# Measuring instruments

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Published on April 27, 2014

Source: slideshare.net

Prepared by: Dharmendra Sadhwani Assistant Professor EC department SISTec-E 1 SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

 Constructing a Series Circuit ◦ Ohm’s Law Review ◦ Breadboard Overview ◦ DC Power Supply Review  Measuring the D.C. Voltage in the Series Circuit ◦ Multimeter Overview 2 SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

 Determine the current  Use Ohm’s Law: V = I x R 3V = I x 1000 Ω Solve for I: I=3V / 1000 Ω = 3milliAmps 3 3V 0V R = 1K Ω I = ? Amps SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

1) A 1K Ohm Resistor 2) Breadboard 3) DC Voltage Source 4) 2 sets of Banana Clip to mini-grabber wires 4  We need 4 components 3V 0V R = 1K Ω I = 3mA SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

5  The breadboard is used to build circuits without the need of soldering  You can plug resistors and wires right into the board SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

6  The left and right side columns are connected horizontally shorted BRIDGE  The columns between the blue and red bars crossing the bridge are vertically shorted  The SISTEC-E  The  The left and right side columns are connected horizontally shorted  The columns between the blue and red bars crossing the bridge are vertically shorted www.sistec.ac.in

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8  Plug 1 end of the 1K resistor in the top row, on the left side of the bridge  Plug the other end of the 1K resistor in the top row, on the right side of the bridgetor into the top row, on the right side of the bridge  of the resistor into the top row, on the right side of the bridge SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

 This DC Power supply is capable of generating voltages from -25V to 25V.  For this lab, we will be using the 6V supply terminals.  First, press the Power Button to turn it on. 9 SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

 Press Output On/Off once to turn on the output.  Press the +6V button to tell the power supply that we want to alter the output from the 6V terminals.  Once done, your screen should look the same as it does on this slide. 10 SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

 Use the dial to increase the display value to 3 volts as shown.  Note: You can safely ignore the value of the right most digit for this experiment.  Once you have reached 3V, Press Output On/Off once to turn the output OFF while you hook up the circuit. 11 This is the digit we want to adjust Press this arrow to Select the desired digit Rotate this dial to alter the output value. SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

 Plug the ‘banana’ end of your cables into the 6V terminals of your power supply  Connect the mini- grabber ends of the cables around your 1K resistor on the breadboard  After attaching the mini- grabbers to your circuit, press the Output On/Off to apply 3 Volts across your 1K resistor 12 SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

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 A tool capable of measuring a variety of different quantities.  Possible Measurements ◦ Current (Amperes) ◦ Resistance (Ohms) ◦ Voltage (Volts) 14 SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

 Numerical Output Displayed  Represents a complete signal with a single value.  Measures voltage, current and resistance.  Graphical Output Displayed  Shows how a signal changes over time  Many only display voltage 15 Multimeter Oscilloscope SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

Setting up the multimeter for various measurements. 16 SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

First, we connect our wires.  One wire is always connected to the black terminal. This is called the common terminal.  The red terminal is used when measuring voltage, resistance and small currents.  The white terminal is used when measuring large currents. 17 SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

 Next, we turn it on and select the item to measure.  Choose from: ◦ Current ◦ Resistance ◦ Voltage 18 Power Button SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

 Now, we select our scale.  Either select a scale appropriate for your measurement or choose AUTO and let the multimeter select the appropriate scale for you.  Measuring the voltage from across the 1K resistor (~3V), you wouldn’t want to choose 200mV (much too small) or 200V (much too large). Instead, the 2V selection is more suitable. 19 SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

20  While your circuit is attached to the power supply…  Attach the minigrabber end around the 1K resistor  Press the “POWER” button on the multimeter and take a reading!! SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

21 3V R2 = 1KΩ 0V R1 = 1KΩ  Ohm‟s Law States: V(R1) = 1.5mA x 1K Ω = 1.5V V(R2) = 1.5mA x 1K Ω = 1.5V  We are now going to build the circuit, and verify the voltage drops… SISTEC-E Resistors connected by only 1 terminal, back-to-back, are considered to be in „series  Ohm‟s Law States: V(R1) = 1.5mA x 1K Ω = 1.5V V(R2) = 1.5mA x 1K Ω = 1.5V  We are now going to build the circuit, and verify the voltage drops… www.sistec.ac.in

