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Information about me5Revolution

Published on February 29, 2008

Author: Felipe


USI.6 AMERICAN REVOLUTION:  USI.6 AMERICAN REVOLUTION USI.6A Identify issues of dissatisfaction that led to the American Revolution. USI.6B Identify how political issues shaped the revolutionary movement in America and led to the Declaration of Independence, with emphasis on the ideas of John Locke. USI.6C Describe key events and roles of key individuals in the American Revolution, with emphasis on George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, and Thomas Paine. USI.6D Explain reasons why the colonists were able to defeat Britain. REVOLUTIONARY WAR:  REVOLUTIONARY WAR USI.6A-D “Yankee Doodle” (1) Slide3:  (USI.6A) ENGLAND’S REASONS FOR CONTROL: 1.    Desire to remain a world power 2.    England imposed taxes to pay for the French and Indian War and to maintain troops in the colonies SOURCES OF COLONIAL DISSATISFACTION: 1.    Colonies had no representation in Parliament 2.    Resentment of power of royal governors 3.    English strict control of colonial legislatures 4.    Opposition to taxes 5.    Proclamation of 1763 hampered the western movement of settlers  “Rule, Britannia” (1) Slide4:  THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 1.   People have “certain unalienable rights” (rights that can not be taken away) a.   Life, b.  Liberty c.    Pursuit of happiness 2.   People establish government to protect those rights. 3.   Government derives power from the people. 4.   People have a right and a duty to change a government that violates their rights. USI.6B “The Liberty Song” (1) Declaration of Independence:  Declaration of Independence Picture of the Original Document “American Medley” (2) Slide6:  Key Events of the American Revolution 1. Boston Massacre Colonists were shot in Boston after taunting British soldiers 2. Boston Tea Party Samuel Adams and Paul Revere led patriots in throwing tea into Boston Harbor to protest tea taxes 3. First Continental Congress Delegates from all colonies met to discuss problems with England and to promote independence 4. Battle of Lexington and Concord First armed conflict of the Revolutionary War 5. Approval of the Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776 6. Battle of Saratoga Turning point in the war; France entered war 7. Surrender at Yorktown Ended the American Revolution 8. Treaty of Paris England recognized American independence in this treaty. USI.6Ca Lord Cornwallis Slide7:  REVOLUTIONARY WAR PEOPLE: King George III of England Lord Cornwallis (British General) John Adams George Washington Thomas Jefferson Patrick Henry Benjamin Franklin Thomas Paine USI.6Cb 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 “Hail to the Chief” (1) Slide8:  Key Individuals Role in Revolution (USI.6C) 1. King George III - British King during the war 2. Lord Cornwallis -British General; Surrendered at Yorktown 3. John Adams - Championed cause of independence 4. George Washington - Commander of the Continental Army 5. Thomas Jefferson - Author of Declaration of Independence 6. Patrick Henry - Outspoken member of the House of Burgesses; inspired patriotism with “Give me liberty or give me death” speech 7. Benjamin Franklin - Prominent member of Continental Congress; helped frame the Dec. of Ind. 8. Thomas Paine - Journalist, author of Common Sense 9. Phyllis Wheatley - Former slave; wrote poems and plays 10. Paul Revere - Patriot who made a ride to warn patriots that the British were coming John Adams “Free America (1) Slide9:  COLONIAL ADVANTAGES IN THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR 1. Colonists defense of their own land, principles, and beliefs 2. Support from France and Spain 3.  Strong Leadership “John Paul Jones” (1) Slide10:  NOTES – AMERICAN REVOLUTION I.  Causes of the American Revolution A. Laws passed by the British Parliament (Congress of England) 1. Proclamation of 1763 a.    An attempt of the new king of England, George III, to put a stop to the trouble between the colonists and the Indians. b.    This law organized provinces and forbade settlement upon all land taken from the French west of the Appalachian Mountains. (a) Americans thought that they had fought for the land and no Parliament had the right to ban their settlements there. (b)            Americans went west anyway. 2.          Navigation Acts (passed at different times) a.    This series of laws required that trade with the colonies had to be carried on by ships that were owned, built, and manned by Englishmen. b.    This series of laws also required that certain articles called enumerated articles could only be traded with England and no other country. (sugar, tobacco, cotton, wool, indigo, rice, etc.) 3.    The Sugar Act (1764) a.    Required all Colonists to pay a tax on sugar. 4.    The Currency Act (1764) a.    Stopped all Colonies from printing and using paper money to pay their debts. b.    All debts were to be paid in gold or silver. 5.    The Molasses Act a.    This law required Colonists to pay a tax on Molasses, which was used to make rum, a favorite drink of the people. b.    The Committees of Correspondence were begun to keep colonies informed as to what other colonies were doing about the taxes.                         c.      Samuel Adams of Boston helped to begin this group of messengers (1764) “Minuet” (2) Slide11:  2.    