MedicalResearch.com Medical Research News and Interviews September 26 2015

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Information about MedicalResearch.com Medical Research News and Interviews September 26 2015

Published on September 27, 2015

Author: mariebenz58

Source: slideshare.net

1. MedicalResearch.com Exclusive Interviews with Medical Research and Health Care Researchers from Major and Specialty Medical Research Journals and Meetings Editor: Marie Benz, MD info@medicalresearch.com Sept 26 2015 For Informational Purposes Only: Not for Specific Medical Advice. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

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3. Cell Death Biomarker May Help Predict Melanoma PD-1 RespondersMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Roxana S. Dronca, M.D Assistant Professor of OncologyAssistant Program Director of Hematology-Oncology FellowshipMayo Clinic College of MedicineRocheste   • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the  main findings? • Dr. Dronca: We previously showed that Bim (BCL-2-interacting mediator of cell death ) is a downstream signaling molecule of PD-1 pathway reflecting the degree of PD-1 interaction with its ligand PD-L1 (unpublished data). • In the current study we found that patients who experienced clinical benefit (CR/PR/SD) after 4 cycles of anti-PD1 therapy had higher frequency of Bim+ PD-1+ T-killer cells in the peripheral blood at baseline compared to patients with radiographic progression, likely reflecting an abundant PD-1 interaction with its tumor-associated ligand PD-L1 (B7-H1). In addition, the frequencies of Bim+ PD-1+ CD8 T cells decreased significantly after the first 3 months of treatment in responders compared to nonresponders, indicating tumor regression and therefore less PD-1 engagement with tumor-associated PD-L1. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

4. Cell Death Biomarker May Help Predict Melanoma PD-1 RespondersMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Roxana S. Dronca, M.D Assistant Professor of OncologyAssistant Program Director of Hematology-Oncology FellowshipMayo Clinic College of MedicineRocheste   • Medical Research: What should clinicians and  patients take away from your report? • Dr. Dronca: Our findings could help physicians select patients with melanoma (and possibly other malignancies) who are most likely to benefit from PD-1 blockade, follow patients during treatment identify those who have late responses or are acquiring resistance to these agents during the course of treatment, thereby exposing fewer patients to inadequate treatments and their associated toxicities and costs. A great advantage of our approach lies in the ease of serial peripheral blood testing as compared to repeated invasive tissue biopsies. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

5. Cell Death Biomarker May Help Predict Melanoma PD-1 RespondersMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Roxana S. Dronca, M.D Assistant Professor of OncologyAssistant Program Director of Hematology-Oncology FellowshipMayo Clinic College of MedicineRocheste   • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future  research as a result of this study? • Dr. Dronca: We are planning to validate these results on a larger prospective cohort on patients with melanoma and also lung cancer. We are also testing this marker in patients with other cancers such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. • Citation: Abstract presented at: • CRI-CIMT-EATI-AACR – The Inaugural International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference: • Translating Science into Survival • September 16 – 19, 2015 • Sheraton New York Times Square Hotel • New York, NY • A007 Bim as a predictive T cell biomarker for response to anti-PD-1 therapy in metastatic melanoma (MM). Roxana S Dronca, Svetomir N Markovic, Lisa A Kottschade, Wendy Nevala, Haidong Dong. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

6. Plain Soap Does The Job Just As Well As Antibacterial Soap for Hand WashingMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Min Suk Rhee, Ph.D.Professor Department of Biotechnology Department of Food Bioscience & TechnologyCollege of Life Sciences & BiotechnologyKorea University Seoul Korea  • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What  are the main findings? • Dr. Min Suk Rhee: In December 2013, the US FDA (United States Food and Drug Administration) proposed an amendment that manufacturers of antibacterial hand soaps intended for use with water must demonstrate that they are safer and more effective than plain soap. As triclosan is the most common active antiseptic ingredient used in soap and its potential risk remains controversial, we investigated the effectiveness of antibacterial soap containing triclosan 0.3% from in vitro and in vivo experiment. • The main finding of this study is that presence of antiseptic ingredients (in this case, triclosan) in soap does not always guarantee higher antimicrobial efficacy during hand washing. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

7. Plain Soap Does The Job Just As Well As Antibacterial Soap for Hand WashingMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Min Suk Rhee, Ph.D.Professor Department of Biotechnology Department of Food Bioscience & TechnologyCollege of Life Sciences & BiotechnologyKorea University Seoul Korea  • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away  from your report? • Dr. Min Suk Rhee: We’d like to suggest that it is more important for people to wash their hands correctly and frequently rather than to use the antibacterial soaps containing triclosan. Clinicians have to notice the recommended standard method of hand washing to patients. • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future  research as a result of this study? • Dr. Min Suk Rhee: It might be helpful to investigate the effectiveness of other antiseptic ingredients in soap. • Citation: • A. Kim, H. Moon, K. Lee and M.S. Rhee. Bactericidal effects of triclosan in soap both in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, September 2015 DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkv275 Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

8. Patient Centered Medical Home Model Adds Big Expense To Primary Care PracticesMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Michael K. Magill, MDProfessor and Chairman, Family and PreventiveMedicine University of Utah School of MedicineSalt Lake City, UT 84108 • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What  are the main findings? • Dr. Magill: The Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) model of primary care is becoming more common. The model focuses on team delivery of care with other medical staff joining the primary care provider/clinician to provide for all patients’ healthcare needs. However, the cost of sustaining PCMH functions is not well understood. This study assessed direct personnel cost of delivering PCMH services in 20 diverse primary care practices in Utah and Colorado. The main finding is that PCMH services cost on average around $105,000 per clinician FTE per year, or around $4.00 per member per month for an imputed panel size of 2000 patients per FTE clinician.  Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

