  To explore the lessons & insights of Managing to Learn from 4 perspectives:  The requirements of sound A3 Thinking & Management  To develop your own eyes & ears to recognise effective A3 stories  To start applying the A3 problem solving methodology to your own work  Learn the basic formats of A3s

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy3 Agenda  What is an A3?  Understanding PDCA  Practice using a Real Problem  Using Problem Solving A3s  How to review A3s  Applying A3 Thinking to your own work

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy4 Managing Expectations  This workshop will address the objectives………. But it won’t make you an expert in A3 Thinking  Only practice will

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy5 Background  Problem solving deeply influenced by the methodology developed by Walter Shewart at Bell Laboratories in the 1930’s  Later adopted & made popular by W. Edwards Deming  Methodology based on Plan-Do-Check- Act (PDCA) – The Deming Cycle Key texts: John Shook (2008) “Managing to Learn” Durward Sobek II & Art Smalley (2008): “Understanding A3 Thinking”

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy6

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy7 The A3 Thinking Steps  What is the problem?  Who owns the problem?  What is the root cause of the problem?  What are some possible countermeasures?  How will you choose which countermeasure to propose?  How will you get agreement among everyone concerned?  What is your implementation plan? What timetable?  How will you know if your countermeasure works?  What follow-up issues can you anticipate?  How will ensure learning and continuous improvement?

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy8 How do you Want to Manage?  Make your own list (5 minutes)  Then discuss with the person next to you (5 minutes)

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy9 Lean Managers do Two Things  Get each person to take initiative to solve problems and improve his or her job  Ensure that each persons’ job is aligned to provide value for the customer and prosperity for the company Ref: John Shook: Leadership for Value Stream Management

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy10 Lean Managers do Two Things  Get each person to take initiative to solve problems and improve his or her job  Ensure that each persons’ job is aligned to provide value for the customer and prosperity for the company  A3 process designed to make it easy:  To see problems  To improve  To learn from

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy11 How do you Want to Manage?  Do you want to manage…..  With a process or structure that makes it easier to:  Gain agreement (alignment?)  Clarify responsibilities (ownership?)  Mentor people on the job (ask questions & develop people?)

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy12 Agenda  What is an A3?  Understanding PDCA  Practice using a Real Problem  Using Problem Solving A3s  How to review A3s  Applying A3 Thinking to your own work

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy13 Problem Solving  In order to learn by doing we will practice on real problems  Let me tell you about a production problem that a certain Supervisor had to solve

Solving Problems What is the problem? Date: _____Dept. ________________Name _______________________ List of possible causes List of possible countermeasures Exactly what should be done about it? When by? Who do you need to help?

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy15 Smith’s Problem Handout Brown, the drill press operator in Department A was working at his job, drilling the #1 hole in angle plates. He had cut his finger while moving tote pans of material to the work area. The standard specifications for the job called for gauging one piece in twenty for size. Brown did this and although the pain from his finger was diverting his attention all that he gauged seemed to be good. He therefore had no indication that the drill was dull nor that the machine wasn’t running at the correct speed. It was just as the set-up man had left it. By mid-morning he had completed five tote pans for a total of 100 pieces. Smith the Supervisor suddenly called Brown to his desk and reprimanded him for carelessness in his work. Brown was angry and felt discouraged. He told the supervisor he was going home at noon. Smith the Supervisor was worried because Department B needed the work now or they would stop production. The Inspector had told him that a great many of the angle plates were off specifications

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy16 What is a Problem?  A “problem” is… the gap between the way things are now & the way they’re supposed to be, or you want them to be, in the future  A manager has a problem when the work assigned fails to produce the expected results (Ref: TWI Training Materials)

Problem Solving Process 1. Initial Problem Perception (Large, vague, complicated problem) 2. Clarify the problem The “Real” Problem 3. Locate Area/ Point of Cause POC 7. Standardise 6. Evaluate 5. Countermeasure Root Cause Direct Cause Cause Cause Cause Cause Basic Cause & Effect Investigation 4.5-Why? Investigation Of Root Cause Cause Investigation Grasp the Situation Why? Why? Why? Why? Why? Clarify the goal Relate the importance of the problem Clarify the scope & purpose of your effort Gather necessary facts & data Determine the root cause Generate ideas Test ideas Confirm Results Develop Implementation Plan Implement the Plan

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy18 5 Whys The machine stopped The overload circuit tripped The pump was seized up Metal shavings damaged the shaft Shavings entered lubrication system No filter on the inlet pipe Why? Why? Why? Why? Why?

