Membrane gas separation

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Information about Membrane gas separation
Technology

Published on February 27, 2014

Author: mostafaghoniem1

Source: slideshare.net

Description

gas sweetening and separation , using membrane to separate carbon dioxide from natural gas in industry

MEMBRANE UNIT 11/18/2013 Presented by - Mostafa Ghoniem mostafaghonem98@gmail.com 1

INTRODUCTION In the next few slides we will review the idea of the membranes showing how it works and the whole configuration of the unit. Installation of the membrane banks and the most important precautions will be presented. Maintenance of the membrane unit also will be shown . 11/18/2013 2

CONTENTS - Introduction - Review - Membrane construction - Membrane unit configuration - Maintenance - Installation 11/18/2013 3

WHAT IS A MEMBRANE?! Membranes are thin semipermeable barriers that selectively separate some components from others. This may appear like a filtration process when in fact it isn’t. In filters the unfiltered substance is disposed or even trapped in the filter material. In this process the membrane selects one component to go through it and the other is trapped outside the membrane in a property called “selectivity”. Selection happens because one gas goes through the membrane faster than the other. 11/18/2013 4

WHAT IS A MEMBRANE Component A Membrane layer 11/18/2013 Component B 5

MAIN DEFINITIONS Permeation rate or flux is the rate at which a gaseous component can diffuse through the membrane medium to the low-pressure side. Permeability : the ease of gas to dissolve and diffuse through the membrane Selectivity refers to the ratio of permeation rates of a fast gas (carbon dioxide) and a slow gas (methane or other hydrocarbon). The selectivity of carbon dioxide to methane determines the efficiency of the separation, and thus the hydrocarbon recovery 11/18/2013 6

MAIN DEFINITIONS For better understanding for the term “selectivity” we need to understand the Mechanism of membrane separation. The main phenomenon are solution and diffusion Gas molecules solutes in the membrane material due to high pressure The solute molecules diffuses in the membrane material due to difference in concentration on both sides of the membrane 11/18/2013 7

MECHANISM OF OPERATION 1/3 Membrane side Flux direction High pressure Low pressure Feed side Permeate side Component A Membrane layer 11/18/2013 Component B 8

MECHANISM OF OPERATION 2/3 The different components of the mixture have different solubility in the polymer of the membrane and each gas has a different permeability in the porous medium of the membrane. Using these characteristics one component can permeate faster than the other component . First, molecules of the gas dissolve in the non-porous layer. Then, it diffuses through the porous medium of the membrane because of the pressure difference between the sides of the membrane.. 11/18/2013 9

MECHANISM OF OPERATION 3/3 Both components dissolve and go through the membrane but with different rates Components with higher solubility and higher diffusivity called fast components and they form the higher concentration in the permeate stream. Due to the differences in the ability of the components of the mixture to dissolve and diffuse in the polymer, separation happens. The penetrating stream is called the permeate and the rejected component is called the residual. 11/18/2013 10

CONSTRUCTION OF MEMBRANE Membrane simply constructs of a layer of certain type of polymers “Cellulose acetate” in our case. This layer is an ultra thin layer with thickness of few microns to enhance the separation efficiency. This ultra thin layer is so weak and can be fractured under high pressure . This layer is supported with other layer of thick polymer with much larger pore diameter. 11/18/2013 11

CONSTRUCTION OF MEMBRANE ELEMENT The single element consists of several layers of membrane sheets , each membrane layer is separated by 2 other layers called feed spacer and permeate spacer. Gas is feed to the feed spacer , the membrane layer does the separation , and the permeate spacer carries permeate gas to permeate side These layers are wrapped in a spiral form and connected to a perforated tube that collects all permeate gas. 11/18/2013 12

Feed spacer Feed gas Residual gas Membrane layer Permeate spacer Permeate gas Component A Component B 11/18/2013 13

CONSTRUCTION OF MEMBRANE ELEMENT 11/18/2013 14

GOVERNING EQUATIONS Beginning with Fick’s law for gas diffusion flux of the gas is related to the concentration gradient. 

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