MEDIA BETWEEN LOVE AND HATE demo

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Published on October 26, 2007

Author: Chyou

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IN MODERN RUSSIA::  IN MODERN RUSSIA: AND HATE BETWEEN LOVE MEDIA Crossroad of Freedom & Authoritarian St.:  Crossroad of Freedom & Authoritarian St. democracy and market economy totalitarian or authoritarian choice Russian MEDIA Soviet propaganda Indicators of transitions Media Laws 1990-1991 foreseeable future not long ago Indicator No 1 – the condition of the state Media:  Indicator No 1 – the condition of the state Media Preservation of the state- owned and state-controlled Media. Establishment of state control over previously private or formally private Media. Disappearance of state owned Media. Denationalization and privatization of enterprises forming the material and technological basis for the production of Media output. The exit of the state from the Media market. Since 2001 Since 1992 1995 – the first futile endeavor to change it Since 2003 – only local printing media THE POWER AND THE MEDIA ON THE TELEVISIONS OF MUSCOVITES:  THE POWER AND THE MEDIA ON THE TELEVISIONS OF MUSCOVITES FEDERAL POWER STATE OWNED TV CHANNELS CHANNEL ONE CHANNEL RUSSIA CHANNEL CULTURE CHANNEL SPORT CHANNEL TVC (OWNER – MOSCOW GOVERNMENT) STATE CONTROLLED CHANNELS CHANNEL NTV (GAZPROM & EUROFINANCE GROUP) CHANNEL REN-TV (EUROFINANCE GROUP) CHANNEL TNT (GAZPROM & EUROFINANCE GROUP) STATE TOOLS FOR LEGAL ENFORCEMENT STATE SHARED CORPORATIONS INDEPENDENT CHANNELS CHANNEL NTV (IN 2000 IT WAS TRANSFERRED FROM FROM “MEDIA-MOST” TO GAZPROM) CHANNEL TV 6 (IN 2001 IT WAS LIQUIDATED) CHANNEL TVS (IN 2002 ITS LICENCE WAS TERMINATED) STS & OTHER EXCLUSIVELY ENTERTAIMENT CHANNELS CLOSED 2002 CLOSED 2003 CLOSED 2001 CHANNEL STAR TV CHANNEL ONE, for example:  TV CHANNEL ONE, for example FEDERAL POWER Ministry of State Ownership ITAR-TASS Television Technical Center “ORT-KB” “RASTRCOM-2002” “EBERLINK-2002” TV CHANNEL ONE 38,9% 9,1% 3,0% 11,0% 14,0% 24,0% “GAZPROM-MEDIA”, for example:  “GAZPROM-MEDIA”, for example FEDERAL POWER GAZPROM EUROBANK VNESHECONOMBANK GAZPROM-MEDIA EUROFINANCE GROUP 85,79% NTV NTV PLUS TNT-NETWORK PRT-1 100% 50,3% 14,7% 30,56% 21,57% 50% 50% 28,27% “TNT-ST. PETERSBURG” “INTERFAX-TV” “SIMBIRSK-AIR PLUS” “TNT-NIZHNIY NOVGOROD” “TV CHANNEL FOUR” TV “PIONEER” “TNT-PERM” “GMD-4” “GMD-3” “GMD-5” “ZDA” “REGION-TV” “AS BAIKAL TV” 100% 99,9% 85% 51% BONUM 1 NTV-PLUS BV NTV-DESIGN 100% 50% TV CHANNEL “PETERSBURG” 23,34% ADMINISTR. OF ST. PETERSBURG 68% “OPEN RADIO” TV PROMETHEUS TV “OBJECTIVE” “TELEBASIS” Newspaper “TRUD” Newspaper “TRIBUNA” “PRT-2” LEADVILLE INVESTMENTS LTD. (CYPRUS) 100% 97,5% 97,39% 68% 48% 60.93% 100% 100% RADIO “MOSCOW ECHO” “7 DAYS” PUBLISHING HOUSE 55% Newspaper “IZVESTIA” TV CHANNEL “REN-TV” Indicator No 2 – the state’s economic support for the Media:  Indicator No 2 – the state’s economic support for the Media Preservation of the current system of financially supporting mainly state-owned and state-controlled Media. The cutting or the elimination of the tax and customs benefits for the Media. Establishment of a just and transparent system of economic support of the Media by the state based on stable tax allowances. State donations for local newspapers. Since 1992 Since 1995 Since 2002 Since 1995 Percentage of the Federal Budget Allocation to state TV and Radio in the R.F.:  Percentage of the Federal Budget Allocation to state TV and Radio in the R.F. Parliamentary election Parliamentary election Presidential election Presidential election RTR funding in FY1999:  RTR funding in FY1999 Total revenues – 2,697,1 millions rubles. (approx. - 104,1 millions USD) Source: The Bulletin of the Account Chamber of RF. 2001. No 3 RTR expenses in FY1999:  RTR expenses in FY1999 Total financial result of RTR in FY1999 – dead loss 922,2 million rubles. (approx. 