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy19 Agenda  What is an A3?  Understanding PDCA  Practice using a Real Problem  Using Problem Solving A3s  How to review A3s  Applying A3 Thinking to your own work

www.leanuk.org Lean… Lean is “process-focused”.  Which process is most important?  The process where the work is being done because that’s where things are happening or not happening that are contributing to the GAP in performance.  What is the process of A3 Problem Solving?  The process of Grasping the Actual Situation first-hand to link problems in performance to the process problems that are contributing to them & looking for the causes of those problems in the work process. 20

www.leanuk.org Go See…and Listen 21 “Data is of course important, but I place greater emphasis on facts.-Taiichi Ohno And where do you find the FACTS of a situation? At the Gemba – the place where the problem is actually happening. Not in a conference room or at a desk. Grasp the actual condition firsthand

www.leanuk.org How We Can Solve Problems More Effectively? Our Natural Human Tendency? 22 Perception of a Problem The SOLUTION Impressions & Assumptions TheoryFACTS BLACK HOLE 22 Developed by David Verble

www.leanuk.org How We Can Solve Problems More Effectively? Ask Questions to Help Ourselves SEE: What’s Actually Happening? What do I actually know? 23 The Real or Main Problem A SOLUTION Impressions & Assumptions Theory FACTS FACTS FACTS FACTS Developed by David Verble

www.leanuk.org The Three Most Common Problems in Problem Solving 1. Assuming you know what the problem is without seeing what is actually happening 2. Assuming you know how to solve a problem without finding out what is causing it 3. Assuming the action you have taken to solve a problem is working without checking to see if it is actually doing what you expected In other words - Not Grasping the Situation 24

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy25 I. Background New domestic plant expansion has massive technical requirements that must be translated from Japanese to English. The size and complexity of the project are creating errors and delays A3#1 Create Robust Process for Translating Documents II. Current Conditions Cost overruns, delays, and errors due to: • Sheer volume of documents • Multiple and varied vendors (pricing, quality, ease) • Involvement of various departments and working styles III. Goals/Targets • Simplify and standardise the process • Reduce costs by 10% IV. Analysis • Challenge of translating from Japanese to English • Multiple varied vendors create a complex, nonstandard process • Overall improvement can be defined by reduction in cost overruns VI. Plan Evaluate current vendor Identify new vendor candidates Develop bid package, distribute, and choose winning bid VII. Followup Monitor cost to proposal Review performance at end of one-year contract V. Proposed Countermeasures Simplify and improve process performance by choosing one vendor based on competitive bid process DP 6/1/08

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy26

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy27 I. Background Acme plant to double capacity! Much document translation required! • Poor English translations of Japanese documents caused many problems at original plant start up • Expansion plans call for aggressive launch timeline and cost reduction A3#2 Deliver Perfect Translations II. Current Conditions IV. Analysis VI. Plan VII. Followup V. Proposed Countermeasures DP 6/3/08 Problems in document translation at time of initial plant launch: Cost = High Delivery = Highly variable Quality = Many errors! Problems in document translation process have not been corrected! 2 5 0 Document translation problems could impede plant launch! 5 0 0 Document translations tsunami Current Expansion Now Begin translation Launch 12 months 6 months Translators Engineering HR, other Job instructions Office documents Technical engineering document IT Gen Documents by department Documents by type

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy28 I. Background Acme plant to double capacity! Much document translation required! • Poor English translations of Japanese documents caused many problems at original plant start up • Expansion plans call for aggressive launch timeline and cost reduction A3#2 Deliver Perfect Translations II. Current Conditions IV. Analysis VI. Plan VII. Followup V. Proposed Countermeasures DP 6/3/08 Problems in document translation at time of initial plant launch: Cost = High Delivery = Highly variable Quality = Many errors! Problems in document translation process have not been corrected! 2 5 0 Document translation problems could impede plant launch! 5 0 0 Document translations tsunami Current Expansion Now Begin translation Launch 12 months 6 months Translators Engineering HR, other Job instructions Office documents Technical engineering document IT Gen Documents by department Documents by type Don’t get ahead of yourselves How high? How variable? How many errors? Is this the right title?

