Memory Revisited

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Published on October 12, 2007

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Memory Revisited:  Memory Revisited Peterson & Peterson task:  Peterson & Peterson task Decay of memory using Brown-Peterson paradigm:  Decay of memory using Brown-Peterson paradigm Keppel & Underwood: Proactive Interference :  Keppel & Underwood: Proactive Interference An “old” short-term type of model:  An “old” short-term type of model Martin RC, Romani C. 1995. Remembering stories but not words. In Broken Memories: Case Studies in Memory Impairment, ed. R Campbell, MA Conway, pp. 267-84. Oxford, UK: Blackwell :  Martin RC, Romani C. 1995. Remembering stories but not words. In Broken Memories: Case Studies in Memory Impairment, ed. R Campbell, MA Conway, pp. 267-84. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Shifting categories shows a “release” from proactive inhibition Martin RC, Romani C. 1995. Remembering stories but not words. In Broken Memories: Case Studies in Memory Impairment, ed. R Campbell, MA Conway, pp. 267-84. Oxford, UK: Blackwell :  Martin RC, Romani C. 1995. Remembering stories but not words. In Broken Memories: Case Studies in Memory Impairment, ed. R Campbell, MA Conway, pp. 267-84. Oxford, UK: Blackwell “Alan” shows the same loss of primacy for words as is seen in amnesic patients. So how can he remember stories? Martin RC, Romani C. 1995. Remembering stories but not words. In Broken Memories: Case Studies in Memory Impairment, ed. R Campbell, MA Conway, pp. 267-84. Oxford, UK: Blackwell :  Martin RC, Romani C. 1995. Remembering stories but not words. In Broken Memories: Case Studies in Memory Impairment, ed. R Campbell, MA Conway, pp. 267-84. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Alan show phonological effects but has a short memory span (1-2 items) and shows semantic interference He is capable of understanding some grammatically complex sentences but not if semantically “loaded” (fluffy, white, small, cat) He is poor at word lists but can remember stores and visual material Martin RC, Romani C. 1995. Remembering stories but not words. In Broken Memories: Case Studies in Memory Impairment, ed. R Campbell, MA Conway, pp. 267-84. Oxford, UK: Blackwell :  Martin RC, Romani C. 1995. Remembering stories but not words. In Broken Memories: Case Studies in Memory Impairment, ed. R Campbell, MA Conway, pp. 267-84. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Baddeley, A. and B. A. Wilson (2002). "Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory." Neuropsychologia 40: 1737-1743. :  Baddeley, A. and B. A. Wilson (2002). "Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory." Neuropsychologia 40: 1737-1743. Reported on two patients with good immediate but poor prose recall with delay Used the Wechsler memory scale paragraphs – 12/12 and 9.5/12 recall immediately and 0 recall after 20 minutes Propose a need for an “episodic buffer” Baddeley, A. and B. A. Wilson (2002). "Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory." Neuropsychologia 40: 1737-1743. :  Baddeley, A. and B. A. Wilson (2002). "Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory." Neuropsychologia 40: 1737-1743. Immediate and delayed recall are linearly related over different age groups Baddeley, A. and B. A. Wilson (2002). "Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory." Neuropsychologia 40: 1737-1743. :  Baddeley, A. and B. A. Wilson (2002). "Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory." Neuropsychologia 40: 1737-1743. Baddeley, A. and B. A. Wilson (2002). "Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory." Neuropsychologia 40: 1737-1743. :  Baddeley, A. and B. A. Wilson (2002). "Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory." Neuropsychologia 40: 1737-1743. Baddeley, A. and B. A. Wilson (2002). "Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory." Neuropsychologia 40: 1737-1743.:  Baddeley, A. and B. A. Wilson (2002). "Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory." Neuropsychologia 40: 1737-1743. “Returning to our own results, we assume that immediate prose recall is a joint function of (1) the quality of the representation set up in the episodic buffer, (2) the capacity to maintain it by means of executive processes, and (3) its associated registration in long-term memory.” Baddeley, A. and B. A. Wilson (2002). "Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory." Neuropsychologia 40: 1737-1743.:  Baddeley, A. and B. A. Wilson (2002). "Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory." Neuropsychologia 40: 1737-1743. “. . . going beyond the simple assumption that representations in long-term memory are activated. The episodic buffer is certainly assumed to utilize such primed representations, but to do so by actively combining them into novel episodes. For example, a