9. Patient Centered Medical Home Model Adds Big Expense To Primary Care PracticesMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Michael K. Magill, MDProfessor and Chairman, Family and PreventiveMedicine University of Utah School of MedicineSalt Lake City, UT 84108 • Medical Research: What should clinicians and  patients take away from your report? • Dr. Magill: Delivery of enhanced primary care services through the Patient Centered Medical Home model adds significant expense to the practices. However, studies of the benefits of PCMH to reduce overall cost of care may outweigh this cost by a factor of 10 or more to one. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

10. Patient Centered Medical Home Model Adds Big Expense To Primary Care PracticesMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Michael K. Magill, MDProfessor and Chairman, Family and PreventiveMedicine University of Utah School of MedicineSalt Lake City, UT 84108 • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future  research as a result of this study? • Dr. Magill: Future research should focus on the relationship between cost, staffing models, and outcomes such as patient and provider satisfaction, quality of care, and total cost of care. Payment reform should cover these costs based on the value of outcomes achieved. • Email * • Citation: • Michael K. Magill, David Ehrenberger, Debra L. Scammon, Julie Day,Tatiana Allen, Andreu J. Reall, Rhonda W. Sides, and Jaewhan Kim • The Cost of Sustaining a Patient-Centered Medical Home: Experience From 2 StatesAnn Fam Med September/October 2015 13:429- 435;doi:10.1370/afm.1851 • Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

11. PET Scan Using Tagged Fibrin Can Detect Hidden Blood ClotsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Peter Caravan, PhD Co-Director, Institute for Innovation in Imaging (I3)Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging Massachusetts General HospitalAssociate Professor of RadiologyHarvard Medical School • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main  findings? • Dr. Caravan: The motivation for this work was to develop a technique that would allow the detection of thrombus (clot) anywhere in the body after injection of a molecular probe called 64Cu-FBP8. Current techniques for thrombus detection are limited to specific vascular territories. In instances where the location of the thrombus is unknown or if there is suspicion of multiple thrombi, then multiple imaging tests must be performed. We sought to develop a test that could be used to find clots anywhere: brain, thorax, abdomen, legs and in arteries, veins, or the cardiac chambers. In addition to whole body thrombus detection, we sought a technique that could address some of the limitations with current thrombus imaging techniques. For example computed tomography (CT), which is used to detect pulmonary emboli, requires a contrast agent that cannot be used in patients with poor kidney function. Transesophageal echocardiography used to identify thrombus in the chambers of the heart requires that the patient be sedated. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

12. PET Scan Using Tagged Fibrin Can Detect Hidden Blood ClotsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Peter Caravan, PhD Co-Director, Institute for Innovation in Imaging (I3)Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging Massachusetts General HospitalAssociate Professor of RadiologyHarvard Medical School • Our approach is to use a small peptide that recognizes the protein fibrin, which is a key component of blood clots. We tagged the peptide with an isotope of copper, Cu-64, that allows the peptide to be detected by positron emission tomography (PET). 64Cu-FBP8 binds specifically to fibrin but not to other proteins in the blood and this means that the uptake in the clot is high while background signal is very low. We combined PET imaging which finds the clot with CT imaging or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By overlaying the PET image with the CT or MRI image, we could precisely localize the clot within the We were interested to see if the age of the clot impacted our ability to detect it. We imaged animals with a total of 42 arterial or venous clots and then the images were analyzed by two reviewers who had no prior knowledge of the location of the clot. Overall the accuracy was 98% for detection. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

13. PET Scan Using Tagged Fibrin Can Detect Hidden Blood ClotsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Peter Caravan, PhD Co-Director, Institute for Innovation in Imaging (I3)Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging Massachusetts General HospitalAssociate Professor of RadiologyHarvard Medical School • Another key finding was that the uptake of 64Cu-FBP8 strongly correlated with the amount of fibrin in the clot and that younger, fresher clots had more fibrin than older clots. This could be very useful in distinguishing newer clots which may be the source of cardiovascular events from older, clots that may pose less risk. • We also showed using combined PET-MRI that we could detect multiple blood clots in the animal in a single whole body scan. The procedure involves a single intravenous administration of 64Cu-FBP8 and clots in the deep veins of the legs or in the carotid arteries were readily detected. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

14. PET Scan Using Tagged Fibrin Can Detect Hidden Blood ClotsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Peter Caravan, PhD Co-Director, Institute for Innovation in Imaging (I3)Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging Massachusetts General HospitalAssociate Professor of RadiologyHarvard Medical School • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away  from your report? • Dr. Caravan: These results are very promising and have the potential to impact patient care. For instance, translating this to patients would not require the need for patient sedation and it would not involve a potentially nephrotoxic contrast agent. The ability to detect clots in different anatomical regions could be very useful in contexts where the clinician is concerned about the presence of thrombus in different and/or unknown areas. For instance pulmonary embolism arises from a clot breaking off from a larger clot in the deep veins of the legs and traveling to the lungs. A study where both the lungs and the legs could be evaluated in a single session would speed patient throughput and minimize the number of procedures that the patients must undergo. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

15. PET Scan Using Tagged Fibrin Can Detect Hidden Blood ClotsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Peter Caravan, PhD Co-Director, Institute for Innovation in Imaging (I3)Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging Massachusetts General HospitalAssociate Professor of RadiologyHarvard Medical School • Another example is in searching for the cause of a stroke. Most strokes are caused by a piece of clot breaking off from a larger clot in the carotid arteries, the aortic arch, the left atrium of the heart, or in some cases from the deep veins of the legs, and then traveling to the brain to stop blood flow. Despite best clinical practice, about 30-40% of strokes are termed “cryptogenic” in that the clinician does not know the source of the stroke. Where the stroke originated is very important because location dictates the type of treatment that will be given to prevent a second stroke. If source thrombus remains, there is a high risk of secondary stroke. The ability to noninvasively search multiple anatomical regions for clot would be very valuable in this context. A related example is transient ischemic attack (TIA) which is similar to a stroke but the effect is temporary and resolves without long term damage. However having a TIA puts a patient at extremely high risk for a stroke, and so having the ability to scan TIA patients for the underlying source thrombus could also be extremely valuable. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

