advertisement

MDA KTN Seminar

50 %
50 %
advertisement
Information about MDA KTN Seminar
Education

Published on March 14, 2008

Author: Tomasina

Source: authorstream.com

advertisement

Prospect Eleven: Princeton University’s Autonomous Vehicle Entry 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge:  Prospect Eleven: Princeton University’s Autonomous Vehicle Entry 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge Thursday, February 6, 2006 National Physical Laboratory Teddignton, Middlesex, UK Alain L. Kornhauser Team Leader, Prospect Eleven Professor, Operations Research & Financial Engineering Princeton University Co-founder & Board Chair, ALK Technologies, Inc. Applications of Knowing “Where am I” Two Examples: CoPilot|MinETA Real-Time Dynamic Minimum ETA Sat/Nav Prospect Eleven: The Making, Testing and Running of Princeton’s Entry in the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge:  Prospect Eleven: The Making, Testing and Running of Princeton’s Entry in the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge Alain L. Kornhauser Team Leader, Prospect Eleven Professor, Operations Research & Financial Engineering The DARPA Grand Challenge Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration:  The DARPA Grand Challenge Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration DARPA Grand Challenge Created in response to a US Congressional and DoD mandate, it was a field test intended to accelerate research and development in autonomous ground vehicles that will help save lives on the battlefield.  The Grand Challenge brought together individuals and organizations from industry, the R&D community, government, the armed services, academia, students, backyard inventors, and automotive enthusiasts in the pursuit of a technological challenge. The First Grand Challenge:  Across the Mojave, March 2004 From Barstow, California to Primm, Nevada offered a $1 million prize.  From the qualifying round at the California Speedway, 15 finalists emerged to attempt the Grand Challenge.  However, the prize went unclaimed as no vehicles were able to complete the difficult desert route. The 2005 Grand Challenge October 8, 2005 in the desert near Primm.  Prize increased to $2 million.  18 -month Life Cycle of Prospect Eleven:  18 -month Life Cycle of Prospect Eleven Prospect Eleven & Competition:  Prospect Eleven & Competition Slide7:  http://www.pcmag.com/slideshow_viewer/0,1205,l=&s=1489&a=161569&po=2,00.asp Homemade “Unlike the fancy “drive by wire” system employed by Stanford and VW, Princeton’s students built a homemade set of gears to drive their pickup. I could see from the electronics textbook they were using that they were learning as they went.” Teamwork:  Teamwork Real-time Decision System Andrew Saxe’08 Object Detection System Brendan Collins’08 Mechanical Systems Gordon Franken’08 Planning Systems Josh Herbach’08 Electronic Systems Bryan Cattle’07 Computing Systems Anand Atreya’07 Control Systems Scott Schiffres’06 Organizational Systems Rachel Blair’06 Team Leader Alain Kornhauser*71P03 Mechanics:  Mechanics Design and Fabrication of: Vehicle Actuators Steering Brakes Transmission Sensor Housings Stereo Camera GPS Antennae System Protection Shock-absorbing computers Secure installation of components Vehicle Actuators:  Vehicle Actuators Steering Motor from Bosch cordless drill. Modified gears mounted directly to steering wheel. Rotary encoder used for position feedback. Brakes Bicycle brake cable used to depress pedal. Motor-driven linear actuator. Load-cell used for tension feedback. Also: pneumatic e-brake, for fail-safe operation. Transmission Ability to shift from forward to reverse. Not used due to several issues: Slow actuation Difficulty interfacing with vehicle transmission Not open up an Achilles heel. Drill motor Steel Gears Rotary Encoder bike cable brake pedal motor Load cell Sensor Housings:  Sensor Housings Stereo Camera Camera rated for “indoor office use only” !!! Water & air tight enclosure Mounts for photographic filters System Protection:  System Protection Shock Absorption for computers. Old way: Computers were wrapped in foam. New way: Computers are rack-mounted on shock-isolating feet. Secure installation of other components. Batteries, wires, power supplies, air compressor… The “shake test” Shock-absorbing feet Stereo Vision System:  Stereo Vision System Principle of Operation: Difference between two cameras gives depth information Steps: Compute disparity image Find obstacles in each column Approximate with rectangles Filter in time domain