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy29 Breaking Down Porter’s Problem  Why don’t the employees have the translated documents when they need them?  The documents don’t get into the system on time  Why don’t the documents get into the system on time?  Because the translators take too long to complete them  Why do the translators take too long to complete them?  Because the translators work at different paces  Why do they work at different paces?

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy30 Porter’s Problem Analysis Tree

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy31 Porter’s Problem Analysis Tree

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy32 Porter’s Current State Map “Cost overages come from rework, Expediting, and overtime – most of which come from errors!”

A3#3 Support Launch Objectives with Accurate, Timely Document Translation Next Steps IV. Analysis DP 6/6/08 Document translation problems could impede plant launch! I. Background Acme plant to double capacity! Much document translation required! • Poor English translations of Japanese documents caused many problems at original plant start up • Expansion plans call for aggressive launch timeline and cost reduction II. Current Conditions III. Goals/Targets Problems in document translation at time of launch: Cost = 10% over budget Delivery = Over 50% late Long, variable lead times Quality = Much rework >50% Many errors reach customer Overall = Constant expediting Poor quality Much rework Overtime Everyone unhappy Problems in document translation process have not been corrected! 2 5 0 5 0 0 Document translations tsunami Current Expansion Now Begin translation Launch 12 months 6 months Translators Office documents Gen Engineering HR, other Job instructions Office documentsIT Gen Documents by department Documents by type Job instructions Office documents Technical engineering document Quality - 0 defects at launch - Rework less than 10% Delivery - 100% on-time Cost - 10 % decrease – Rework down; overtime down What Who When Confirm agreement of the analysis Porter Next week Begin generation and evaluation Porter Next two weeks of countermeasures Volume Delivery and LT problems Error generation 100% Job inst’s Tech eng docs Office docs Current-state map Lostintranslation Lost Translation problems In physical transit In cyberspace In in-basket In out-basket Random causes:  No ability to track  Unclear expectations Large batches of work Confusing formats Random use of vocabulary Written explanations of complex operations Unclear expectations, lack of training Selection Training No standard vocabulary No or poor editing Unclear expectations Uneven and unpredictable workloads Poor original Translator’s skills Wrong technical vocabulary Poorly written or expressed Translator can’t understand original Translator understands original but still poor translation Processcharacteristics andweaknesses Vendor processes Acme internal processes Original document creation Vendor’s document processing variance Translator’s different expertise No quality check No timing check Send to random translators Varying technical expertise Varying English ability Varying document formatting ability Varying skills in writing documents Different vocabulary for same item Varying language used by different shops and depts No central oversight Each shop or department handles independently No monitor of quality or timing Poor process to select vendors No ability to standardise Huge variation in process Random sending to random vendors Have you clearly shown the problem breakdown? Is the root cause clear?

A3#4 Support Launch Objectives with Accurate, Timely Document Translation Next Steps DP 6/13/08 Document translation problems could impede plant launch! I. Background Acme plant to double capacity! Much document translation required! • Poor English translations of Japanese documents caused many problems at original plant start up • Expansion plans call for aggressive launch timeline and cost reduction II. Current Conditions III. Goals/Targets Problems in document translation at time of launch: Cost = 10% over budget Delivery = Over 50% late Long, variable lead times Quality = Much rework >50% Many errors reach customer Overall = Constant expediting Poor quality Much rework Overtime Everyone unhappy Problems in document translation process have not been corrected! 2 5 0 5 0 0 Document translations tsunami Current Expansion Now Begin translation Launch 12 months 6 months Translators Office documents Gen Engineering HR, other Job instructions Office documentsIT Gen Documents by department Documents by type Job instructions Office documents Technical engineering document Quality - 0 defects at launch - Rework less than 10% Delivery - 100% on-time Cost - 10 % decrease – Rework down; overtime down What Who When Confirm agreement of countermeasure evaluations Porter Next two weeks And target-state map Begin consolidation of plan and overall timeline Porter Next three weeksVolume Delivery and LT problems Error generation 100% Job inst’s Tech eng docs Office docs Current-state map IV. Analysis Lostintranslation Lost Translation problems Large batches Random causses:  No ability to track  Unclear expectations Poor document creation skills Many document formats Random use of technical vocabulary Unclear expectations Written descriptions of complex operations Poor or wrongly skilled translator No or poor editing Unclear expectations Large batches and uneven and unpredictable workloads Target-state map Cause Counter Description Eval. Benefit -measure A B Central document-flow Tracking process Overall process ownership established V. Countermeasures How much consensus does the organisation have around the countermeasure? Who agrees/disagrees? How did you determine the evaluations? Is this doable? Is there any risk? What is the incremental cost? What is the expected ROI?