16. PET Scan Using Tagged Fibrin Can Detect Hidden Blood ClotsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Peter Caravan, PhD Co-Director, Institute for Innovation in Imaging (I3)Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging Massachusetts General HospitalAssociate Professor of RadiologyHarvard Medical School • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future  research as a result of this study? • Dr. Caravan: This study was performed in rats, but the results are so compelling that we are planning to perform human studies in the near future. That involves demonstrating to the FDA that 64Cu-FBP8 is safe for taking forward and we are in the process of submitting that documentation. Then will come studies in patients to first test how accurate 64Cu-FBP8 PET scanning is for detection of clot. Should these studies prove effective, it may be possible to gain regulatory approval for widespread clinical use of this technique. • Citation: Francesco Blasi, Bruno L. Oliveira, Tyson A. Rietz, Nicholas J. Rotile, Pratap C. Naha, David P. Cormode, David Izquierdo-Garcia, Ciprian Catana, Peter Caravan. Multisite Thrombus Imaging and Fibrin Content Estimation With a Single Whole-Body PET Scan in Rats.Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 2015; ATVBAHA.115.306055 DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.306055 Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

17. Sugar Sweetened Beverages Linked To Overall Unhealthy DietMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Louise Brunkwall Nutritionist, MPH and Phd-studentDiabetes and Cardiovascular Disease, Genetic Epidemiology Lund University, Clinical SciencesMalmö, Sweden •  Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main  findings? • Response: There has been a huge interest for sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) the last years and SSB has been associated with various diseases like type 2 diabetes and obesity, while juice for example which have approximately the same amount of energy have not. We find this very interesting and wanted to know more about who the people were that consumed a lot of these different beverages. We started of by looking at diet and found that the different beverages were associated with different dietary patterns. Sugar sweetened beverages were associated with a more unhealthy diet while juice was associated with a more healthy diet. We see the same for tea which is a beverage previously associated with a lower risk of several diseases, that it is associated with an overall very healthy diet. Therefore we draw the conclusions that beverages are a part of the overall diet which might contribute to the previous findings of associations with different diseases. This also tells us that it is of great importance to know more about the overall diet than just consumption of a single product when investigating beverages-dieases association studies. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

18. Sugar Sweetened Beverages Linked To Overall Unhealthy DietMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Louise Brunkwall Nutritionist, MPH and Phd-studentDiabetes and Cardiovascular Disease, Genetic Epidemiology Lund University, Clinical SciencesMalmö, Sweden • Medical Research: What should clinicians and  patients take away from your report? • Response: The most important thing is that you should be careful when interpreting studies that have looked at a single product and the association with a disease because that single product is a part of an overall diet which may also be important for the association. Secondly our study suggest that if you only change or take away the beverage lets say sugar sweetened beverages you will not get as good of a results as if you would to change or improve the overall diet. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

19. Sugar Sweetened Beverages Linked To Overall Unhealthy DietMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Louise Brunkwall Nutritionist, MPH and Phd-studentDiabetes and Cardiovascular Disease, Genetic Epidemiology Lund University, Clinical SciencesMalmö, Sweden • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future  research as a result of this study? • Response: – Our study highlight the need for good dietary data when studying food-disease associations. We will never be able to adjust for the overall diet, however it is of importance to have the knowledge about the overall diet and the total energy intake in the populations, in which you are studying the associations, to be able to interpret your results. • Citation: • EASD 2015 • Overall dietary characteristics of individuals with high consumption of beverages previously associated with risk of type 2 diabetes L. Brunkwall, S. Hellstrand, M. Orho-Melander, U. Ericson; Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease, Genetic Epidemiology, Lund University, Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Sweden. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

20. Lowering Hospital Bed Occupancy Associated With Reduced Patient MortalityMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr Daniel BodenEmergency Medicine ConsultantDerby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the  main findings? • Dr. Boden: The overall objective was to evaluate whether there is an association between an intervention to reduce medical bed occupancy and both performance on the 4-hour target and hospital mortality. • We undertook a before-and-after study in Derby teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (a large UK District General Hospital) over a 32 month period. A range of interventions were undertaken to reduce medical bed occupancy within the Trust. Performance on the four-hour target and hospital mortality (HSMR, SHMI and Crude Mortality) were compared before, and after, intervention. Daily data on medical bed occupancy and percentage of patients meeting the four-hour target was collected from hospital records. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time-series method was used to estimate the changes in levels and trends in average medical bed occupancy, monthly performance on the target and monthly mortality measures (HSMR, SHMI and crude mortality) that followed the intervention. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

21. Lowering Hospital Bed Occupancy Associated With Reduced Patient MortalityMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr Daniel BodenEmergency Medicine ConsultantDerby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust • Medical Research: What are the main findings? • Dr. Boden: • Mean medical bed occupancy decreased significantly from 93.7% to 90.2% (p=0.02). • The trend change in 95% target performance, when comparing pre- and post-intervention, revealed a significant improvement (p=0.019). • The intervention was associated with a mean reduction in all markers of mortality (range 4.5% – 4.8%). SHMI (p=0.02) and Crude Mortality (p=0.018) showed significant trend changes after intervention. • Our conclusion is that lowering medical bed occupancy is associated with reduced patient mortality and improved ability of the acute Trust to achieve the 95% four hour target. Whole system transformation is required to create lower average medical bed occupancy. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