Quartering Act (1764) a.    This law required that Colonists house and feed the British troops stationed in the colonies after the French and Indian War. 3.    The Stamp Act (1765) a.    This law required that stamps be placed on all newspapers, magazines, and legal documents (wills, deeds, etc.) used in the colonies. b.    There were violent reactions by the colonists: tax collectors were “hung in effigy”. (Dummies representing tax collectors were hung.) 4.    The Townsend Acts (1767) a.    Charles Townsend, the First Lord of the Treasury of England, suggested these taxes. b.    These laws put taxes on lead, paper, paint, glass, and tea. Customs officials could search homes for smuggled goods. 5.    The Intolerable Acts (1773) a.    Laws passed by Parliament to punish Boston for the Boston Tea Party. b.    Some of them included:                   i.      The port of Boston was closed to shipping.                  ii.      Town Meetings were no longer allowed.                 iii.      More troops were sent to Boston from England. A. Events leading to open rebellion 1.The Boston Massacre (1770) – Americans began throwing snowballs at British soldiers and they opened fire killing some of the Americans. a.    Crispus Attucks, a black man, was the first American killed in the Revolution. 2.The Boston Tea Party (1773) – The Sons of Liberty, a radical group of Americans led by Samuel Adams, dressed up as Mohawk Indians and boarded British ships in Boston Harbor and dumped the tea overboard. This was to protest the tax on tea. 3.Paul Revere’s Ride (1775) – General Gage planned to send troops to capture Samuel Adams and John Hancock and John Adams for their involvement with the Sons of Liberty and the Boston Tea Party. General Gage, the British Commander of Boston, also wanted to capture the guns and ammunition stored at Lexington, MA. a.    Paul Revere, a silversmith, and William Dawes rode all night to warn the minutemen that the British were on their way. b.    The British did not capture anyone and found no guns and ammunition. Slide12:  a.    The British got a big surprise when they were in Concord, MA. (a)            Minutemen, Americans who were ready to fight at a minute’s notice, were hidden behind trees, fences, and rocks waiting for the British at the Concord Bridge. (b)            The first shot of the American Revolution is called the “Short Heard Around the World”. Extra Credit: Read the poem – “The Concord Hymn” to the entire class. II.  Some of the men of the American Revolution (Know those in color!) A. Groups of People 1.          British or English – men from England or Great Britain 2.          Hessians – Germans hired to fight the Americans by the British (from province of Hesse-Kassel, Germany) 3.          Tories (Loyalists) – Americans who remained loyal to England 4.          Patriots – Americans fighting for Independence (Latin: patria = native land) 5.          Committees of Correspondence – These were colonial messengers who rode from colony to colony to spread news about the events of the Revolution. Other methods took too long. 6.          Sons of Liberty – A radical group of Americans led by Samuel Adams who stirred up the Americans to revolt against the king. B. The British Leaders 1.King George III – king of England 2.Lord North – First Lord of the Treasury of England 3.General Gage – British General in charge of Boston 4.General Howe – British General who replaced Gage; led the attack on Bunker Hill 5.General Cornwallis – British General in charge of the Southern Colonies; surrendered at Yorktown, VA 6.General Burgoyne – British General known as “Gentleman Johnny” 7.General Tarleton – British General in the Carolinas (Known as the Butcher since he took no prisoners) 8.General Henry Clinton – British General who replaced General Howe 9.Walter Butler – a famous Tory Leader C. The American Leaders 1.      George Washington – American General in charge of the colonial army; 1st American President; lived at Mount Vernon, VA. 2.      Patrick Henry – famous speaker who introduced the Virginia Resolutions that said that only the House of Burgesses had the right to tax VA; most famous for his speech in St. Johns Church in Richmond – “I know not what course others may take, but as for me; Give me liberty or give me death!” 3.      Samuel Adams – led the Sons of Liberty and organized the resistance in MA. 4.      Crispus Attucks – a black man who died at the Boston Massacre “Cruel War” (2) Slide13:  5.      Paul Revere – a silversmith who warned Sam Adams that the British were coming 6.      Ethan Allen – leader of the Green Mountain Boys of VT 7.      Colonel William Prescott – American commander at the Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill) who said, “Don’t shoot until you see the whites of their eyes!” 8.      Thomas Paine – wrote the pamphlet, Common Sense, which stirred American to fight against England; also wrote The Crisis which said, “These are the times that try men’s souls” (referred to the British capture of Philadelphia) 9.      Benjamin Franklin – America’s first Ambassador to France; caused France to enter the war on the American side; famous quote, “We must all hang together or we will certainly hang apart.” 10.      Thomas Jefferson – he wrote the Declaration of Independence, which announced toe world that the U.S. was a new and independent country (Adopted July 4, 1776 – Independence Day) 11.      