Published on March 2, 2014
INPUT Sensory Store STM LTM
Sensory - register Modality specific (taste held as taste, visual image as an icon) Capacity is large but duration limited approx ½ a second. Processing is largely unconscious so info is taken from experiments.
Encoding is mainly acoustic Capacity is limited to an average 7 items Duration is limited to 30 seconds LTM Encoding is semantic Capacity unlimited Duration unlimited
Murdock (1962) o Murdock (1962) presented participants with lists of words that varied in length form 10 to 40 words at intervals of 2 seconds. o When participants were asked to recall the words in any order they recalled items from the end of the list first and got more of these correct (the recency effect). o Items from the beginning of the list are also recalled quite well (the primacy effect). o Poorest recall is for words from the middle of the list.
STORE ENCODING CAPACITY DURATION SENSORY MEMORY Modality specific Large Limited (1/2 second) STM Acoustic 7 or more items 30 seconds LTM Semantic Unlimited Unlimited
The model over emphasises rehearsal in the transfer from STM to LTM in everyday life we rarely rehearse info yet we can recall it Could be better explained by CRAIK AND LOCKHART’S LEVELS OF PROCESSING THEORY Oversimplifies functions of STM and LTM by suggesting they are uniformed. Lacks ecological validity Case studies are over simplified. Stimulated further research Empirical evidence
CRAIK AND LOCKHART rehearsal is not as important to learning. 1. 2. 3. Structural- Appearance- capital and lower case Phonological-sound-rhyme Semantic-meaning Depth or level of processing determines persistence of a memory trace in long-term memory.
Aim: investigate effects of types of processing on the recall of words Method- participants were presented with 60 words and asked about each one 1-word in caps (shallow) 2- rhyme(phonetic) 3-fit in a sentence(semantic) RESULTS- Better recognition with deeper levels of processing CONLUSION- deeper levels of processing based on meaning of info is better than shallower recall methods.
Credible alternative- ELIAS AND PERFETTI – PPs had greater recognition of words. Flashbulb- amount of info we recall e.g bumping into David Bekham Elaborative-rather than repition LIMITATIONS Lack ecological validity Isn’t up to date
Central executive- directs attention to particular tasks Phonological loops- limited capacity and deals with organising information. Visuo-spatial sketch pad- things look like Episodic buffer-linking information across domains to form integrated units of visual, spatial, and verbal information with time sequencing (or chronological ordering), such as the memory of a story or a movie scene. The episodic buffer is also assumed to have links to long-term memory and semantic meaning.
Flexible system Understanding of central exec is limited WMM only explains our biology and not our socialisation
LONG TERM MEMORY Procedural Memory Implicit - Not usually conscious Declarative Memory Explicit – can be inspected consciously Episodic Memory for personal events Autobiographical Episodic Memory Flashbulb Memory Experimental Episodic Memory Semantic Memory for general knowledge and facts
Procedural memory is a motor or action based memory and it is sometimes referred to as knowing how. One example of procedural memory would be remembering how to swim. Procedural memory: does not call on our conscious memory cannot be consciously inspected non-declarative (meaning it is is difficult to put into words)
Declarative memory is sometimes referred as knowing that. Declarative memory: can be put into words quite easily can be inspected consciously, e.g. you could tell someone about your first day at St. Christopher’s includes both semantic and episodic it memory and both are very closely linked
Semantic memory is long-term memory for information about the world or general knowledge. This includes memory about the meaning of words. Examples of semantic memory would be to know that grass is green or that Paris is the capital of France. Such semantic memories can be used without reference to when and where the information was learned.
Episodic memory is the long-term memory for events or episodes that we have experienced ourselves or heard about from another source.
This is the memory for specific life events that have personal meaning. Being able to remember the events of your first day at college would be an example of autobiographical memory. is very difficult to It check the accuracy of this type of memory, but a way it can be checked is to use a diary or photographs.
A flashbulb memory is a detailed and vivid memory of an event that is stored after one occasion and lasts a lifetime. Such events are often life changing, such as births or deaths or may be associated with important historical events such as 9/11. There is usually fear or excitement associated with the event and this is what makes it particularly vivid.
AIM: To see whether episodic memory and semantic memory are separate memory systems located in different areas of the brain. METHOD: Tulving injected quantities of radioactive gold into his own blood stream. then thought about semantic memories e.g. historical facts or about episodic He memories e.g. events from his summer holidays when he was a child. Scanners were used to monitor the blood flow in his brain. RESULTS: The two different memory tasks showed distinct patterns of blood flow in the brain: Episodic memories involved increased blood flow in the front of the brain Semantic memories involved increased blood flow in areas toward the back of the brain. CONCLUSION: The results supported the view that episodic memory and semantic memory are located in different areas of the brain. However, as this was a preliminary study involving a single participant, the findings should be interpreted with caution.
AIM: To investigate the ability to acquire new procedural skills in a person with amnesia. METHOD: case study of an amnesic patient (HM) was carried out. A memory problems were so serious that he appeared His to be unable to remember new information. was trained to carry out a task which involved HM tracking or following a curvy line in a rotating disc. RESULTS: first, his performance at the tracking tasks was poor, At but he improved with practise. Several days later, when he carried out the task again he had no conscious memory of the
To - understand the nature of forgetting we have to make a distinction between: Availability-is the info still stored? Accessibility- can it be retrieved at will?
Learning something creates a memory or an ‘ENGRAM’ which gradually fades This affects both STM/LTM – STUDY- Waugh and Norman
Limited number of slots in the STM If new info is taken in then other info will be KNOCKED OUT
Memory - is distorted in someway either by: Something learned in the past (proactive interference) - Something learned in the future (retroactive interference) STUDY- Tulving & Psotka
When we take in new info a certain amount of time is necessary for changes in the nervous system to take place In the consolidation process forgetting can occur when consolidation is prevented. STUDY- Yarnell & Lynch
‘cues’ are important- we are likely to remember info better if we recall it in the same state and context that it was rehearsed in the first place. STUDY- Abernethy-when sat in the same room the instructor got better marks from his pupils
People unconsiously ‘repress’ (push back) painful or disturbing memories. This is a LTM theory of forgetting
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