22. Lowering Hospital Bed Occupancy Associated With Reduced Patient MortalityMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr Daniel BodenEmergency Medicine ConsultantDerby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away  from your report? • Dr. Boden: There are a number of things we feel should be taken away from this study: • There is growing evidence of the harm caused by “crowding” in the Emergency Department and “Exit Block” This study reveals one potential solution to this problem. If medical bed occupancy is reduced then patient “flow” is facilitated in their in-patient journey. This, in conjunction with improved ward-based care, results in less harm to patients (reduced mortality) as well as improvement in performance against the 95% 4 hour target. • Whole system transformation is required to facilitate this. • Association does not imply causation. It is important to be aware of potential confounding factors. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

23. Lowering Hospital Bed Occupancy Associated With Reduced Patient MortalityMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr Daniel BodenEmergency Medicine ConsultantDerby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future  research as a result of this study? • Dr. Boden: I will be seeking further advice on this. A multicentre study (ideally a cluster RCT) would be a big challenge. A more realistic alternative may involve an opportunistic observational study making use of changes in bed occupancy occurring at a number of hospitals that could be compared to controls that make no such intervention. • Citation: • Lowering levels of bed occupancy is associated with decreased inhospital mortality and improved performance on the 4-hour target in a UK District General Hospital • D G Boden, A Agarwal, T Hussain, S J Martin, N Radford, M S Riyat, K So, Y Su, A Turvey,C I Whale • Emerg Med J emermed-2014-204479Published Online First: 17 September 2015doi:10.1136/emermed-2014-204479dan.boden1@nhs.net Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

24. Poor Lifestyle Linked to Acute Coronary Syndrome, Even After EventMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sylvie S.L. Leung Yinko, MSc, RDDivision of Clinical EpidemiologyLouise Pilote, MD, MPH, PhD Professor of Medicine McGill University andDirector of the Division of General Internal MedicineMcGill University Health Cent • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main  findings? • Response: Patients with premature acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are a vulnerable population of young or middle-aged adults at risk for future cardiovascular events. However, while health behaviors such as diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and recreational drug use are important lifestyle factors that can influence cardiovascular risk, there is limited information about health behaviors in this population group. Additionally, there is indication in the literature regarding sex and age differences in health behaviors, but whether such differences exist in patients with premature acute coronary syndrome remained to be explored. • Using data from GENESIS-PRAXY (GENdEr and Sex determInantS of Cardiovascular Disease from bench to beyond in PRemature Acute Coronary Syndrome), a large- scale prospective cohort study across Canada, US and Switzerland, we explored the health behavior profile of patients with premature ACS. As well, we examined whether there is a change in health behaviors 1 year post-ACS and assessed sex differences. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

25. Poor Lifestyle Linked to Acute Coronary Syndrome, Even After EventMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sylvie S.L. Leung Yinko, MSc, RDDivision of Clinical EpidemiologyLouise Pilote, MD, MPH, PhD Professor of Medicine McGill University andDirector of the Division of General Internal MedicineMcGill University Health Cent • Our results showed that the health behavior profile of men and women with premature Acute Coronary Syndrome are worse than that of the general population. We found a high prevalence of poor health behaviors in a young population with only modest changes after Acute Coronary Syndrome. Health behaviors remained suboptimal and worse than the general population, especially with regards to diet, smoking and recreational drug use. Sex differences existed in the prevalence of these behaviors at baseline and 1 year post-ACS but not in the magnitude of change after the ACS event. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

26. Poor Lifestyle Linked to Acute Coronary Syndrome, Even After EventMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sylvie S.L. Leung Yinko, MSc, RDDivision of Clinical EpidemiologyLouise Pilote, MD, MPH, PhD Professor of Medicine McGill University andDirector of the Division of General Internal MedicineMcGill University Health Cent • Medical Research: What should clinicians and  patients take away from your report? • Response: Men and women with premature acute coronary syndrome have suboptimal lifestyle behaviors. There are only small and modest improvements after the ACS event. Certain health behaviors, such as dietary habits and smoking, seem harder to improve. There appears to be sex differences with men generally having poorer health behaviors than women. However, the extent to which the health behaviors change appears to depend more the type of behavior itself rather than differ by sex. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

27. Poor Lifestyle Linked to Acute Coronary Syndrome, Even After EventMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sylvie S.L. Leung Yinko, MSc, RDDivision of Clinical EpidemiologyLouise Pilote, MD, MPH, PhD Professor of Medicine McGill University andDirector of the Division of General Internal MedicineMcGill University Health Cent • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Response: Future interventions aiming at improving the health behaviors of patients with premature acute coronary syndrome may require a sex-based approach to ensure successful improvements. As well, it is important to understand the barriers to improved health behaviors in this population. • Citation: • Sex differences in health behavior change after premature acute coronary syndrome • Sylvie S.L. Leung Yinko, RD, MSc Janane Maheswaran, BSc Roxanne Pelletier, PhD Simon L. Bacon, PhD Stella S. Daskalopoulou, MD, MSc, PhD Nadia A. Khan, MD, MSc Mark J. Eisenberg, MD, MPH Igor Karp, MD, MPH, PhD Kim L. Lavoie, PhD Hassan Behlouli, PhD Louise Pilote, MD, MPH, PhD for the GENESIS-PRAXY investigatorsl • Received: JAHA December 23, 2014; Accepted: April 12, 2015; Published Online: April 18, 2015 Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

28. MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Xiaohu Xia Ph.D. Assistant ProfessorDepartment of ChemistryMichigan Technological UniversityHoughton, MI 49931 • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? • Dr. Xia: Peroxidases, a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of certain compounds with peroxides, have found widespread use in areas such as biomedicine and environmental protection. Over the past several years, researchers have found that certain inorganic nanomaterials (such as nanoparticles made of metal, metal oxides, and carbon) possess intrinsic peroxidase-like activities. As the major advantage over their natural counterparts, these peroxidase mimics are much more stable because they are less vulnerable to denaturation and protease digestion. In spite of the superior stability of the mimics, improvement in their catalytic efficiency has been met with limited success. The catalytic efficiencies for most of the previously reported peroxidase mimics with sizes 1-100 nm are limited to the range of 101-104 s-1 in terms of catalytic constant (Kcat, which measures the maximum number of chemical conversions of substrate molecules per second per enzyme/mimic). Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

29. MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Xiaohu Xia Ph.D. Assistant ProfessorDepartment of ChemistryMichigan Technological UniversityHoughton, MI 49931 • Our research team have recently developed a new type of peroxidase mimic with a record high efficiency that was engineered by coating ~18 nm palladium (Pd) nanocubes with ultrathin iridium (Ir) skins of a few atomic layers (i.e., Pd-Ir core-shell cubes, see Figure). The catalytic efficiency of our Pd-Ir cubes could reach a level of Kcat = 106 s-1. • In view of the substantially enhanced efficiency, we applied our Pd- Ir cubes to the colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of human prostate surface antigen (PSA) by functionalizing their surface with antibodies. The detection limit of the Pd-Ir cubes- based ELISA of PSA was determined to be 0.67 pg/mL, which is over 100-fold lower than that of the conventional horseradish peroxidase(HRP)-based ELISA using the same set of antibodies and the same procedure (see Figure). Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

30. MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Xiaohu Xia Ph.D. Assistant ProfessorDepartment of ChemistryMichigan Technological UniversityHoughton, MI 49931 • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Xia: PSA test measures the level of PSA in a man’s blood, which is done to help diagnose and follow prostate cancer. In particular, for patients who have undergone radical prostatectomy, it is vital to monitor minute concentration of PSA at the earliest stage possible to improve their survival rates. Therefore, sensitive and simple techniques of PSA test are urgently needed, especially for health systems in resource-limited areas. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

31. MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Xiaohu Xia Ph.D. Assistant ProfessorDepartment of ChemistryMichigan Technological UniversityHoughton, MI 49931 • Our Pd-Ir cube-based ELISA offers several advantages compared to existing techniques of PSA test: • i) High sensitivity. Its detection limit (sub-pg/mL) is 2 orders of magnitude lower than the commercially available in-clinic ELISA kit, rivaling the limits of sophisticated equipment-based techniques; • ii) Simple procedure. The entire test could be completed within 3 hours with the aid of a simple and low-cost microplate reader which is available in most clinic laboratories; • iii) Reliable performance. Since Pd-Ir nanocrystals are made of inert noble metals with excellent stabilities, the Pd-Ir ELISA could survive harsh environments and provide reliable test results. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

32. MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Xiaohu Xia Ph.D. Assistant ProfessorDepartment of ChemistryMichigan Technological UniversityHoughton, MI 49931 • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Xia: Our work demonstrated that the peroxidase-like activity could be enhanced by carefully engineering the structure and elemental composition of a mimic. Future fundamental studies on the catalytic mechanism will be helpful for researchers to gain more insight into the system and develop mimics with further enhanced efficiencies. On the other hand, clinical studies such as blood sample tests based on high- efficiency and stable peroxidase mimics are worth investigating in the near future. • Citation: • Xiaohu Xia, Jingtuo Zhang, Ning Lu, Moon J. Kim, Kushal Ghale, Ye Xu, Erin McKenzie, Jiabin Liu, Haihang Ye. Pd–Ir Core–Shell Nanocubes: A Type of Highly Efficient and Versatile Peroxidase Mimic. ACS Nano, 2015; 150910154147007 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b03525 Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

33. Investigating cellular HIV resistance to understand “Elite controllers”?MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Yong-Hui Zheng, Ph.D. Associate ProfessorBiomedical Physical Science BuildingDepartment of Microbiology and Molecular GeneticsMichigan State University • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? • Dr. Zheng: Although HIV-1 has caused one of the most devastating pandemics by inducing AIDS, this virus failed to induce the disease in a small cohort of patients, who are known as “Elite controllers”. The secrete of the viral resistance in these individuals may point the direction of a cure for AIDS, which is still not available in the current antiretroviral therapies. We started to study HIV resistance using human CD4+ T cells as a model system, because these cells are primary targets for HIV-1 infection. We successfully identified a highly HIV-resistant cell line CEM.NKR, where HIV-1 replication is decreased by almost 1,000-fold. Understanding of the resistant mechanism has been the primary interest in our laboratory, and we have published a series of papers to elucidate how the HIV-1 replication is inhibited in these cells. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

34. Investigating cellular HIV resistance to understand “Elite controllers”?MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Yong-Hui Zheng, Ph.D. Associate ProfessorBiomedical Physical Science BuildingDepartment of Microbiology and Molecular GeneticsMichigan State University • Our initial findings uncovered that HIV-1 is able to enter these cells, but fails to regenerate infectious virions. Further investigation showed that although the virus could make the other viral proteins, it fails to express the viral envelope (Env) glycoprotein. Most viruses have an envelope to cover their protein capsids, where viral spikes are anchored. These spikes are made from the Env glycoproteins, which are required for the virus to penetrate into cells and start infection. Thus, identifying the pathway that specifically inhibits the Env expression will open a new avenue for antiretroviral therapies. • In the present paper, we found that the endoplasmic reticulum class I α-mannosidase (ERManI) initiates the Env inhibition process. ERManI is a host enzyme that is involved in protein N-glycosylation. When the ERManI expression is up-regulated, it targets Env to the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway, resulting in Env degradation and inhibition of HIV-1 replication. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

