Published on February 27, 2014
Media Commercialism Sponsorship
Media We live in a media informed society A media influenced society And therefore media has influenced sport Sport is now a marketable commodity that is worth millions
TV Pay per view – a system by which the viewer can pay for private telecast to their home of an event Used a lot for boxing 1. 2. 3. 4. Best medium for live events – images Not as handy as radio, newspapers? New technology changing this? Satellite TV transformed sport – it’s development was based on sport Sky Sports dominate a range of sports – lead to Government ring - fencing certain traditional events to be kept on terrestrial TV e.g. Grand National, FA Cup
Newspapers Tabloids (Redtops) versus broadsheets Tabloid – •Traditionally working class readership •Tend to sensationalise events and personalities •Most have sizeable proportion of total newspaper devoted to sport •Tends to only focus on a few sports (e.g. Football and racing ) •Minority sports ignored Both sell to make a profit – but adopt difference strategies to attract readers Broadsheet – Middleclass readership traditionally Tends to focus on providing information Less space devoted to sport More sports covered Tend to provide more critical analysis of events and issues affecting sport
Task – compare the amount of coverage given to different sports by a tabloid newspaper and a broadsheet newspaper for the same day – Tip – use a ruler!
Radio Talk based radio programmes – commentary and debate/discussion shows Good at getting in to the heart of everyday lives – cars, homes Social Media Access to TV, radio, newspapers in one place on the go, 24-7 access to information, chat, debate…….. New tools in an ever developing technological world Internet
Commercialism Commercialisation – the treating of sport as a commodity, involving the buying and selling of assets, with the market as the driving force behind sport Sport realised that there was money to made here – sale of TV rights to highest bidder - become the major contributor to sports funding - think Premier League! 1. TV found sport fairly cheap entertainment (compared to period dramas or wildlife programmes) 2. lots of entertainment 3. Only a few periods when the actions slows 4. Can easily be picked up at any point or dipped in/out of without losing the plot 5. Sport has benefited from technological advances e.g. replays 6. Many, many hours dedicated to sport – more and more new channels 7. Commercialisation of sport has grown
Merchandising: practice in which the brand or image from one product is used to sell another. The most common adult-orientated merchandising is that related to professional sports teams and players Televised sport offers business investment opportunities Advertising Endorsement Also those involved can get income from ticket sales And merchandising.
The Golden Triangle 1. The media pay sport to gain viewers to sell satellite packages. 2. The media are used by businesses to advertise their products. 3. Businesses pay sport for advertising space. 4. Sport has the potential to gain more viewers/spectators/participants as a result of increased media exposure. Business Sport Media
Commercialism has changed sport – in order to make a profit for the stakeholders – sports have to appeal to a wider audience No longer ex-player amateurs running sport – it is business people These administrators know that in order for sport to make money it must have a sponsor Sponsors only interested if there is good media coverage Therefore necessary to make the sport attractive to the media
Characteristics of sport that is attractive to the media Demonstration of skill, strength and physical fitness Visual spectacle with detail available Tradition Wellmatched competition Uncomplicated rule structure Ease of televising e.g. camera can keep up with play Demonstration of aggression and/or physical challenge Fits in to a reasonable timescale Identification of personalities and/or nationalistic relevance
Effects of coverage of sport New events formed as more attractive to performers e.g. Skiing – slalom – technical skill lost on TV, Downhill (12 min) – many viewers thought no skill. Giant Slalom created Some sports have lost popularity due to lack of coverage (e.g. table tennis) Others have gained through lots of promotion Changes that happened due to TV: •Coloured cricket shirts •White ball in football •Summer rugby league •Change of evening/time of kick offs in football Some NGBs encourage media to concentrate of more exciting events as money raised can support other events or grass roots level development International events – timings changed e.g. World Cup – Europe biggest audiences so kickoffs changed to suite our times no matter where they are in the world In Beijing Olympics – 100m final at 10.3o – 3.30pm in UK, Breakfast in USA
Media also effects individuals Media wants personalities The high income is often offset with some loss of privacy Big issue at moment – Leveson enquiry
Does the media show a true picture of sport? No Bias from commentators? Analysis unbiased Exaggeration of incidents to attract viewers? Sport can last a long time and doesn’t always finish at a set time Causes problems for schedules TV prefers highlights programmes Control times Can turn a boring draw in to a 90sec clip of incidents and near misses
Arguments for and against TV coverage of sports FOR • Provides info service e.g. results. Tables, fixtures • Provides entertainments service e.g. excitement, drama and spectacle • Provides educational service e.g. teaching, coaching, debates on issues • Provides an advertising service e.g. sports, goods, business • Aids sponsorship • Creates role models, personalities, heroes • Draws attention to top level sport Against Limited to a few male sports – impact on participation? Sensationalises – controversies may be created Highlights personalities rather than the team effort Possibility of boredom owing to saturation coverage of sport – Oh not football again! Minority sports suffer because of lack of interest Possible loss of gate money Needs of television dictate the selection of sport action
How to support media coverage poor sports? Swimming is primarily a participation sport – relatively few spectators – little gate money – Olympics the exception! Why? Discuss. What would make swimming more TV friendly? 1. Marketing of minority sports (Cost!) 2. Rule adaption to create more exciting games for spectators – e.g. 20 20 3. Sponsorship deals (hard to get without media coverage)
Companies invest for many reasons: The sponsor’s name and product is given publicity Association between product and performer (popularity of performer key) Sponsor associated with supporting the community or country Sponsorship reduces the amount of tax paid Professional teams Individuals Stadium, Stands Awards schemes Most aspects of sport have a sponsor Events Coaching schemes Governing bodies Sponsorship
Sponsorship advantages & disadvantages Disadvantages: Advantages: Sports are expensive to run – extra money allows a more professional approach Sport becomes associated with the product – this may not be desirable Sponsors gain control over organisation of sport Sport is promoted through extra publicity Sponsors gain control over timing, seasons and location events Sponsorship helps create atmosphere at events There is financial interdependence between media and large sporting events Sports are organised better – more efficient management techniques are use Sports rely to heavily on sponsors – withdrawal of funds can be disastrous Team selection may be affected
Factors to consider when thinking of sponsoring • The success of the team or individual • The popularity of the sport, team or individual • Media coverage • Participation levels in sport • The suitability of the sport for the product
Ethical Aspects of sponsorship Positive Promotes individuals and teams Individual sponsorship allows the performer to train longer, facilitates improvement Allows the development of new competitions and tournaments Allows development of better facilities and equipment It helps create atmosphere at events Attracts high-class performers Generates additional media interest Sport can be expensive to run and income from traditional sources is not enough Negative Attention is on high profile individuals or teams Product association is an intrusion in to sport Sponsors can gain too much control over a sport Sponsors can give sport a bad image Sponsors control the timing of events to obtain peak viewing time
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