Meeting 21 5 2007 DEI

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Information about Meeting 21 5 2007 DEI

Published on January 16, 2008

Author: Monica


Slide1:  Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione MATEO-ANTASME Project meeting Milano, May 21, 2007 Outline:  Outline The research unit Expected contributions to ANTASME Deliverables WP6: Object-oriented modelling of mechatronic electrohydraulic systems WP7: Object-oriented modelling of spacecraft dynamics The DEI research unit :  The DEI research unit Prof. Paolo Rocco (person in charge) Prof. GianAntonio Magnani Tiziano Pulecchi (PhD candidate) Luca Viganò (PhD candidate) Expected contributions to ANTASME:  Expected contributions to ANTASME DEI will develop multi-domain modelling and simulation environments for aerospace systems, with specific attention to mechatronic electrohydraulic systems and to spacecraft attitude and orbit dynamics. The environments will offer hierarchical modular modelling capabilities, to ensure models reuse, and a “natural” (i.e. not requiring a specific modelling knowledge) approach to complex model definition. A library of basic models of the physical components for aerospace systems shall be developed. Tools: the modelling language Modelica:  Tools: the modelling language Modelica Main features: Object-oriented language: class = model Modelica is based on equation, not on assignments: Acausal approach. Reuse of classes. Multidomain approach: Electrical Mechanical Hydraulic … Website: Tools: the simulation environment Dymola:  A commercial package for multi-domain simulation based on Modelica. It is used both in the academy and in industry: Daimler Chrysler BMW Audi, Volkswagen Toyota … Tools: the simulation environment Dymola Website: Completed deliverables:  Completed deliverables WP6 WP7 WP6: OO modelling of mechatronic electrohydraulic systems:  Objectives: Models of DDV (Direct Drive Valve) electrohydraulic actuators; Integration of the model within a realistic helycopter system model. WP6: OO modelling of mechatronic electrohydraulic systems Deliverables: 6.1 (completed): “Design description of the object-oriented library for mechatronic electrohydraulic systems” 6.2 (after 12 months): “Assessment of the performance of the mechatronic electrohydraulic library in a case study” Presented by Luca Viganò Helicopter flight mechanics model:  Helicopter flight mechanics model Flight mechanics model Fully parametrized Some features: Level 1 simulation compliant (Padfield, ’96) MBC rotor model (flapping states), Pitt-Peters/Keller dynamic wake Engine RPM dynamics Aerodynamics of lifting surfaces and fuselage (look-up-table based) Atmospheric gust 3D virtual environment Flight Control Model:  Flight Control Model Helicopter Control Geometry in a FBW configuration: 4 main stationary servoactuators (left,aft,right,tail) Collective/cyclic blade pitch commands (C,P,R,Y) to L,A,R,T servos displacements: interlink+primary mixer reproduced by FCS software. Mechanical swashplate Main/tail rotor servoactuators modules: Geometric transformations 1 dof (or >complex if needed) mechanical impedance Easy parametrization by means of records. Servoactuator Model:  Servoactuator Model 3 Level of details possible for each servoactuator: 2nd order plus saturation and rate limiter (classical flight sim. model) Simplex hydraulic system (no electrical dynamics) Complex DDV model (electrical and hydraulic redundancies) Servoactuator Model:  Servoactuator Model Medium and high-detail servoactuator model assembled with the mechatronic electrohydraulic library (deliverable 6.1) : Duplex hydraulic system Quadruplex electrical system Nonlinear friction Elastic support Detailed valve/cylinder model … DDV, closed-loop, redundant model tested for nominal and faulty conditions (jammed valve or one hydraulic line operative) Case Study:  Case Study Helicopter digital AFCS provided by a standard inner-outer loops strategy: Inner loop: ACAH (Attitude Command Attitude Hold): Scheduled LQ explicit model following (Lewis & Stevens, ’92) Bandwidths compliant with ADS-33 (Level 1,2) Outer loop: Hold modes (IAS hold, ALT hold, HDG hold,…) Turn coordination Empirical external load on servos: Justified by difficult airload predictability and good disturbance rejection at all frequencies. DC load + vibratory load Nb/rev (actuator performance specification) Load case 1: 98% peak-to-peak stall load (62% DC + 36% vib.) Load case 2: 50 % Load case 1 Turbulence on (severe) Case Study: Test 1:  Case Study: Test 1 Test 1: hover, vertical climb (1575 ft/min), yaw rate pulse, long. acceleration Case Study: Test 1 – Aft Servo :  Case Study: Test 1 – Aft Servo Valve jam (t=50sec.) Case Study: Test 2:  Case Study: Test 2 Test 2: accel. from hover to 100kts IAS, roll/pitch/heave periodic commands Case Study: Test 2 – Aft Servo :  Case Study: Test 2 – Aft Servo Valve jam (t=200sec.) Conclusions:  Conclusions A Modelica library for mechatronic electrohydraulic systems has been developed and used for the assessment of performance of a detailed DDV actuator, in nominal or faulty conditions. The isolated servo model has been integrated with an existing Modelica helicopter flight mechanics simulator, in