Challenges:  Challenges Quantization Noise Lighting condition Field of view Occlusion Range The left camera sees::  The left camera sees: Point Grey Bumblebee Focal Length: 4mm Resolution: 640x480 Black & White The right camera sees::  The right camera sees: Point Grey Bumblebee Focal Length: 4mm Resolution: 640x480 Black & White Yielding a disparity map::  Yielding a disparity map: Intensity indicates distance: the lighter, the closer White indicates an invalidated location. Processing in each column::  Processing in each column: Intensity indicates confidence that an obstacle exists at that location. A darker line indicates a higher confidence. Bounding with rectangles::  Bounding with rectangles: Darker rectangles indicate higher confidence. Data Representation:  Data Representation Reference: http://www.darpa.mil/grandchallenge/TechPapers/Stanford.pdf vs. Tracking:  Tracking Navigation:  Navigation Blind-Man’s Cane Approach: Find best instantaneous velocity vector (heading and speed) within visible cone ahead. Step 1: Tube Projection:  Step 1: Tube Projection Slide24:  Gap Identification Examples of “Shoot the Gap”:  Examples of “Shoot the Gap” Interfacing to Existing Vehicle Data:  Interfacing to Existing Vehicle Data Existing electronic information available on ’05 GMC Canyon: Engine status – temp, RPM, diagnostic codes,... Transmission – what gear are we in? 4WD on/off Car traction control – are wheels slipping, are we really moving? Wheel speed/odometry – how far have we moved? how fast? Throttle is electronic All monitored & used by Prospect Eleven Other thoughts:  Other thoughts Feedback Control Systems:  Feedback Control Systems Speed Control Module: Receives desired speed from Navigation Decides how to modulate throttle and brake Requirements Gracefully reach and maintain desired speed Smooth acceleration and braking To minimize skidding on loose sand wet grass Strict adherence to speed limit Minimize overshoot Steering Control Module Receives desired heading angle and speed from Navigation Converts to desired steering wheel angle Constrains wheel angle as function of speed to avoid roll-over. Control Coefficients tuned to trade off response and overshoot Speed Control -- Implementation:  Speed Control -- Implementation Proportional Integral Control Output = KPev + ∫KIevdt + KD (dev∕dt) Where evelocity = Vdesired – Vcurrent KP term deals with the bulk of error KI integrates up error to eliminate steady state error KD reduces overshoot and ringing by slowing response Speed Control Desired Speed Current Speed Latest Speeds Percent Throttle Percent Brake Tension Why P11 stopped after 9.4 miles:  Why P11 stopped after 9.4 miles We store a list all obstacles we are currently concerned about Each time a new obstacle is received, we add it to this list Each obstacle needs to have its relative position updated each time we get new vehicle position information It gets these updates by subscribing to the RelativeFrameUpdated event When we have passed an obstacle by more than twenty feet, we remove it from the list However, we were not unsubscribing the obstacle from the RelativeFrameUpdated event Thus, nine miles down the road, our computer was still processing a bush it saw near the beginning of the course!  C# is a powerful language, but it has to be used carefully Slide33:  DAPRPA Grand Challenge Event, October 07, 2005 The Day Before 2005 Grand Challenge Event Slide34:  L2R: Rachel Blair’06, Dan Chiou’05, Prof. Alain Kornhauser*71 P03, Ben Essenburg’05, Bryan Cattle’07, Josh Herbach’08. Jeff Jones*05, Kamil Chihoudy’06, Scott Schiffres’06, Anand Atreya’07; Launch Team: Andrew Saxe’08, Brendan Collins’08, Gordon Franken’08 DAPRPA Grand Challenge Event, October 08, 2005 The DARPA Grand Challenge Event Team 2005 Grand Challenge Event Slide35:  DAPRPA Grand Challenge Event, October 08, 2005 The Launch of Prospect Eleven 2005 Grand Challenge Event Slide36:  DAPRPA Grand Challenge Event, October 08, 2005 Return of Prospect Eleven @ 8 Mile Mark 2005 Grand Challenge Event Slide37:  DAPRPA Grand Challenge, Unfinished Business, October 31, 2005 Approaching Beer Bottle Pass 19:02 2005 Grand Challenge Course Slide38:  DAPRPA Grand Challenge, Unfinished Business, October 31, 2005 Beer Bottle Pass 19:10 PST 2005 Grand Challenge Course Slide39:  DAPRPA Grand Challenge, Unfinished Business, November 1, 2005 The Assent: 17:00 Rerun to Beer Bottle Pass Slide40:  DAPRPA Grand Challenge, Unfinished Business, November 1, 2005 The Assent: 17:01 Rerun to Beer Bottle Pass Slide41:  DAPRPA Grand Challenge, Unfinished