totally new representation could be created, for example, by asking subjects to imagine a crocodile smoking a cigar and filing its nails, presumably something that does not already exist in their LTM. In addition to representing episodes, the buffer is assumed to function as a modeling space, allowing hypothetical situations to be developed and used in order to guide future action, as, for example, in planning a novel route between two locations. Finally, the buffer is assumed to allow the retrieval of its contents by the process of conscious awareness. Conscious awareness, thus, serves the biologically useful function of binding together complex information from a number of different modalities and sources in a way that makes their relationship accessible to reflection, hence again providing a basis for subsequent action.” Christodoulou C, DeLuca J, Ricker JH, Madigan NK, Bly BM, et al. 2001. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of working memory impairment after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 71: 161-8 :  Christodoulou C, DeLuca J, Ricker JH, Madigan NK, Bly BM, et al. 2001. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of working memory impairment after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 71: 161-8 9 patients with moderate to severe TBI The working memory task consisted of a modified version of the paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT) USUAL PASAT: Subjects heard a sequence of numbers, ranging from one to nine, at a rate of one number every 2 seconds. Subjects were instructed to add the first number to the second, the second to the third, and so on, so that they were always calculating the sum of the last two numbers that had been presented. MODIFIED: Instead of answering aloud, subjects were told to silently add the numbers, and to lift their right index finger whenever the sum equaled 10 (1) recruitment of remote regions in the contralateral hemisphere resulting in an alteration in the lateralisation of activation). (2) Locally expanded recruitment of areas adjacent to those that are active in healthy persons resulting in more dispersed cerebral representation. Slide18:  It turns out that some degree of phonological storage can occur without articulation. The articulatory loop increases the amount stored but is not necessary for storage. The concept of an articulatory loop accounts for several phenomenon. However, articulatory suppression, in which the listener repeats an irrelevant articulatory string over and over (e.g. “while you are listening to the list of words repeat the word “elephant” continuously) in order to prevent or significantly reduce articulatory rehearsal, does not eliminate the phonological similarity effect. {Murray, 1968 #5897; Levy, 1971 #5898} Neuropsychological findings with brain damaged cases also suggest some degree of independence of the phonological store and the articulatory loop. {Vallar, 1984 #5703} The distinction between short- and long-term memory is also confirmed by the discovery of patients with subcortical lesions who have severely impaired long-term memory with preserved short-term memory. (e.g. {Baddeley, 1970 #5896}) Giuseppe Vallar and Alan Baddeley report a case of impaired phonological store with preserved long-term memory. {Vallar, 1984 #5703} Warrington and Shallice {Warrington, 1969 #2971} reported K. F., a case of selective impairment of short-term memory without loss of long-term memory. K.F. suffered a left hemisphere parietal lesion. This case and others {Warringon, 1971 #5710} found that these patients did better with visually presented stimuli. This suggested a separation between the phonological, articulatory short-term store and the visual-spatial short-term store. Slide19:  The articulatory loop (Baddeley and Hitch) accounts for: word length effect (Baddeley et. al. phonological similarity effect (Conrad & Hull, 64) Articulatory suppression (Murry, Levy) Vallar G, Baddeley AD. 1984. Fractionation of working memory: Neuropsychological evidence for a phonological short-term store. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 23: 151-61:  Vallar G, Baddeley AD. 1984. Fractionation of working memory: Neuropsychological evidence for a phonological short-term store. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 23: 151-61 Vallar G, Baddeley AD. 1984. Fractionation of working memory: Neuropsychological evidence for a phonological short-term store. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 23: 151-61:  Vallar G, Baddeley AD. 1984. Fractionation of working memory: Neuropsychological evidence for a phonological short-term store. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 23: 151-61 Smith, E. and J. Jonides (1997). "Working memory: A view from neuroimaging." Cognitive Psychology 33: 5-42 :  Smith, E. and J. Jonides (1997). "Working memory: A view from neuroimaging." Cognitive Psychology 33: 5-42 Smith, E.E. and J. Jonides, Storage and Executive Processes in the Frontal Lobes. Science, 1999. 