35. Investigating cellular HIV resistance to understand “Elite controllers”?MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Yong-Hui Zheng, Ph.D. Associate ProfessorBiomedical Physical Science BuildingDepartment of Microbiology and Molecular GeneticsMichigan State University • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Zheng: These findings suggested that ERManI could contribute to the natural host resistance to HIV-1 infection. It would be interesting to further investigate the correlation between the ERManI expression levels and viral loads in HIV patients. An inverse correlation would further confirm its important role in the natural resistance. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

36. Investigating cellular HIV resistance to understand “Elite controllers”?MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Yong-Hui Zheng, Ph.D. Associate ProfessorBiomedical Physical Science BuildingDepartment of Microbiology and Molecular GeneticsMichigan State University • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Zheng: ERManI is an unstable protein and expressed at low levels in mammalian cells. We are planning to develop a technology to boost the ERMani expression, and test whether HIV-1 replication could be eradicated by this technology. • Citation: • Tao Zhou, Dylan A. Frabutt, Kelley W. Moremen, Yong-Hui Zheng.ERManI (Endoplasmic Reticulum Class I α-Mannosidase) Is Required for HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Degradation via Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Protein Degradation Pathway. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2015; 290 (36): 22184 DOI:10.1074/jbc.M115.675207 • Related links: • http://msutoday.msu.edu/news/2010/msu-professor-probes-hiv-immunity/ • http://msutoday.msu.edu/news/2015/international-team-discovers-natural- defense-against-hiv/ Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

37. Kids Who Have Longer Lunch Periods Eat Healthier MealsMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Juliana F. W. Cohen, ScD, ScM Harvard T. H Chan School of Public HealthAssistant Professor Department of Health Sciences School of Science and EngineeringDepartment of Health Sciences, Merrimack CollegeNorth Andover, MA • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? • Dr. Cohen: There is a substantial amount of variation in the amount of time students have to eat lunch because there are no national standards for lunch period lengths. This study found that when students had less than 20 minutes of seated time in the cafeteria, they were less likely to select a fruit and consumed significantly less of their entrees, milk and vegetables compared with students who had at least 25 minutes to eat their lunch. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

38. Kids Who Have Longer Lunch Periods Eat Healthier MealsMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Juliana F. W. Cohen, ScD, ScM Harvard T. H Chan School of Public HealthAssistant Professor Department of Health Sciences School of Science and EngineeringDepartment of Health Sciences, Merrimack CollegeNorth Andover, MA • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Cohen: Advocating for longer lunch periods for children in schools is important to help address this issue. However, not all schools will be able to extend the length of the lunch periods. Therefore, pushing for schools to implement strategies to get kids through the lunch line faster, such as more lunch lines and automated point of sales systems, may help. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

39. Kids Who Have Longer Lunch Periods Eat Healthier MealsMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Juliana F. W. Cohen, ScD, ScM Harvard T. H Chan School of Public HealthAssistant Professor Department of Health Sciences School of Science and EngineeringDepartment of Health Sciences, Merrimack CollegeNorth Andover, MA • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Cohen: Future studies should also examine the role of students’ taste preferences for the foods offered as this likely impacts selection and consumption. • Citation: • Amount of Time to Eat Lunch Is Associated with Children’s Selection and Consumption of School Meal Entrée, Fruits, Vegetables, and Milk • Cohen, Juliana F.W. et al. Published Online: September 11, 2015 • Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2015.07.019 Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

40. Mid-Day Nap May Be Good For Your Blood PressureMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr Manolis Kallistratos MD,PhD FESC,EHSCardiologist at Asklepieion Voula General HospitalAthens, Greece • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? • Dr Kallistratos: We all know that lifestyle changes represent the cornerstone of treatment of arterial hypertension. Lifestyle changes include restriction of salt and alcohol, physical activity, smoking cessation and weight loss. On the other hand, we know that many individuals especially the elders are sleeping at noon. Unfortunately there are few studies assessing mid-day sleep. A study in healthy individuals affirmed that sleeping at noon resulted in a decrease of 12% of the relative risk of coronary mortality in healthy subjects. So the question regarding this habit is: Is it only a custom, a behavioral adaptation or is it also beneficial? Should mid-day sleep be included in the life style changes suggested by the doctors in patients with arterial hypertension? because we all know that nowadays is almost a privilege for a few due to the “nine to five” working culture, and the intense daily routine. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

41. Mid-Day Nap May Be Good For Your Blood PressureMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr Manolis Kallistratos MD,PhD FESC,EHSCardiologist at Asklepieion Voula General HospitalAthens, Greece • For this purpose we prospectively studied 386 middle- aged patients (200 males and 186 females) from our outpatient hypertensive clinic. We observed that hypertensive patients that slept at noon presented lower pulse wave velocity levels (less stiff arteries), lower daytime and nighttime as well as average systolic blood pressure levels (24-hours SBP) . In general mid-day sleep decreased systolic blood pressure levels (during 24 hours) for approximately 6 mm of Hg. 60 minutes of mid-day sleep, decreased average SBP in our patients for about 4 mmHg. In addition, there was a trend, patients who slept at noon to be under fewer medications. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

42. Mid-Day Nap May Be Good For Your Blood PressureMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr Manolis Kallistratos MD,PhD FESC,EHSCardiologist at Asklepieion Voula General HospitalAthens, Greece • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr Kallistratos: Mid-day sleep decreases systolic blood pressure levels. Although the mean blood pressure decrease seems low, it has to be mentioned that reductions as small as 2 mmHg in systolic blood pressure can reduce the relative risk of cardiovascular events by up to 10%. However, a prolonged mid-day sleep period may not be beneficial, since usually reflects and is associated among other, with other probably less beneficial habits of patients. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