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy37 Porter’s Problem Analysis Tree: 3 Root Cause GroupingsLostintranslation Lost Translation problems Lost & never found 5% Lost & found 40% Just stuck 40% Never lost 15% Large batches Random causes:  No ability to track  Unclear expectations Incomprehensible original documents Incorrect or difficult to understand translations (even with clear originals) Poor document creation skills Many document formats Random use of technical vocabulary Unclear expectations Written descriptions of complex operations Poor or wrongly skilled translator No or poor editing Unclear expectations Large batches and uneven and unpredictable workloads 3 common issues: 1) Lost documents, 2) translation problems due to problematic originals, and 3) translation problems due to a poor translation process

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy38 Porter’s Target State Map

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy39 Set-Based Decision Making Learn how to learn  Focus on real problems  Learn by doing & “Go See”  Teach the correct process for closing gaps  Prioritise the “vital few”  Design a series of experiments  Set based concurrent development  No one best intervention method, but a mix that we test to find out the best ways Specifications Launch Analyse & Test Detail (repeat for sub- systems, then assemble) Improve Pick One Concept s Diagram Ref: Allen C. Ward, “Lean Product & Process Development” (2007)

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy40 Porter’s Countermeasures

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy42 Agenda  What is an A3?  Understanding PDCA  Practice using a Real Problem  Using Problem Solving A3s  How to review A3s  Applying A3 Thinking to your own work

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy43 Review Questions  What is the problem or issue?  Who owns the problem?  What is the root cause of the problem?  What are some possible countermeasures?  How will you decide which countermeasures to propose?  How will you get agreement from everyone concerned?  What is your implementation plan  Who, What, When, Where, How?  How will you know if your countermeasures work?  What follow-up issues can you anticipate? What problems may occur during implementation?  How will you capture and feed back the learning?

Root Cause Analysis Countermeasures Effect Confirmation Follow-up Actions Background Goal  Is there a clear theme for the report that reflects the contents?  Is the topic relevant to the organisation’s objectives?  Is there any other reason for working on this topic (e.g. learning purposes)? Theme: Review Questions For Problem Solving A3s Ref: Sobek & Smalley 2008 pp 50 Current Situation  Is the current condition clear & logically depicted in a visual manner?  How could the current condition be made more clear for the audience?  Is the current condition depiction framing a problem or situation to be resolved?  Are the facts of the situation clear, or are there just observations & opinions?  Is there a clear goal or target?  What, specifically, is to be accomplished?  How will this goal be measured or evaluated?  What will improve, by how much, and when?  Are there clear countermeasure steps identified?  Do the countermeasures link to the root cause of the problem?  Are the countermeasures focussed on the right area?  Who is responsible for doing what, by when (is 5W1H clear)?  Will these action items prevent recurrence of the problem?  Is the implementation order clear and reasonable?  How will the effects of the countermeasures be verified?  How will you measure the effectiveness of the countermeasures?  Does the check item align with the previous goal statement?  Has actual performance moved in line with the goal statement?  If performance has not improved, then why? What was missed?  What is necessary to prevent recurrence of the problem?  What remains to be accomplished?  What other parts of the organisation need to be informed of this result?  How will this be standardised and communicated?  Is the analysis comprehensive at a broad level?  Is the analysis detailed enough and did it probe deeply enough on the right issues?  Is there evidence of proper 5 whys thinking about true cause?  Has cause and effect been demonstrated or linked in some manner?  Are all the relevant factors considered (human, machine, material, method, environment, measurement, and so on?

