Memory Consumer Behavior

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Information about Memory Consumer Behavior

Published on April 20, 2008

Author: lepetitbonbon


Memory:  Memory Consumer Behaviour Memory:  Memory Definition An internal record of some prior event or experience; A set of mental processes that receives, encodes, stores, organizes, alters, and retrieves information over time The total accumulation of prior learning experiences Typical questions: Why are consumers likely to remember information from one ad’ rather than another? Why do people differ in their ability to remember information? Why do consumers forget product information? What interferes with consumers’ ability to recognise a product in-store? Why do consumers sometimes mix information about brands? Examples: Memory Research in Consumer Behaviour:  Examples: Memory Research in Consumer Behaviour What is the impact of multiple exposures to a banner ad on consumers memory for a brand? Can we the positive equity (memory) of an existing product or brand be used to launch a new product (product extension)? To what degree should we vary ads for the same brand to ensure high memorability? Nostalgia:  Nostalgia Definition: A bitter sweet emotion associated with a longing for an earlier period of time. Listening to music from teenage-hood and remembering the good times Greatest hits of the 60’s, 70’ and 80’s! Favourite teddy bears Keeping old clothes items Photograph albums Antiques High School Reunions Marketing Applications McDonalds Feed Your Inner Child Staying Alive Source: Youtube Flash Bulb Memories:  Flash Bulb Memories Where were you… On September 11, 2001? John Lennon was shot? Man landed on the Moon? Britney and K-Fed broke up? Virgin advertisement Source: Youtube Marketing Relevance Originate from brand-related experiences – esp. if brand is well-differentiated from competitors & involvement high First exposure to musical celebrities during teenage-hood First time experiences associated with maturation – (e.g., first bike, first time drunk, first car, first bra, first trip abroad The Memory Process :  The Memory Process Grocery Lists – 80% purchased Short Term Memory:  Short Term Memory Definition: The site where a lot of conscious thought or thinking occurs. “Bottle-neck" aspects (KISS esp. in dynamic less controllable media such as radio, television) Holds 7 plus or minus two chunks of information, sometimes less. Positive affect/Hi – expands Negative affect/LI - contracts Auditory or visual information can be stored briefly, but more likely labelled with words as easier to store. If info’ not rehearsed, lost in 15 to maximum 30 sec’s. Slide10:  Exercise To understand the real limits of short term (working) memory, try the following.  Read the string of 15 letters below (15 seconds), then try to write them down in the correct order. B G I T A E L T E G D O T H E Most people cannot do this.  There are 15 letters, and this exceeds the capacity of working memory by quite a lot.  However, if we rearrange the letters, this same task can seem easy. Try again to write the letters down (15 seconds)! THE  EAT  DOG  BIG  LET Even though there are still 15 letters, most people will recall all 15 letters this time.  Why were the letters easier to remember this time? When the letters are arranged to form words, they are easier to remember.  Each word is one CHUNK of meaning.  So we have 5 versus 15 chunks of meaning. If the words are arranged in order to form a sentence, they are much easier to remember, as the sentence itself becomes a chunk of meaning, hence “context” clearly aids memory. LET  THE  BIG  DOG  EAT STM - Miller’s Law:  STM - Miller’s Law The average person has the ability to process only about seven plus or minus two chunks of information at one time. 9 3 2 7 6 4 8 3 OR 9 327 6483 A chunk may be defined as a meaningful piece of information. It could be a single letter, a syllable or an entire word. Information overload occurs Marketing Implications Limit number of chunks of information in an ad’ to about 2-3 esp. for radio or TV ads. Short Term Memory:  Short Term Memory Maintenance rehearsal The continual repetition of a piece of information in order to hold it in working memory to solve problems. Repeated exposure to brand name in an ad’ or an ad over time, singing advertising jingle to oneself repeatedly. Successful Volvo Advertisement Source: Youtube Elaborative activities Use of previously stored experiences, values, attitudes, beliefs and feelings to interpret (meaning) and evaluate (good to bad) information in the working memory. Sensory meaning (color, shape, taste) Semantic or symbolic meaning (prestige brand, daggy fashion, innovative products) Smirnoff Saves The Day Advertisement Source: Youtube What are the implications of STM for Marketing :  What are the implications of STM for Marketing Example-Advertisements Stand out within category Emotionally resonant Uncluttered presentation Repeated exposures Understand competitive activity (Super Bowl example) Involvement of target audience (other priorities) Components of LTM:  Components of LTM More easily recalled ATMs Dentist trip Shopping Restaurants Improves with breaks, esp. sleep (45mins) Memory Measures:  Memory Measures Recognition When a specific cue (face or name) is matched in STM against LTM We recognize something we have been exposed to before! Example: We recognize our favorite brand of frozen healthy dinner in-store. We look for our favorite wine label in the refrigerator cabinet at the Bottle Wine shop The Effect of Brand Recognition on Perception:  The Effect of Brand Recognition on Perception Recognition Decision Heuristic Random sample tasted 3 brands of peanut butter – 59% could recognise the better brand (versus 33% had they been guessing) People shown 3 brands, 2 fictitious. One they already knew. They preferred the lesser quality brand when it was presented as the known (recognised) brand 79% of the time. Exact peanut butter in 3 jars, 2 fictitious brands and one recognised. 