John Hancock – first signer of the Dec. of Ind. in big letters; “The king will not need his glasses to read this!” 12.    Nathan Hale – American spy in New York, but was caught and hanged; Quote, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country!” 13.    General Horatio Gates – American General at Saratoga, NY 14.    Daniel Morgan – led the Virginia Riflemen at Saratoga, NY 15.    General Charles Lee – led Americans at Battle of Monmouth, NJ 16.    General Benedict Arnold – sold secret plans to the British and became a traitor 17.    George Rogers Clark – led the Long Knives of the Northwest Territory; from VA 18.    John Paul Jones – American naval leader; famous for the quote, “I have not yet begun to fight!”; Called the “Father of the American Navy”; his ship was named “Bonhomme Richard after Franklin’s “Poor Richard’s Almanac” 19.    Francis Marion (The Swamp Fox) – led Americans in South Carolina 20.           General Nathaniel Greene – American General in the Southern Colonies 21.    Light Horse Harry Lee – led a cavalry unit of the American army 22.    General Anthony Wayne – called “Mad Anthony Wayne”. Slide14:  D. Others who fought in the Revolution 1.    Lafayette – Frenchman who helped the U.S. 2.    Count Pulaski – Polish officer who helped the U.S. 3.    Baron Von Steuben – German who helped the U.S. (Prussian) 4.    John Adams – became the 2nd President of the U.S. 5.    Kosciusko – Polish officer who helped the U.S. 6.    King Louis XVI – King of France 7.    Comte de Grasse – Admiral of the French fleet at Yorktown, VA 8.    General Henry Knox – led Americans into New York into 1783 9.    Chief Joseph Brant – Indian chief who helped the Americans 10.           Major Andre – British officer that Benedict Arnold sold secrets to 11.           Earl of Sandwich – British naval officer E. Major Battles of the Revolutionary War 1.    Lexington & Concord, MA – first battle of the war 2.    Ticonderoga, NY – Americans stole cannon from the British 3.    Crown Point – Americans again stole British weapons 4.    Bunker Hill, MA – first organized battle of the war; actually Breed’s Hill 5.    Boston, MA – Americans took Boston 6.    Trenton, NJ – Washington crossed the Delaware River in winter to take city 7.    Princeton, NJ – American victory 8.    Brandywine Creek, PA – British won the battle 9.    Philadelphia, PA – capital of the U.S. taken by the British 10.     Germantown, PA – defeat for the Americans (General Greene lost) 11.     Fort Stanwix – Americans held the fort against the British 12.     Oriskany, NY – Americans won 13.     Bennington – Americans won 14.     Saratoga, NY – turning point of the war; the French came into the war 15.     Valley Forge, PA – not a real battle, but a very cold winter “The World Turned Upside Down” (3) Slide15:  1.          Monmouth, NY – Americans won 2.          Cahokia – Americans won; Northwest Territory battle 3.          Kaskaskia – Americans won; Northwest Territory battle 4.          Vincennes – Americans won; Northwest Territory battle 5.          Savannah, GA – British won 6.          Charleston, SC – British won 7.          Camden, NJ – British won 8.          Kings Mountain – Americans won 9.          Cowpens – Americans won 10.     Guilford Court House, NC – British won 11.     Yorktown, VA – final battle of the war; Cornwallis surrendered to Americans; French fleet trapped the British at Yorktown (peninsula) F.   Second Continental Congress 1. Radicals – favored extreme changes: Sam Adams & Patrick Henry wanted to separate from England 2. Conservatives – resisted extreme changes; asked England for patience and understanding 3. Moderates – wanted to work out changes within reasonable limits G. The Declaration of Independence by Thomas Jefferson 1.    Two basic parts: 2.    An argument for the rights of the colonists based on God’s laws of nature 3. A list of grievances against the King of England and Parliament 4. The third part simply states that the colonies are no longer a part of England 5. Important Ideas a.    All men are created equal b.    All men have inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness c.     When a government stops representing the wishes of the people, the people have the right to have a new government Slide16:  F.   Comparison of the U.S. and England (Chart) United States: Strengths: 1. Familiar home ground 2. Superior weapons and marksmen 3. Experienced officers and soldiers trained in past wars 4.Leadership of Washington 5. Inspiring Cause – Independence  Weaknesses: 1. Most soldiers were untrained 2. Shortage of food and ammunition 3. Infant navy 4. No central government   England: Strengths: 1. Strong, well-trained army 2. Strong government with money 3. Support of Loyalists 4. Many Indian allies  Weaknesses: 1. Distance of 3,000 miles to U.S. 2. Unfamiliar battle fronts 3. Inability to use Loyalists effectively 4. Weak military leaders VII.       Treaty of Paris (1783) A.  British recognition of the Independence of the U.S. B.  Extension of the U.S. borders to the Mississippi River C.  Acknowledgment of U.S. fishing rights off Newfoundland & Nova Scotia D.  Honoring of debts due creditors of either country E.   Restoration of the rights and property of the Loyalists F.   An end to the hostilities and withdrawal of all British land and sea forces

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