Current Situation Root Cause Analysis Countermeasures Effect Confirmation Follow-up Actions Background 1. Corporate Goals 2006  Increase global market share  Improve quality & service  Increase corporate profits 2. Manufacturing Goals 2006  Improve reduce cost by 5%  Reduce scrap 15%  Improve productivity 7%  Improve HSE index 10% *Health, safety & environment Not meeting goal for 2006 1 2 3 Overall Scrap % 3.2 2.7 2.6 2004 2005 2006 (YTD) 2.3% Goal Current Situation 1 2 3 £K 700 200 86 2004 2005 2006 (YTD) 4 5 6 Scrap by Department Breakdown of Machine Shop Scrap Rates Status* 460150232740 Scrap £K 8.73.70.70.91.5 Scrap % Final Grindi ng Roug h Grindi ng Drillin g Turni ng Milli ng Proces s *Legend 0–1% 1–2% 2+% Goal  Reduce scrap in rough grind from 3.7% to less than 2% by December 2006  Reduce scrap in final grinding from 8.7% to less than 2% by December 2006 Undersized Shaft defect Contamination Grinding wheel Set up Manual offsets Dimensions Hardness Surface finish MAN MACHINE MATERIAL METHOD Spindle Clamp & locator Grinding wheel Grinding conditions Coolant concentration Wheel dressing 72% of grinding defects Suspected Cause Action Item Responsible Dat e Finding 1. Dirt & contamination Daily 5S & PM tasks Tony (T/L) 2/11 Conducting daily. No issues. 2. Grinding wheel set up check Grinding wheel set up check Tony (T/L) 4/11 Checked out O.K. 3. Manual offset function Check offset function Tony (T/L) 4/11 Checked out O.K. 4. Spindle bearing loose Check spindle bearing Ed (Maint) 5/11 Loose bearing cap. Tightened. 5. Clamp & locator damage Check camp & locator Ed (Maint) 5/11 Nothing abnormal. 6. Grinding wheel balance Check grinding wheel Tony (T/L) 5/11 Nothing abnormal. 7. Incoming part dimensions Measure part dimensions Janet (QC) 9/11 Within spec. 8. Poor material hardness Measure hardness Janet (QC) 9/11 Within spec. 9. Abnormal surface finish spec. Check surface finish Janet (QC) 9/11 Within spec. 10 Grinding conditions abnormal Check grinding conditions Mary (Eng) 13/1 1 Nothing abnormal. 11. Coolant concentration Measure concentration Joe (Maint) 13/1 1 Contaminated tanks. Replaced. 12. Wheel dressing check Check conditions Mary (Eng) 13/1 1 Nothing abnormal. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Dates of action items & results confirmation Defect% Finish grinder Rough grinderSpindle bearing tightened Coolant replaced Target level YTD Average Pending29/11Tom Engineering Mgr.4. Discuss bearing issue with OEM In-process22/11Tom Engineering Mgr.3. Communicate findings to similar plants Complete15/11Ops & maintenance2. Establish bearing check PM Complete15/11Ops & maintenance1. Establish coolant check PM StatusDateResponsibilityInvestigation Item Pending29/11Tom Engineering Mgr.4. Discuss bearing issue with OEM In-process22/11Tom Engineering Mgr.3. Communicate findings to similar plants Complete15/11Ops & maintenance2. Establish bearing check PM Complete15/11Ops & maintenance1. Establish coolant check PM StatusDateResponsibilityInvestigation Item Theme: Reducing Scrap in the Machine Shop To: Chuck O. From: Art S. Date: 10/12/06 Ref: Sobek & Smalley 2008 pp48-49

