'Meet the Archaeologist' - Rick Buller's Presentation_May2014

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Information about 'Meet the Archaeologist' - Rick Buller's Presentation_May2014

Published on May 27, 2014

Author: aorgan77

Source: slideshare.net


As part of the annual program of events for National Archaeology Week, Rick Bullers (bottom left photo below) was invited to give a talk about Maritime Archaeology during “Meet the Archaeologists Night” at Flinders University’s Adelaide CBD Campus. Rick presented the research rational and preliminary findings of a long-running research project on the “Archaeology of Australian Colonial Shipbuilding”.

National Archaeology Week: Meet the Archaeologists Night 23 May 2014 Rick Bullers – Geelong Resource Manager/Senior Heritage Advisor MMarArch; AIMA; MHAC (VIC); AACAI (Pend) Adelaide Melbourne Geelong Brisbane

Research Design and Objectives

Study limited to:  Vessels: ◦ built in Australia before 1901; ◦ constructed of wood; and ◦ principally sail-driven.  Vessel/remains located in SA, NSW, Vic, Tas.  Vessel/remains location already known;  Sufficient structure remaining. Currently 65 Vessels of Interest (VOI) 3 Research Limitations Ketch Alert, Port Adelaide, c.1880 (SLSA PRG 1373/35/52 )

4 Australian Ships/Shipwrecks Database

 Quality of Construction (were they poorly-built or cheaply built, or of a similar standard to British-built vessels?). ◦ Historiographical assumptions of poor construction ◦ Archaeological research indicates Australian Colonial-built vessels generally well constructed 5 Research Questions (1) Treenail, ketch Alert, Port Adelaide Cause No. Avg Age Wrecked – Stress of Weather 12 43.2 Wrecked Cause Unknown 3 41.3 Broken up 1 48 Abandoned 1 44 Human Error/Fire 1 18 Still Existing (e.g. Annie Watt) 2 100+ Fate Unknown (e.g. transferred overseas) 4 ? Total 24 Longevity of Shipwright John Wilson’s Vessels:

 What were the environmental, economic and social factors that influenced shipbuilding in colonial Australia? ◦ Vegetation/Timber suitability (e.g. Independence survey, Kangaroo Island) ◦ Wreck’s actual timbers vs construction site vegetation  Vegetation Surveys ◦ Shipyards in NSW, Vic, Tas & SA. ◦ Comparative analysis with timber samples from VOI. 6 Research Questions (2)

Australian Colonial Shipbuilding Timber Analysis  More than 500 recognised Eucalypt species/subspecies  Changes to species since Colonial period  Original construction or later repairs? 7 Ketch Mary Ellis, Sleaford Bay, Eyre Peninsula Schooner Zephyr, Marion Bay, Tasmania

 What technological adaptations are evident in Australian-built colonial shipping? 8 Research Questions (3) Deckhook, Apron & breasthook, Alma Doepel Sternson and stern gland, Annie Watt

Australian Colonial Shipbuilding Adaptations to Australian Conditions – Flat Bottoms/Centreboards 9 Cross section, at forward centreboard (above) and profile (below) (Courtesy Alma Doepel Supporters Club/Sail and Adventure Ltd) Forward Centreboard Keel Slot, 2014 Forward Centreboard, 2014

Australian Colonial Shipbuilding Comparison of Construction Techniques – Iron Knees 10 Site Plan: Ketch Mary Ellis, Sleaford Bay, Eyre Peninsula (Bullers 2008) Knee rider, ketch Annie Watt Cato, Miller & Co’s iron knees (Gore’s Liverpool Directory, 1864) Knee rider, ketch Mary Ellis, Sleaford Bay, Eyre Peninsula

Australian Colonial Shipbuilding Adaptations to Australian Conditions – Flat Bottoms/Centreboards 11 Recording the ketch Annie Watt, Port Adelaide, 2007 Ketch Annie Watt, loading, Black Point, Yorke Peninsula, c1927 (Courtesy SLSA) Excerpt of Annie Watt plans (Courtesy Bob Sexton,1987)

Australian Colonial Shipbuilding Adaptations to Australian Conditions – Flat Bottoms/Centreboards 12 Centreboard casing, ketch Alert, Port Adelaide (Bullers, in press) Test excavation, ketch Alert, Port Adelaide, 2007

Survey and Excavation: Some Case Studies

14 Ketch Alert (1872-1959), Jervois Basin Ships Graveyard Baseline offset survey in 2005 (left), test excavation (right) and final site plan (above) (Bullers, in press) Alert in the Port River c.1880 (SLSA PRG 1373/35/52)

15 Schooner Zephyr (1851-1852), Marion Bay, Tas Baseline offset survey in 2005 (above left) and final site plan (above) (Bullers, 2007) Magnetometer survey in 2005 (left) and metal detector (above)

16 Ketch/SS Victoria (1888-1918+), Ida Bay, Tas Remains still at Ida Bay jetty in 2005 (top &left) and at high tide (above) (Bullers, 2005) Victoria launched as a screw steamer (Source: Graeme-Evans & Wilson 1996: 42)

17 Ketch Three Sisters (1874-1899), Lipson Cove, Eyre Peninsula Excerpt from field notes Port Lincoln Times article, May 1986 South Australian Register article, 21 March 1899

18 Ketch Mary Ellis (1897-1907), Sleaford Bay, Eyre Peninsula Recording during test excavation for author’s Masters thesis, February 2005 Excavation during Flinders University Field School, February 2006 Mary Ellis wreck c.1945 (Courtesy Port Lincoln Times)

19 Intact Vessel Recording Ketch May Queen (b.1867), Constitution Dock, Hobart, 2004 Schooner Alma Doepel (b.1903), Melbourne Docklands, 2014 Ketch Annie Watt, (b.1873), SAMM, Port Adelaide, 2007 Ketch Terralinna (b.1922), Battery Point, Hobart, 2004

 Preliminary results dispute claims of poor construction  Extent of research is starting to increase in recent years  Study is ongoing – current sample is relatively small 20

◦ Name Rick Bullers ◦ Title Geelong Resource Manager / Senior Heritage Advisor ◦ Phone 0400 990 887 ◦ Email rbullers@ehpartners.com.au www.ehpartners.com.au 21

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