35,7 million USD) Source: The Bulletin of the Account Chamber of RF. 2001. No 3 RTR funding and expenses in FY2000 - 2003:  RTR funding and expenses in FY2000 - 2003 Source: the letter by Ministry of Culture and Mass Communication, October, 2004 5322 11176 14369 18495 Expenses Indicator No 3 – the size of the Media Advertising Market:  Indicator No 3 – the size of the Media Advertising Market Monopolization of the advertising media market. Establishing control under advertising media market through the “Media-Committee” under the leadership of Governmental officials. The state’s stimulation of the growth of the advertising media market to a level which is minimally sufficient to guarantee the profitability of the media business. The elimination of limits to advertising costs for tax aims. 2001 2002 Since 1998 Volumes of advertising on RTR and Channel One (ORT) :  Volumes of advertising on RTR and Channel One (ORT) in thousands of seconds Advertising revenues of RTR and Channel One (in millions USD):  Advertising revenues of RTR and Channel One (in millions USD) Sources: For tax report see - The Bulletin of the Account Chamber of RF. 2001. No 3: For design value see – Russian Advertising-99. Advertising Council of Russia. 2000. Indicator No 4 – the climate for foreign investment into the Media market:  Indicator No 4 – the climate for foreign investment into the Media market Putting a ban on foreign investment in the Media market. Establishing limits on the foreign investment in the Media market. Destruction of the possible sale of some Media outlets to foreign investors. Elimination of all of the unreasonable limits in the way of foreign investment in the Media market. Establishment of the legal, economic and political circumstances for the integration of domestic media into transnational Media corporations. 2001 Since 2001 LIMITATIONS ON FOREIGN INVESTMENT by Russian Media Law 1991:  LIMITATIONS ON FOREIGN INVESTMENT by Russian Media Law 1991 1991 – Foreign citizens and persons without citizenship haven’t the right to found Media outlets. (article 7) 2001 - Foreign citizens, legal persons, persons with double citizenship, as well as Russian joint ventures haven’t the rights: - to found TV channels on national level; - to own TV companies on national level; - to buy 50 or more percent of shares of TV companies on the national level. (article 191) Indicator No 5 – using the Media for electoral manipulating:  Indicator No 5 – using the Media for electoral manipulating The deliberation of using of the state and state-controlled Media for manipulating electoral behavior, including the unequal coverage of the candidates. Judicial actions against Media outlets which support opposing political parties. Abandoned intent to use the state and state- controlled Media for manipulating electoral behavior. Establishment in the Media sphere of the real conditions needed for political competition in the framework of the election. Since 1999 Since 1999 Positive and negative coverage of the Parties on the National TV Channels during Parliamentary election 2003 (prime time news):  Positive and negative coverage of the Parties on the National TV Channels during Parliamentary election 2003 (prime time news) TV CHANNEL “RUSSIA” (RTR) Positive and negative coverage of the Parties on the National TV Channels during Parliamentary election 2003 (prime time news):  Positive and negative coverage of the Parties on the National TV Channels during Parliamentary election 2003 (prime time news) Positive and negative coverage of the Parties on the National TV Channels during Parliamentary election 2003 (prime time news):  Positive and negative coverage of the Parties on the National TV Channels during Parliamentary election 2003 (prime time news) Positive and negative coverage of the Parties on the National TV Channels during Parliamentary election 2003 (prime time news):  Positive and negative coverage of the Parties on the National TV Channels during Parliamentary election 2003 (prime time news) Source: OSCE/ODIHR Election Observation Mission. Final Report. Warsaw, 27 January 2004. Coverage of Presidential Candidates on TV Channel “Russia” (RTR) in 2000 and 2004:  Coverage of Presidential Candidates on TV Channel “Russia” (RTR) in 2000 and 2004 Coverage of the Presidential Candidates on NTV Channel in 2000 and 2004:  Coverage of the Presidential Candidates on NTV Channel in 2000 and 2004 News & Analytical programs of TV Channel “Russia” in March 2004:  News & Analytical programs of TV Channel “Russia” in March 2004 NEWS & ANALYTICAL PROGRAMS OF NTV CHANNEL IN MARCH 2004:  NEWS & ANALYTICAL PROGRAMS OF NTV CHANNEL IN MARCH 2004 Indicator No 6 – the evolution of the Media Legislation, 1991 - 2004:  Indicator No 6 – the evolution of the Media Legislation, 1991 - 2004 Increasing the number of legal reasons for the state to close a Media outlet. Simplification of the procedures for the state’s closing of a Media outlet. Elimination the Media Law’s article on the independent regulating body in broadcasting Strengthening the legal guarantees of the freedom of the press. Passage of bills on the licensing of TV and Radio Broadcasting, on the access to information. Adoption of legislative measures to prevent Media monopolization, ensure Media transparency and editorial independence. 