43. Mid-Day Nap May Be Good For Your Blood PressureMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr Manolis Kallistratos MD,PhD FESC,EHSCardiologist at Asklepieion Voula General HospitalAthens, Greece • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr Kallistratos: This was an observational and not a randomized study however, it’s difficult to randomize someone to sleep or not to sleep. Moreover, happens that those patients were well controlled in respect of their blood pressure levels. Probably untreated patients or patients with uncontrolled hypertension could present different results (probably higher drop of blood pressure levels). More studies with larger sample of patients could verify our results. • Citation: Abstract presented at the European Society of Cardiology September 2015. “Midday naps associated with reduced blood pressure and fewer medications.” Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

44. Psoriasis Elevates Risk of MigrainesMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Alexander Egeberg, MDDepartment of Cardiology Herlev and Gentofte HospitalHellerup, Denmark • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? • Dr. Egeberg: Psoriasis is a common chronic skin disease, with a strong inflammatory component. Within the last decade, our understanding of psoriasis have advanced significantly, and psoriasis is now widely regarded as a systemic disease, where the skin is a direct marker of disease activity. The inflammatory pathways in psoriasis have also been implicated in several central nervous system diseases such as depression, uveitis, and multiple sclerosis. Moreover, pain generation and sensitization can occur as a result of the pro-inflammatory mediators which are upregulated in psoriasis. • In the present study, we investigated the association between psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, and the risk of new-onset migraine. The main finding was a psoriasis-severity dependent increased risk of new-onset migraine, and patients with severe skin psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis appeared to have the highest risk. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

45. Psoriasis Elevates Risk of MigrainesMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Alexander Egeberg, MDDepartment of Cardiology Herlev and Gentofte HospitalHellerup, Denmark • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Egeberg: Certain forms of migraine are associated with increased risk of stroke, and studies have shown that patients with psoriasis have increased risk of stroke. Focus on migraine in patients with psoriasis, including during cardiovascular risk assessments may be warranted. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

46. Psoriasis Elevates Risk of MigrainesMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Alexander Egeberg, MDDepartment of Cardiology Herlev and Gentofte HospitalHellerup, Denmark • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Egeberg: Future studies of the cerebrovascular risk in patients with psoriasis should include migraine, and studies are warranted to examine if other central nervous system diseases occur more frequently in patients with psoriasis. • Citation: • Increased risk of migraine in patients with psoriasis: A Danish nationwide cohort study, Capsule Summary • Alexander Egeberg, Lotus Mallbris, Gunnar Hilmar Gislason, Lone Skov, Peter Riis Hansen • Publication stage: In Press Corrected Proof • Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology • Accepted: August 20, 2015; Published Online: September 16, 2015 Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

47. Intermittent Androgen Deprivation May Improve QoL in Prostate CancerMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Sindy Magnan, MD, MSc, FRCPCDivision of Radiation Oncology, Department of MedicineCHU de Québe Université LavalQuébec City, Québec, Canada • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? • Dr. Magnan : Androgen deprivation is the standard therapy for patients with advanced or recurrent prostate cancer. Intermittent administration of this treatment could offer several advantages over the standard continuous administration by delaying the development of castration- resistant disease and by reducing the drugs’ adverse effects. However, this mode of administration remains controversial. We thus conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of intermittent versus continuous androgen deprivation. Intermittent therapy was non-inferior to continuous therapy with respect to overall survival. No major difference in global quality of life was observed between the two interventions, but some quality-of-life criteria, mainly in relation with physical and sexual functioning, seemed improved with intermittent therapy. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

48. Intermittent Androgen Deprivation May Improve QoL in Prostate CancerMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Sindy Magnan, MD, MSc, FRCPCDivision of Radiation Oncology, Department of MedicineCHU de Québe Université LavalQuébec City, Québec, Canada • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Magnan : Intermittent androgen deprivation can be considered as an alternative therapeutic option in patients with prostate cancer. However, further research is needed before it becomes the standard of care. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

49. Intermittent Androgen Deprivation May Improve QoL in Prostate CancerMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Sindy Magnan, MD, MSc, FRCPCDivision of Radiation Oncology, Department of MedicineCHU de Québe Université LavalQuébec City, Québec, Canada • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Magnan : Future research should focus on assessing the impact of disease stage on treatment efficacy, particularly in the sub-group of patients with metastatic disease, and clarifying the optimal approach to the duration of on and off-treatment periods. • Citation: • Magnan S, Zarychanski R, Pilote L, et al. Intermittent vs Continuous Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Oncol. Published online September 17, 2015. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.2895. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

50. Chronic Loud Noise Exposure Raises Risk of Heart DiseaseMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Wenqi Gan, MD, PhD Assistant ProfessorDepartment of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health University of Kentucky College of Public HealthLexington, KY 40536 • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? • Dr. Wenqi Gan: In epidemiologic studies on health effects of noise exposure, community noise is typically assessed using noise prediction models, occupational noise is assessed using self-reports or historical records. These methods are able to estimate community noise exposure in residential areas and occupational noise exposure in the workplace; however, these methods are not able to accurately reflect actual personal noise exposure in the home and workplace. The lack of personal noise exposure information is a major limitation of previous studies, which could cause underestimations of the true health effects of noise exposure. Bilateral high-frequency hearing loss, an objective indicator for long-term exposure to loud noise, may be used to investigate health effects of noise exposure. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

51. Chronic Loud Noise Exposure Raises Risk of Heart DiseaseMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Wenqi Gan, MD, PhD Assistant ProfessorDepartment of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health University of Kentucky College of Public HealthLexington, KY 40536 • Medical Research: What are the main findings? • Dr. Wenqi Gan: This study includes 5223 people aged 20-69 years who participated in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Compared with people with normal high-frequency hearing, people with bilateral high-frequency hearing loss were approximately two times more likely to have coronary heart disease. This association was particularly striking for people who were chronically exposed to loud noise in the workplace or leisure time. For example, for currently employed workers with occupational noise exposure history, the possibility of having coronary heart disease increased more than four times. This study confirms that chronic exposure to loud noise is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

