Published on March 7, 2014
MEDIA PSYCHOLOGY AND HUMAN COMMUNICATION AND YOU ND Bowman University of Utah 06 March 2013 Media and Interaction Lab
SOR “…I view media psychology as the intersection of human experience and media. In other words, media psychology is the applied study of what happens when people interact with media as producers, distributors, and consumers through the lens of psychology.” Media is more than Chicken Little! ~Dr. Pamela Rutledge Media Psychology Research Center
SOR Stimulus Response
SOR Organism Meaning is created here! Stimulus Response
SOR VIDEO games • Virtual environments Video GAMES • Challenge systems
A MANY-SPLINTERED THING • Which of these is violent?
A MANY-SPLINTERED THING • Content is not “just” violent
A MANY-SPLINTERED THING
A MANY-SPLINTERED THING • • Blood Reign (+G, -R, -J) – Very Violent – Least Preferred Bloody Justice (+G, +R, +J) – Most Violent – Most* Preferred • • Underlord (-G, +R, -J) – Somewhat Violent – Most Preferred Mystic Battle (-G, -R, +J) – Least Violent – Somewhat Preferred
A MANY-SPLINTERED THING • Of course, this all focused on enjoyment…but what about appreciation? • Narrative justification vs. user justification
UNCANNY VALLEY • As virtual worlds get more realistic, we begin to question them
UNCANNY VALLEY • Suggests that reality is a perception… • …but this can extend beyond graphics – Control – Storytelling – Others? Novels told us drama, film and TV show us conflict, so what do video games do?
THERE’S NO CRYING IN GAMES? • Zillmann (2000) ends with: “Humor can serve as the antidote to gloom” • But, can it be the case that gloom can serve as the antidote to gloom?
THERE’S NO CRYING IN GAMES? “Indeed, to say that one ‘‘enjoyed’’ or was ‘‘entertained by’’ a film such as Hotel Rwanda would seem decidedly odd, at best” (Oliver & Raney, 2011).
THERE’S NO CRYING IN GAMES? • So, if we don’t enjoy these films, then what do we do with them? • Selection is driven by a different set of motivations
THERE’S NO CRYING IN GAMES? Hey, this is really: • Reflective • Inspiring • Expressive • Meaningful Hey, this is really: • Arousing • Exciting • Pleasurable • Diversionary
THERE’S NO CRYING IN GAMES?
THERE’S NO CRYING IN GAMES? • 97.6% fun vs. 71.9% meaningful • “insight” as separate need • “Pleasure of Control” • “Pleasure of Cognition”
THERE’S NO CRYING IN GAMES? Enjoyment Step 1: Controls Gender Age ∆R2 Step 2: Intrinsic Needs Competence Autonomy Relatedness Insight ∆R2 Step 3: CA Identification Suspension of Disbelief Control Responsibility ∆R2 Appreciation -.05 -.09 .01 -.22*** -.10+ .06*** .47*** .13* .01 -.05 .28*** -.02 .02 .36*** .58*** .69*** -.08 .00 .12* -.08 .02+ -.01 .03 -.06+ .10** .01+
THERE’S NO CRYING IN GAMES? • Implications
THERE’S NO CRYING IN GAMES? • Do we make virtual worlds or virtual games? – In virtual worlds (video) how do we engage player’s emotions? – In virtual games (games) how do we engage player’s actions? • When we make both, do players process both?
THERE’S NO CRYING IN GAMES? • As we try to understand the psychology of the video game experience, we have to understand our capacity to play as well as our capacity to reflect … • …and our capacity period.
THERE’S NO CRYING IN GAMES? • Not… Unenjoyable Very Enjoyable Non-meaningful Very Meaningful • …but? Very Enjoyable Very Meaningful
DEMANDING! “interactive texts are inherently unfinished because they require a participant … before they can be realized in various forms” ~ Collins, 2013
DEMANDING! n = 110 (63 ♀) Training Mission Walkers relied on their dominant habit, while non-walkers let the game guide them! n = 57 n = 53 Roaming
DEMANDING! When players are faced with nonbased moral dilemmas, they tend to make random (“game”) decisions, unless the game violates their moral intuitions!
DEMANDING! Enjoyment - (?) Task Demand - + - (?) R2 ~ 1.00 Narrative Recall - Evaluation + + Appreciation
DEMANDING! Performance ? User Perspective 0 = 2D; 1 = 3D + + R2 ~ 1.00 User Agency 0 = Yes, 1 = No Task Demand + + - + - + Presence User experience drives down task demand. Enjoyment
OTHER STUDIES • • • • • • Gender attribution in video games Ostracism and social gameplay* Racial priming and evaluations Habits, intuitions and decision-making* Player-avatar identification* Video games and cognitive demand
FOR MORE INFORMATION http://comm.wvu.edu /fs/research/lab Nick Bowman, Ph.D. [CV] Twitter (@bowmanspartan) Skype (nicholasdbowman) firstname.lastname@example.org Media and Interaction Lab
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