such a way as to preserve modularity of both models. Avionic integration of DDV-FBW servoactuators has been tested in simulation using a standard AFCS structure: Physical redundancies work fine, concealing faults at flight mechanics level Servo tracking performances and robustness can be evaluated in a sufficiently realistic framework Availability of numerically affordable but realistic external load model could improve model accuracy and help to reduce conservatism in control design. WP7: OO modelling of spacecraft dynamics:  Objectives: Development of a library for simulation of spacecraft attitude and orbit dynamics Verification in a case study WP7: OO modelling of spacecraft dynamics Deliverables: 7.1 (completed): “Design description of the modelling library for spacecraft dynamics” 7.2 (after 12 months): “Assessment of the performance of the spacecraft dynamics library in a realistic case study” Presented by Tiziano Pulecchi Slide20:  The SFDL provides the user with a very intuitive and ready for use modelling and simulation tool, specially suitable for rapid design and multi-architecture assessment of a generic space vehicle. Lists of models for the most commonly used AOCS sensors, actuators and controls are available, as basic model components from whose interconnection the complete spacecraft can be quickly obtained. Multiple architectural configurations can be quickly evaluated leading to the system final definition. The SFDL capabilities will be proved in a case study consisting in the ACS design for a fine attitude pointing GEO spacecraft endowed with a single solar array rotating in the orbital plane (maximum energy adsorption). What can a Modelica Space Flight Dynamics Library do? The spacecraft model:  The object-oriented framework allows the user to build a complex system from elementary models. The complete spacecraft can be obtained as the interconnection of the following main systems: Dynamics: includes the modeling of the spacecraft as the interconnection (through a revolute joint) of two rigid bodies, the main body and the solar array, and the definition of the spacecraft initial conditions (i.e., orbit, attitude); Sensors: defines the actual spacecraft on board sensors; The availability of a star sensor for precise attitude reference, a GPS receiver, gyroscopes and a three axes magnetometer will be assumed; Controls: describes the AOCS, including algorithms for control strategies, attitude determination, data fusion, etc.; Actuators: defines the actuators set equipping the considered spacecraft. The spacecraft model Dynamics:  Dynamics: solar_array model: based on standard Modelica MultiBody library components. spacecraft main_body: SpacecraftDynamics model Initial conditions defined by selecting the desired orbit, simulation initial time and initial spacecraft misalignment; Alternative choice: standard Modelica MultiBody initialization option; Spacecraft inertial properties, geometry definition retrieved from ad hoc records. Dynamics angle formed in the ecliptic plane between the vernal equinox and the sun position vectors Ref. epoch (sun at Ares point) Sensors:  Sensors: Broad choice of models available for the most commonly used aerospace sensors, including star trackers, gyroscopes, GPS receivers, magnetometers, sun sensors and horizon sensors. The sensor suite can be easily obtained by suitably connecting this standard models. Sensors Control:  Control: High precision attitude control for large, asymmetric spacecraft can be suitably achieved via a set of RWs; Albeit the RWs provide full three axes controllability of the spacecraft, angular momentum will build up in the RWs eventually reaching saturation and thus leading to loss of control authority; The removal of the excess momentum is achieved by means of external torques provided by magnetotorquers (inexpensive); The control architecture comprises algorithms devoted to: computation of the torque required to meet the specified control requirements; control allocation between the two actuator sets; computation of RWs angular momentum variation and magnetotorquers magnetic dipole To this end, SFDL control components can be exploited. Control Control:  Required control torque: RWs angular momentum dynamics (fine attitude pointing): Magnetotorquers exponentially stabilizing feedback control law: Control RW angular momentum Magnetic field vector Spacecraft angular rate Coils magnetic dipole Actuators:  Actuators Actuators: Broad choice of models available for the most commonly used aerospace actuators, including several architecture for reaction wheels, control moment gyroscopes, impulsive thrusters and magneto torquers. The sensor suite can be can be quickly obtained by suitably connecting standard SFDL models. Simulation:  Magnetic field and solar radiation pressure data used for simulation can be downloaded from the National Geophysical Data Center website (; Data recorded by GOES-7 geostationary satellite from 4 till 8 January 1996, representative of in orbit environmental conditions. Simulation Solar radiation pressure Magnetic field b2 component Simulation:  Simulation Coils magnetic dipoles RWs angular momentum

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