52. Chronic Loud Noise Exposure Raises Risk of Heart DiseaseMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Wenqi Gan, MD, PhD Assistant ProfessorDepartment of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health University of Kentucky College of Public HealthLexington, KY 40536 • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • Dr. Wenqi Gan: Accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to loud noise can increase the risk of coronary heart disease. However, this risk can be prevented by eliminating or reducing excessive noise exposure in the home and workplace. Using earmuffs and earplugs is able to reduce personal noise exposure. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

53. Chronic Loud Noise Exposure Raises Risk of Heart DiseaseMedicalResearch.com Interview with:Wenqi Gan, MD, PhD Assistant ProfessorDepartment of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health University of Kentucky College of Public HealthLexington, KY 40536 • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Wenqi Gan: Little is known about the biological mechanisms underlying the associations between noise exposure and heart disease outcomes. Future studies, especially controlled human exposure studies, are needed to better understand the pathways for the observed associations. • Citation:
Exposure to loud noise, bilateral high-frequency hearing loss and coronary heart disease • Wen Qi Gan, Jacqueline Moline, Hyun Kim, David M Mannino • Occup Environ Med oemed-2014-102778Published Online First: 15 September 2015doi:10.1136/oemed-2014-102778 Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

54. Declining Death Rates Largely Due To Decreased Tobacco ExposureMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mohammed K. Ali, MBChB, MSc, MBAAssociate Professor of Global Health and Epidemiology Rollins School of Public HealthEmory University • Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? • Dr. Ali: The background of this study is that we attempted to provide a comprehensive overview so that readers could see what has been happening for the 4 most common sets of chronic non- communicable diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, common cancers, and chronic respiratory diseases) over the past 30 years (1980-2012). We looked at one measure:
 death due to these conditions as that is the longest-standing way to understand what diseases are most common in society and warrant efforts to address them. And, we picked these 4 groups of conditions because together, they account for one out of every two deaths worldwide. We compiled data for 49 countries where over 70% of deaths in the country are documented and reported to the World Health Organization’s Mortality Database. What we found is that:
 Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

55. Declining Death Rates Largely Due To Decreased Tobacco ExposureMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mohammed K. Ali, MBChB, MSc, MBAAssociate Professor of Global Health and Epidemiology Rollins School of Public HealthEmory University • Between 1980 and 2012, death rates for many conditions (heart disease and stroke; cervical and stomach cancers) declined worldwide. • Second, deaths due to diabetes, liver cancers, and female lung cancer and female respiratory diseases increased worldwide. • And third, there were disparities between high-income countries (like the US, Australia, European countries) and low- and middle-income countries (like Mexico or Eastern European countries) in that these latter countries experienced less impressive declines in deaths due to heart disease, stroke, stomach, and cervical cancers, and actual increases in deaths due to breast cancers and colon cancers.This suggests that we have made important strides in high-income countries, largely due to efforts to lower tobacco exposure, and that awareness, access to healthcare, screening, and earlier treatments seem to be having an effect on prolonging survival from many cancers. Similarly, greater attention to and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors may be yielding benefits. However, more efforts are needed in low- and middle-income countries, and these disparities should not be overlooked. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

56. Declining Death Rates Largely Due To Decreased Tobacco ExposureMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mohammed K. Ali, MBChB, MSc, MBAAssociate Professor of Global Health and Epidemiology Rollins School of Public HealthEmory University • Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? • R Dr. Ali: In terms of relevance to clinicians and patients IN THIS COUNTRY, the reductions in mortality rates for many conditions (heart disease and stroke; lung, breast, colon, cervical, and stomach cancers) suggests that tobacco policies are having important impacts; and that clinicians and patients together are doing a great job in terms of preventive care – lowering blood pressure and cholesterol levels, encouraging screening (clinicians) and self-screening (patients), and possibly earlier treatments. • The increases in diabetes mortality suggest two things:
 one that diabetes and obesity are the two cardio-metabolic conditions that we are not managing well, and we have to strive harder to help people adopt healthier lifestyles (better quality diets with some attention to portion size, more exercise). Second, the data suggest that non-cardiovascular impacts of diabetes need more attention – kidney diseases are especially overlooked. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

57. Declining Death Rates Largely Due To Decreased Tobacco ExposureMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mohammed K. Ali, MBChB, MSc, MBAAssociate Professor of Global Health and Epidemiology Rollins School of Public HealthEmory University • Lastly, while much of this is good news that death rates are declining, that doesn’t mean we have less of these diseases; in fact, with population growth and lower deaths, it means that clinicians have and will increasingly face higher numbers of people with chronic conditions (cancers, diabetes, etc.). So, we are compressing mortality, but expanding morbidity, and we have to figure out how to handle the higher volume of patients clinicians will have to manage. Also, for patients and people at risk, they can help by use modern technologies to learn about their risks (there is more information online now than ever before), engage in their own preventive health care, and try to elongate their healthy years of life. Read the rest of the interviews on MedicalResearch.com. NOT an endorsement of efficacy or as medical

58. Declining Death Rates Largely Due To Decreased Tobacco ExposureMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mohammed K. Ali, MBChB, MSc, MBAAssociate Professor of Global Health and Epidemiology Rollins School of Public HealthEmory University • Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? • Dr. Ali: Since we used a strict definition of including only countries that had reliable death documentation, we were unable to include data from China, India, Indonesia, and most of Sub- Saharan Africa (which together account for 50% of the world’s population. As such, we need to invest in better cause-of-death documentation so that these trends can be monitored for the whole world. • Second, we relied on existing literature to try to understand the trends in death rates for these countries, and while we know a fair a

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