22  Turn off the 3V supply and disconnect the cables  Disconnect the cables to the minigrabbers to the multimeter  Obtain a 2nd 1K resistor  Plug one end of the resistor into a hole in the same row as the end of the other resistor  Plug the other end into a hole in another row SISTEC-E  Turn off the 3V supply and disconnect the cables  Disconnect the cables to the minigrabbers to the multimeter  Obtain a 2nd 1K resistor  Plug one end of the resistor into a hole in the same row as the end of the other resistor  Plug the other end into a hole in another row www.sistec.ac.in

23  Set the Power Supply to 3V  Attach the power supply leads as follows  Measure the voltage across each resistor with the multimeter SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

24  Resistors connected at 2 terminals, sharing the same node on each side, are considered to be in „parallel‟ 3V 0V R1 = 1K Ω  The voltage is the same on both branches of the circuit  The current will split!  It is now up to you to build this circuit and verify the voltages R2 = 1K Ω SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

25  We‟ll use LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) for our circuits. 3V R1=1KΩ 0V  Unlike resisters, the two diode leads (wires) must be connected in the correct way.  The longer lead (anode) should be connect so that current flows through it and to the shorter lead (cathode).  Note: In some diodes, a stripe is used to indicate the cathode lead. Round diodes often have a flat side, indicating the cathode. SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

1) Build the parallel circuit (in the last slide) and measure the voltage across it ◦ Using Ohm’s Law, what is the current through each resistor? ◦ What is the total current in the circuit? 2) In your parallel circuit, change one of the 1K resistors to a 2K resistor ◦ Measure the voltage across each resistor ◦ Use Ohm’s law to determine the current through each resistor 3) Rebuild the two resistor series circuit… ◦ Change one of the 1K resistors to a 2K resistor ◦ Measure the voltage across each resistor ◦ Use Ohm’s law to determine the current through each resistor 26 SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

4) Build a circuit with a diode in series with a 1K resistor ◦ Using Ohm’s Law, what is the current through the resistor? ◦ What is the total current in the circuit? ◦ Reverse the anode and cathode connections of the diode and observe the results. 5) Build a circuit with a diode in series with 2 parallel 1K resistors ◦ Measure the voltage across each resistor ◦ Use Ohm’s law to determine the current through each resistor 6) Don’t forget the HW! 27 SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

28 SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

29 A digital Multimeter measures AC / DC voltage, resistance, and current in an electric circuit. It is highly accurate and displays an LCD number readout. SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

Test leads are used to connect the multimeter to the circuit to be tested. SISTEC-E

31 DC Voltage Battery Test DC Current AC Voltage Resistance Continuity Test SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

32  The voltmeter is used to measure the voltage potential across a component in an active circuit.  It can be used to measure either DC or AC voltages.  AC voltage can ONLY measure sinusoidal (SINE) waveforms. SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

33 Plug the RED test lead into the jack labeled V/ and the test lead into the jack labeled COM (common). SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

The ohmmeter is used to measure the resistance of a component. POWER CANNOT be applied to the component being tested. The ohmmeter actually applies a small voltage and uses Ohm’s law to calculate the resistance from the measured current. 34 SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

35 Same as voltage measurement SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

36 The ammeter is used to measure the current through a component in an active circuit. It can be used to measure only DC current. Some multimeters can also measure AC current. SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

37  Plug the RED test lead into the jack labeled mA for milliamps or into the jack labeled 10A for circuits with high current levels. Plug the BLACK test lead into the jack labeled COM.  Be certain to select the range according to the test lead connections.  Observe proper polarity. SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

 Be sure the test leads are connected appropriately for the intended measurement.  Turn the meter’s Function/Range switch to the function (ACV, DCV, DCA or ) to be measured.  Select a range which is higher than the expected value.  Connect the test leads to the circuit/component being tested. Observe proper polarity.  Turn the meter’s Function/Range switch to reduce the range and increase the accuracy.  Record results.  Remember to turn the power OFF when finished. 38 SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

39 Continuity Tester Used to test the continuity between two points. Will produce an audio tone. Diode Tester Used to test the resistance in a diode for forward bias and reverse bias. Battery Tester Used to test 9 volt and 1.5 volt (AAA,AA, C, D) batteries. SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

 Check meter’s battery  Review instructions to make sure all the meter’s settings are accurate for the type of testing being conducted  Check to see if test leads are broken or not connected properly  Inspect and test the fuse 40 SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

41 SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

A function generator is used in many engineering fields to generate a wide variety of synthesized electrical signals such as the sine, square, triangle and ramp functions. These signals are used for testing and diagnostic applications. 42 SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

43 SISTEC-E www.sistec.ac.in

www.sistec.ac.in 44 THANK YOU

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