Mechanical Ventilation

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Information about Mechanical Ventilation

Published on October 15, 2008

Author: aSGuest1080


Mechanical Ventilation : Mechanical Ventilation EMS Professions Temple College Indications : Indications Prolonged positive pressure ventilation Increased work of breathing Goals : Goals Increase efficiency of breathing Increase oxygenation Improve ventilation/perfusion relationships Decrease work of breathing Types of Systems : Types of Systems Negative Pressure Ventilator “Iron lung” Allows long-term ventilation without artificial airway Maintains normal intrathoracic hemodynamics Uncomfortable, limits access to patient Types of Systems : Types of Systems Positive Pressure Ventilator Uses pressures above atmospheric pressure to push air into lungs Requires use of artificial airway Types Pressure cycled Time cycled Volume cycled Positive Pressure Ventilators : Positive Pressure Ventilators Pressure Cycled Terminates inspiration at preset pressure Small, portable, inexpensive Ventilation volume can vary with changes in airway resistance, pulmonary compliance Used for short-term support of patients with no pre-existing thoracic or pulmonary problems Positive Pressure Ventilators : Positive Pressure Ventilators Volume cycled Most widely used system Terminates inspiration at preset volume Delivers volume at whatever pressure is required up to specified peak pressure May produce dangerously high intrathoracic pressures Positive Pressure Ventilators : Positive Pressure Ventilators Time cycled Terminates inspiration at preset time Volume determined by Length of inspiratory time Pressure limit set Patient airway resistance Patient lung compliance Common in neonatal units Volume-Cycled Ventilator Modes : Volume-Cycled Ventilator Modes Controlled Mechanical Ventilation Patient does not participate in ventilations Machine initiates inspiration, does work of breathing, controls tidal volume and rate Useful in apneic or heavily sedated patients Useful when inspiratory effort contraindicated (flail chest) Patient must be incapable of initiating breaths Rarely used Volume-Cycled Ventilator Modes : Volume-Cycled Ventilator Modes Assist Mode Allows patient to control ventilator rate within limits Inspiration begins when ventilator senses patients inspiratory effort Assist Mode : Assist Mode Assist/Control (A/C) Patient triggers machine to deliver breaths but machine has preset backup rate Patient initiates breath--machine delivers tidal volume If patient does not breathe fast enough, machine takes over at preset rate Tachypneic patients may hyperventilate dangerously Assist Mode : Assist Mode Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation (IMV) Patient breathes on own Machine delivers breaths at preset intervals Patient determines tidal volume of spontaneous breaths Used to “wean” patients from ventilators Patients with weak respiratory muscles may tire from breathing against machine’s resistance Assist Mode : Assist Mode Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation (SIMV) Similar to IMV Machine timed to delay ventilations until end of spontaneous patient breaths Avoids over-distension of lungs Decreases barotrauma risk Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) : Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) Positive pressure in airway throughout expiration Holds alveoli open Improves ventilation/perfusion match Decreases FiO2 needed to correct hypoxemia Useful in maintaining pulmonary function in non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, especially ARDS Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) : Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) High intrathoracic pressures can cause decreased venous return and decreased cardiac output May produce pulmonary barotrauma May worsen air-trapping in obstructive pulmonary disease DANGERS Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) : Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) PEEP without preset ventilator rate or volume Physiologically similar to PEEP May be applied with or without use of a ventilator or artificial airway Requires patient to be breathing spontaneously Does not require a ventilator but can be performed with some ventilators High Frequency Ventilation (HFV) : High Frequency Ventilation (HFV) Small volumes, high rates Allows gas exchange at low peak pressures Mechanism not completely understood Systems High frequency positive pressure ventilation--60-120 breaths/min High frequency jet ventilation--up to 400 breaths/min High frequency oscillation--up to 3000 breaths/min High Frequency Ventilation (HFV) : High Frequency Ventilation (HFV) Useful in managing: Tracheobronchial or bronchopleural fistulas Severe obstructive airway disease Patients who develop barotrauma or decreased cardiac output with more conventional methods Patients with head trauma who develop increased ICP with conventional methods Patients under general anesthesia in whom ventilator movement would be undesirable Ventilator Settings : Ventilator Settings Tidal volume--10 to 15ml/kg (std = 12 ml/kg) Respiratory rate--initially 10 to 16/minute FiO2--0.21 to 1.0 depending on disease process 100% causes oxygen toxicity and atelectasis in less than 24 hours 40% is safe indefinitely PEEP can be added to stay below 40% Goal is to achieve a PaO2 >60 I:E Ratio--1:2 is good starting point Obstructive disease requires longer expirations Restrictive disease requires longer inspirations Ventilator Settings : Ventilator Settings Ancillary adjustments Inspiratory flow time Temperature adjustments Humidity Trigger sensitivity Peak airway pressure limits Sighs Ventilator Complications : Ventilator Complications Mechanical malfunction Keep all alarms activated at all times BVM must always be available If malfunction occurs, disconnect ventilator and ventilate manually Ventilator Complications : Ventilator Complications Airway malfunction Suction patient as needed Keep condensation build-up out of connecting tubes Auscultate chest frequently End tidal CO2 monitoring Maintain desired end-tidal CO2 Assess tube placement Ventilator Complications : Ventilator Complications Pulmonary barotrauma Avoid high-pressure settings for high-risk patients (COPD) Monitor for pneumothorax Anticipate need to decompress tension pneumothorax Ventilator Complications : Ventilator Complications Hemodynamic alterations Decreased cardiac output, decreased venous return Observe for: Decreased BP Restlessness, decreased LOC Decreased urine output Decreased peripheral pulses Slow capillary refill Pallor Increasing Tachycardia Ventilator Complications : Ventilator Complications Renal malfunction Gastric hemorrhage Pulmonary atelectasis Infection Oxygen toxicity Loss of respiratory muscle tone Quick Guide to Setup : Quick Guide to Setup Self check and/or Calibration as needed Check circuit and connections Set Mode: Usually “Assist/Control” Adjust “I” time: Usually 1 second Set tidal volume: 10-12 ml/kg is standard May need to set “Flow” based on “I” time Set ventilatory rate: Adult 12-16/min Quick Guide to Setup : Quick Guide to Setup Set PEEP: std 5 cm H20; max 20 cm H20 Caution at 10 cm H20 and greater Set “Assist/SIMV Sensitivity”: -2 cm H20 Set pressure alarms Assess patient to confirm ventilation function Monitor vital signs Pulse oximetry (waveform) Capnography (waveform)

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