75% indicated known brand as superior Source: Hoyer and Brown (1990), Journal of Consumer Research Memory Measures:  Memory Measures Recall is when a general cue is used to search memory Common market research usage is that pure brand recall requires "unaided recall". For example a respondent may be asked to recall the names of any cars he may know, or any whisky brands he may know. Note In terms of brand exposure, companies want to look for high levels of unaided recall in relation to their competitors. The first recalled brand name (often called "top of mind") has a distinct competitive advantage in brand space, as it has the first chance of evaluation for purchase. Encoding…...:  Encoding…... Aim: To build strong positively charged & varied neural pathways to enhance memor-ability Transfer of information from STM to LTM Repetition: Rehearsal increases likelihood of transfer. Music - encourages repetition via singing the song after the ad exposure – well known or ad specific jingles Oh Mr Sheen, Oh Mr Sheen, Don’t Wait to Told You Need Palmolive Gold Elaboration - thinking deeply & connecting new information to stored information. Pictures then sounds - more memorable than verbal counterparts (especially in a low involvement situation). Strike strong emotional chord though presenting images designed to increase elaboration Additional……… . Slide19:  Improving encoding By presenting an emotional stimulus that is relevant to a key product benefit Slide20:  Improving encoding By repeatedly presenting varied novel stimulus that are relevant to brand positioning Absolut: Clever, innovative, sophisticated? Slide21:  Improving encoding By repeatedly presenting similar yet varied stimuli that are relevant to an advertising campaign over time Slide22:  Improving encoding By reducing anxiety, increasing relaxation and positive mood states via humor and increasing depth of elaboration Slide23:  Improving encoding By presenting stimuli (e.g., advertising cues) that are relevant to communicating key product/brand benefits The Zeigarnik Effect:  The Zeigarnik Effect Definition: Occurs if a task is interrupted, material relevant to the task tends to be remembered more easily. We like closure (e.g., 2nd hand mobile phone conversations) Examples: You're watching the news and you hear an announcement like the following, "Today, man found hanging from a tree…More on that story later but first..." Don't you find yourself glued to the news, waiting to hear about that man hanging from the tree? And they end up airing that story last. But what it did was keep you watching the whole newscast TV series "24" a hit. It left you hanging every week so you want to find out more. Westpac dog accident ads 930secs – break – then 15 secs closure) The Von Restorff Effect . . .:  The Von Restorff Effect . . . Definition Occurs when a unique item in a series will tend to be recalled more easily, closely related to salience or the level of activation of a concept in memory. "stands out like a sore thumb” Examples: Night of a murder Mystery ad’s (e.g., Japan) Encoding – Serial Positioning:  Encoding – Serial Positioning Primacy and Recency effects E.g., First Mover Advantage, ad’s more memorable at beginning/end of commercial break Storage - Schema:  Storage - Schema Definition The total system of associations brought to mind when a cue is activated is called a schema Associative Networks, stereotyping Product information stored in memory tends to be brand-based Consumers interpret new information in a manner consistent with the way it is already organised Slide28:  Figure 3.6 An associative network for perfumes Exercise:  Exercise Create an associative map for Britney Spears When you are finished explain to your neighbor how these associations came about? Retrieval...:  Retrieval... Memory Response generation: The person constructs a memory by actively using logic, intuition, expectations and stored information. Retrieval Cues: Information designed to trigger the recall of information useful in decision-making. Interference processes can distort memory – reconstruction (new vs old information) Primacy and Recency effects Consumers tend to remember benefits rather attributes; especially novices. Forgetting:  Forgetting The inability to recall previously learned information Forgetting:  Forgetting Research Only 7% of consumers can recall an ad and the correct brand. Less than half recall rate of 1960’s Processes Proactive interference: old information interferes with recall of new information Retroactive interference: new information interferes with recall of old information Decay theory: memory trace fades with time Motivated forgetting: involves the loss of painful memories (protective memory loss) Retrieval failure: the information is still within LTM, but cannot be recalled because the retrieval cue is absent

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