Acme Stamping Steering Bracket Value Stream Improvement Background  Acme supplies stamped steel steering brackets (LH & RH) to State Street Assembly. The product goes through 5 manufacturing processes & shipping.  The customer uses 18,400 pcs/month & requires daily shipments in pallets of 10 trays of 20 brackets. A pallet is either all RH or LH. Current Situation  Lead time for steering bracket from coil steel to shipment = 23.6 days.  Of 23.6 days, only 188 seconds are spent making a bracket.  Large inventories of material between each process.  Long changeover times, downtime in welding. State Street Assembly Michigan Steel Co. 1x daily I Production Control Daily Orde r Weekly Fax 6 Week Forecast 90/60/3 0 Day Forecast Weekly Schedule Daily Shipp ing Sche dule Analysis  Each process operates as isolated islands, disconnected from the customer.  Push system, material builds up between each process.  Each process builds according to its own operating constraints (changeover, downtime etc.)  Plans based on 90 & 30 day forecasts from customer. Weekly schedule for each department. System is frequently overridden to make delivery. Goals  Improve profitability of steering bracket value stream.  Reduce lead time - 23.6 days to 4.5 days.  Reduce inventories:  Stamping 7.6 days to 1 day.  Welding 6.5 days to 0 days.  Shipping 4.5 days to 2 days. Recommendations  Create continuous flow through weld & assembly  Establish TAKT time . Base the pace of work through weld & assembly on customer demand.  Set new weld - assembly cell as pacemaker for entire value stream.  Establish EPE_ build schedule for stamping based on actual use of pacemaker cell & pull steel coils from supplier based on actual usage by stamping.  Improve uptime in weld.  Establish material handling routes for frequent withdrawal & delivery.  Establish new production instruction system with Levelling Box. Follow Up  Reviews & involvement of related departments TBD. Other functions: Production Control Material Handling, Purchasing, Maintenance, Human Resources, Finance. Production Control Daily Order Daily Order 6 Week Forecast 90/60/30 Day Forecast State Street Assembly Michigan Steel Co. Daily Order 20 OXO X Current State Map Future State Map Deliverables Responsible Review CCF at pacemaker Kaizen each CT to >TT Weld uptime to 100% CO reduction to < TT Pull at pacemaker FG = 2 days KB Matl handling Levelling Box Pull from Stamping WIP = 1 day CO < 10 min Pull from supplier Info flow Daily delivery RM = 1.5 days Action Plan

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy47

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy49 Agenda  What is an A3?  Understanding PDCA  Practice using a Real Problem  Using Problem Solving A3s  How to review A3s  Applying A3 Thinking to your own work

www.leanuk.orgLean Enterprise Academy50 Your Turn  Using a subject from your own work area think about how you will attempt to start the A3 process  What factors will you have to consider  You have 15 minutes

www.leanuk.org Problem Situation What I Know – the Problem How to Confirm What I Need to Know How to Learn it Lean Enterprise Academy51

www.leanuk.org Final Discussion  What makes a “good A3” good?  What is good use of an A3?  What benefits to an organization do you see in the A3 process? 52

www.leanuk.org The A3 Tool as a Process for…  Problem Solving  Proposing Improvements  Standardizing  Planning  Reporting  Reflection  Project Management  Change Management  Alignment and Agreement  Organizational Development  Mentoring, coaching  Developing people 53 All based on PDCA

www.leanuk.org ACT PLAN CHECK DO Grasp the Situation A P C D A P C D A P C D A P C D A P C D A P C D A P C D GTS (GTS) Strategy A3 Proposal A3 Problem Solving A3 Status A3 Problem Solving A3 Status A3 Problem Solving A3 Reflection A3 Yokoten A3 Uses Of the A3: P-D-C-A Cycle of Implementation & Problem Solving 54 AGREE ON THE PROBLEM, A HYPOTHESIS, AND THE PROCESS TO TRY DECIDE WHAT ADJUSTMENTS NEED TO BE MADE, WHAT TO STANDARDIZE OF THE PROCESS THAT WORKS, AND WHAT TO DO NEXT STUDY BOTH THE RESULTS AND THE PROCESS. REFLECT ON WHAT WAS LEARNED -ABOUT CAUSE AND EFFECT. - ABOUT OUR CAPABILITY IMPLEMENT AS PLANNED, ADJUST AS NECESSARY.

www.leanuk.org What Makes an A3 a Good One?  It tells a story  It contains objective facts, data  It “resolves” a problem  But being technically “right” is only half the battle…  Engages and aligns the organization  What really makes an A3 a “good one” isn’t the specific collection of facts and data that tell a perfect problem-solve. A good A3 is a reflection of the dialogue that created it. 55

www.leanuk.org David Brunt & John Kiff November 2nd & 3rd 2010 Lean Enterprise Academy56 “Managing to Learn” Mentoring Using A3 Thinking

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