Published on April 4, 2014
Decision Support System (DSS) (Medical Applications) Dr. Khaled Elkharashy
• Transaction processing systems (TPS) • Keep track of basic activities and transactions of organization • Systems for business intelligence • Address decision-making needs of all levels of management • Management information systems (MIS) • Decision support systems (DSS) • Executive support systems (ESS) Systems for Management Decision Making and Business Intelligence Types of Business Information Systems
• Transaction processing systems: • Serve operational managers • Principal purpose is to answer routine questions and to track the flow of transactions through the organization • E.g., inventory questions, granting credit to customer Types of Business Information Systems
• Management information systems: • Provide middle managers with reports on firm’s performance • To monitor firm and help predict future performance • Summarize and report on basic operations using data from TPS Types of Business Information Systems
• Decision support systems (DSS): • Serve middle managers • Support no routine decision making • E.g., What is impact on production schedule if December sales doubled? • Use external information as well from TPS and MIS • Model driven DSS • Voyage-estimating systems Decision support systemsDecision support systems (DSS)(DSS)
Medical applications of DSS - How Can Computers Aid Decision Making? - Characteristics of Successful Computer Decision Support Systems. - Examples of Successful Computer Decision Support Systems . - Requirements for Implementing Computer Decision Support Systems.
Simplify Access to Data Needed To Make Decisions Laboratory results Radiology reports How Can Computers Aid Decision Making? Provide Reminders and Prompts
Assist in Diagnosis to check orders directly entered by a clinician in real time drug sensitivity, drug-allergy, drug-drug interaction drug-laboratory interactions potential duplication of services. Assist in Order Entry consider historical and physical examination findings, laboratory and test results, and create a list of diagnoses to explain those findings. How Can Computers Aid Decision Making?
Review New Clinical Data; Alert When Important Patterns Are Recognized hospital admission, discharge a new or changed laboratory result mismatch between newly available sensitivity results and antimicrobials being given to the patient How Can Computers Aid Decision Making?
They Give Patient-Specific Recommendations When a computing system provides advice based on a guideline, it is most useful if the recommendation is based on that patient’s data. Characteristics of Successful Computer Decision Support Systems systems should be designed to fit into this workflow as smoothly as possible Most clinicians note that they have less time available than in the past, because of increased patient volumes, greater demands for documentation, and the complexity of modern practice. Saving time
Antimicrobial Use in the ICU The LDS Hospital in US This application considers patient allergies, local patterns of antimicrobial resistance, hepatic and renal function, the results of cultures, and other factors when recommending therapy. The authors also noted that manually gathering data needed to prescribe antimicrobials would take up to 25 min. Examples of Successful Computer Decision Support Systems
Examples of Successful Computer Decision Support Systems
- Patient received fewer doses of antimicrobials, - fewer days of excessive drug dosage, - fewer prescriptions for drugs to which the patient was allergic, - shorter length of hospital stay, and lower hospital costs, compared to patients treated without this program. Characteristics of Successful Computer Decision Support Systems
- It requires financial and human resources to introduce computing systems into hospitals and clinics. Even when there is organizational commitment to implement computing systems, it may take months or more for physicians and other staff to feel the change was worth it. Next, there must be a computing infrastructure in place: databases containing patient data, workstations near or at the point of care, and reliable networks to connect them. Requirements for Implementing Computer Decision Support Systems
- Printed reports can be used for many purposes, and to reduce the need for workstations in examination rooms, but order-entry applications with immediate feedback depend on the direct use of mobile or desktop workstations by clinicians - There must be guidelines incorporated into the clinical computing system Requirements for Implementing Computer Decision Support Systems
• Executive support systems (ESS): • Serve senior managers • Address strategic issues and long-term trends • E.g., What products should we make in five years? • Address nonroutine decision making • Provide generalized computing capacity that can be applied to changing array of problems • Draw summarized information from MIS, DSS, and data from external events • Typically use portal with Web interface, or digital dashboard, to present content
Thank You !! khaled elkharashY
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