283(12 March): p. 1657-1661. :  Smith, E.E. and J. Jonides, Storage and Executive Processes in the Frontal Lobes. Science, 1999. 283(12 March): p. 1657-1661. The human frontal cortex helps mediate working memory, a system that is used for temporary storage and manipulation of information and that is involved in many higher cognitive functions. Working memory includes two components: short-term storage (on the order of seconds) and executive processes that operate on the contents of storage. Recently, these two components have been investigated in functional neuroimaging studies. Studies of storage indicate that different frontal regions are activated for different kinds of information: storage for verbal materials activates Broca's area and left-hemisphere supplementary and premotor areas; storage of spatial information activates the right-hemisphere premotor cortex; and storage of object information activates other areas of the prefrontal cortex. Two of the fundamental executive processes are selective attention and task management. Both processes activate the anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Tulving, E. (1989). "Remembering and knowing the past." American Scientist July-August: 361-367.:  Tulving, E. (1989). "Remembering and knowing the past." American Scientist July-August: 361-367. Case of K.C. In 1981 a young man, aged 30, K.C., suffered extensive damage to the left frontal-parietal and right parietal-occipital regions as a result of a motorcycle accident. Upon recovery he showed a dense amnesia. {Tulving, 1988 #5209} He is able to carry on conversations, play chess, recognize familiar objects and people, read, write and reason. His short-term memory is entirely intact. However, K. C. cannot remember any personally experienced event before or after the accident. He knows things about himself, much as another individual with a detailed knowledge of him might know these things. But he can remember no personal experiences even though he might retain some of the facts about prior experiences. He can, for example, play chess but he has no memory of ever having been taught or of every playing a game. He knows he has a car and can tell you its make, color, and so on but cannot remember ever having taken a trip in the car. Since his episodic memory loss is complete, not just after the accident (anterograde amnesia), we cannot attribute it to a failure to store new episodic information. He cannot retrieve information from his episodic memory. In contrast his semantic memory is intact. The damage to episodic memory appears to be related to how we see ourselves in time. Tulving reports that K. C. is unable to imagine or contemplate himself in the future. He forever lives in the present Tulving E, Kapur S, Craik F, Moscovitch M, Houle S. 1994. Hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry in episodic memory: Positron emission tomography findings. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, U.S.A. 91: 2016-20 :  Tulving E, Kapur S, Craik F, Moscovitch M, Houle S. 1994. Hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry in episodic memory: Positron emission tomography findings. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, U.S.A. 91: 2016-20 Hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry model of prefrontal encoding and retrieval Left prefrontal cortical regions are more involved in retrieval of information from semantic memory and in encoding novel aspects of retrieved information in episodic memory. Right prefrontal regions are more involved in episodic memory retrieval Cabeza R. 2002. Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults: The HAROLD Model. Psychology and Aging 17: 85-100 :  Cabeza R. 2002. Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults: The HAROLD Model. Psychology and Aging 17: 85-100 A model of the effects of aging on brain activity during cognitive performance is introduced. The model is called HAROLD (hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults), and it states that, under similar circumstances, prefrontal activity during cognitive performances tends to be less lateralized in older adults than in younger adults. The model is supported by functional neuroimaging and other evidence in the domains of episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, perception, and inhibitory control. Age-related hemispheric asymmetry reductions may have a compensatory function or they may reflect a dedifferentiation process. They may have a cognitive or neural origin, and they may reflect regional or network mechanisms. The HAROLD model s a cognitive neuroscience model that integrates ideas and findings from psychology and neuroscience of aging.

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