2000,2003 2002,2003 2004 Legal reasons for closing the Media (corrections of the Media Law 1991):  Legal reasons for closing the Media (corrections of the Media Law 1991) 1991 - Using the Media to violate the Criminal Code. 1995 - Using the Media for the “propaganda of pornography, violence and cruelty”. 2000 – Using the Media to“disseminate information about the means for creation, production and use, as well as places of acquiring, drugs” . 2000 – Using the Media to “disseminate the information, which dissemination is forbidden by federal laws”. 2002 – Using the Media “for extremist activity”. 2003 – Duplicate abuse of the electoral laws in the framework of the same electoral campaign. Simplification of the procedures for the state’s closing of a Media outlet - 1991 - 2004:  Simplification of the procedures for the state’s closing of a Media outlet - 1991 - 2004 Media outlet may be closed only by court: 1991 – on the civil suit by the Ministry of the Press after two or more official warnings due 12 months. 2002 – EXTRA - on the petition by the appropriate federal executive body or any prosecutor after one official warning about extremist activity or without preliminary warning, if this activity has done damage to the rights of citizens, to the environment, to public order or security, to legal interests of natural or legal persons, as well as has made a threat of the same damage. 2003 – EXTRA – The court may to hold up the Media outlet until the end of the electoral campaign on the petition by the appropriate federal executive body on the initiative of the Central or any regional electoral commissions. Slide29:  (For analysis of the drafts see: Yuriy Baturin, Mikhail Fedotov, Vladimir Entin “Media Law – on the crossroad of ages and opinions”, published by Russian Union of Journalists with support by UNESCO. Moscow, 2004) Perspectives of new Russian Media Law The draft of the new Media Law, created under the auspices of the Russian Union of Journalists, was submitted by the SPS and Yabloko parties to the State Duma in June 2002. Another draft, created under the auspices of “The Industrial Committee of Mass Media” (the NGO includes leaders of major state owned and state-controlled Media corporations) and Ministry of the Press, has been located at the Administration of the President of RF since June 2003. TWO DRAFTS – TWO FORTUNES:  TWO DRAFTS – TWO FORTUNES INDUSTRIAL COMMITTEE’S DRAFT RUSSIAN UNION OF JOURNALISTS’ DRAFT Additional legal reasons for closure and temporary closure of the Media outlet Termination of editorial independence Preservation of the state-owned Media, and other mistakes and shortcomings of the current Media Law Extension of the term of licenses for TV and Radio broadcasting to 10 years Implementation of international standards of Media regulations Strengthening of the guarantees of the editorial independence, transparence and pluralism Creation the ways for transforming the state owned Media to Public Media Creation of legal basis for public broadcasting Indicator No 7– Public Broadcasting:  Indicator No 7– Public Broadcasting Preservation of the state- owned broadcasting companies. The blocking of the draft of the Federal Public Broadcasting Law. Promotion of the draft of the Federal Public Broadcasting Law. The real transformation of state broadcasting companies into organizations of Public Broadcasting. Since 2002 1993 – the first futile endeavor to change it Federal Power’s Attempts to Create Separate Elements of Public Broadcasting in the RF:  Federal Power’s Attempts to Create Separate Elements of Public Broadcasting in the RF Presidential decree No 377 of March 20, 1993 ordering the creation of Patronage Councils for the State TV and Radio Companies On March 28, 1993 the IX Congress of People’s Deputies ordered the creation of Federal Supervision Council for preservation of freedom of speech on state broadcasting Presidential Decree No 452 of October 31, 1997 on the creation of a Patronage Council for the TV channel “Culture” Act of the State Duma No 639 of October 4, 1996 on the transformation of joint-stock company “ORT” into a state television company The 1998 Draft Law “On the State conducting of RTR” was adopted on the first hearing The 1998 Status of RTR afforded the opportunity to create a deliberative council under the chairman of RTR, which would include eminent persons of science, culture and art TV Channel “Russian Universities” was created by RTR in 1993 - 1996 Society’s Attempts to Create Separate Elements of Public TV:  Society’s Attempts to Create Separate Elements of Public TV In 2000, the Public Council of the TV Company NTV, with Mikhail Gorbachev as a Chairman, was created In 2002 the Public Council on the TV company TVS was created In 2002 the Russian Union of Journalists deliberated the draft of the Federal Public Broadcasting Law In 2004 the Glasnost Defense Foundation deliberated the draft law on Public Broadcasting for Novosibirsk Region In 2004 the Russian Union of Journalists deliberated the draft of the Public Broadcasting Law for the Moscow Area In 2002 the Foundation for the Development of Public Broadcasting was founded in Moscow with support by Russian Union of Journalists liquidated liquidated Slide34:  The Federation Council Director General of RPB Patronage Council of the RPB Federal Government The State Duma Political parties, confessions, trade unions, other NGO’s Board of Directors of the RPB Executive Council The President of the Russian Federation Appoints its representative Appoints its representative Appoints his representative Journalist’s collectives of the RPB Suggests candidature of Director General of RPB Appoints to the post Forms the Executive Council Suggest candidates to the Patronage Council Proposed structure of the Russian Public Broadcasting Forms the Patronage Council Appoints its representative Leads the Board of Directors Appoint part of the Board of Directors Control under realization of public service functions Leads the Executive Council Proposed mechanism of financing for the Russian Public Broadcasting :  Proposed mechanism of financing for the Russian Public Broadcasting “RUSSIAN PUBLIC BROADCASTING” Allocation of Federal Budget Sponsorship Service fees Individual fees Corporate fees Royalties, License Fees Grants Donations Individual donations Corporate donations Other sources Indicator No 8 –self-regulation in the Media sphere:  Indicator No 8 –self-regulation in the Media sphere Liquidation of the public self-regulation body (Chamber on the informational disputes under the President of RF). Blocking of the activities of the independent self-regulating bodies. Formation of stable, authoritative, and capable interaction structures for civil society in the Media sphere, and the development of mechanisms of self-regulation. Legitimization of the decisions of self-regulation bodies by the state. 2000 Since 1999 Since 1998 THE GRAND JURY FOR MEDIA COMPLAINTS :  THE GRAND JURY FOR MEDIA COMPLAINTS Associations of journalists, broadcasters, publishers and other Media NGO’S Political parties, confessions, trade unions, other non-media NGO’s Chamber of Media Audience Chamber of Media Associations People, recognizing the professional and ethical jurisdiction of the Grand Jury as self-regulating and co-regulating body, are under its protection. Suggest candidates and form Chamber Suggest candidates and form Chamber 25 25 Indicator No 9 – the court as a tool :  Indicator No 9 – the court as a tool Using the court as a legal enforcement tool against non state-controlled Media and to take away private businesses in this sphere. Strengthening the dependence of judicial power on executive power. Rejection of using the court as a tool against non state-controlled Media as well as to take away private businesses in this sphere. Bringing Russian law enforcement practice into conformity with European and international standards. Since 2001 Since 2001 Since 2004 LEGAL CASES OF DEFAMATION BY THE MEDIA (information by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation):  LEGAL CASES OF DEFAMATION BY THE MEDIA (information by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation) Crossroad of Freedom & Authoritarian St.:  Crossroad of Freedom & Authoritarian St. democracy and market economy totalitarian or authoritarian choice Russian MEDIA not long ago 1999 2003 2002 2001 2000 1998 1995 1992/3 2004 Slide41:  “POWER” – “MEDIA” 21 8 : The game is to be continued… WWW.RUJ.RU E-MAIL: FEDOTOV@RUJ.RU

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