Business, November 2, 2005 12:25 2004 Grand Challenge Course Slide42:  DAPRPA Grand Challenge, Unfinished Business, November 2, 2005 14:26 2004 Grand Challenge Course Slide43:  DAPRPA Grand Challenge, Unfinished Business, November 2, 2005 The Finish 18:44 2004 Grand Challenge Course L2R: Prof. Alain Kornhauser*71 P03, Andrew Saxe’08, Bryan Cattle’07, Scott Schiffres’06 Prospect Eleven’s Unfinished Business October 31-November 2, 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge ’04 & ’05 Courses:  Prospect Eleven’s Unfinished Business October 31-November 2, 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge ’04 & ’05 Courses GPS Tracks and Timing Maps DAPRPA Grand Challenge, Unfinished Business, October 31, 2005 Finish, ’05 Course Slide45:  Start 7:53:30 PST Finish 19:35:49 Elapsed Time 11:43:49 Pause Time ~2:55:49 Autonomous Time 8:48:59 8:44:48 1:10 Pause 10:48:04 3:45 Open & pass thru gate 9:52:53 8:14 Open gate & pass through 13:18:53 1:10 Pause 18:20:53 38:50 prepare inside video 19:00:21 – 0:56 Adjust Camera 19:02:53 – 1:52 Wait for chase car 10:37:37 5:54 Open & pass thru gate 18:02:50 2:08 Pause 11:15:15 5:14 Pause at ranch, go thru gate 11:29:52 42:00 Pull chase car out of mud 13:16:05 1:32 Rejoin course 10:53:33 2:15 Pause 14:16:03 2:23 remove rubble blocking I-15 underpass 12:42:35 4:40 Pause 12:33:51 1:19 Pause 15:13:31 1:30 Wait for traffic to clear on NV 161 16:03:07 1:53 Pause 16:07:48 4:32 to take pictures 16:12:50 11:44 negotiate bulldozed area 16:31:17 2:12 Survey another bulldozed area 8:20:55 5:20 Pictures at Primm return 8:31:42 8:53 Take down fence & pass through GPS Tracks & Timing of Prospect Eleven’s Autonomous run of the 05 GC Course 10/31/05 Slide46:  Red: 8:00 Outbound 10/31 Deviation to avoid “lake” Yellow: 16:30 Return 10/31 Deviation to avoid “lake” Blue: 8:00 Outbound 11/2 Lake dried sufficiently, no deviation required. GPS Tracks & Timing of Prospect Eleven Diverting Around Not-so-dry Lake 05 GC Course 10/31/05 Slide47:  DAPRPA Grand Challenge, Unfinished Business, November 1, 2005 Return to Beer Bottle Pass GPS Tracks of return to Beer Bottle Pass 11/01/05 Slide48:  DAPRPA Grand Challenge, Unfinished Business, November 1, 2005 Return to Beer Bottle Pass 2005 Grand Challenge Course, 1.9 miles Start Down: 17:10:17 End Up: 17:04:48 Duration: 0:10:21 Start Up: 16:54:27 End Down: 17:18:04 Duration: 0:7:47 GPS Tracks & Timing of Prospect Eleven’s Autonomous run up then back down Beer Bottle Pass 11/02/05 Slide49:  7:28:33 4:35 negotiate bulldozed area 7:55:26 33:08 Divert to get gas for P11 8:39:13 11:50 take pictures 8:34:01 4:30 take pictures 10:13:43 2:10 cross road 9:42:26 1:50 take pictures 10:04:59 2:07 take pictures 10:28:11 3:20 take pictures 7:08:36 Start ’04 GC Course GPS Tracks & Timing of Prospect Eleven’s Autonomous run of the 04 GC Course 11/02/05 DAPRPA Grand Challenge, Unfinished Business, November 2, 2005 Slide50:  14:50:xx 4:00 Avoid Washout in 4 spots 15:10:10 2:04 Inspect burial monument 12:05:25 0:30 Xing CA 127 12:08:00 2:00 take pictures 13:08:54 1:05:56 Fix steering encoder 12:38:03 2:17 take pictures 12:19:37 1:50 take pictures 10:57:13 6:30 take pictures 12:53:36 0:54 Pause 14:33:15 2:45 take pictures 14:44:13 2:47 take pictures GPS Tracks & Timing of Prospect Eleven’s Autonomous run of the 04 GC Course 11/02/05 DAPRPA Grand Challenge, Unfinished Business, November 2, 2005 Slide51:  17:16:33 15:28 Replace Front Left Blowout 16:12:07 0:50 Xing road 15:19:00 4:32 take pictures 15:46:03 2:07 take pictures 15:38:01 1:37 take pictures 16:33:15 2:45 Letting traffic pass on Randall Drive 16:35:14 1:00 Xing Yermo Road 17:32:27 4:00 Inspecting Silt Filled underpasses < 4 ft. clearance 18:41:26 1:10 Pause let cars pass on Stoddar Valley Rd GPS Tracks & Timing of Prospect Eleven’s Autonomous run of the 04 GC Course 11/02/05 18:18 Top 18:35 Bottom Daggett Pass Start 7:08:36 Finish 18:44:19 – Arrival at gate of Slash X Cafe Elapsed Time 11:37:43 Pause Time ~03:28:00 Autonomous Time 08:09:00 File photo File photo File photo Finish, ’04 Course Accomplishments::  Accomplishments: Invited to National Qualifying Event Seeded 10th for Grand Challenge Accomplished 10 miles of Autonomous Driving in GC “Completed” the 2005 & 2004 Courses during Fall Break Lessons Learned:  Lessons Learned It is non-trivial to “Just Do It” You must respect Uncertainty (and plan for it) Harmonize Accuracy Time is your Friend (only know what you need to know when you need to know it) More is not necessarily Better Always assume your code has bugs Stereo Vision Does Work! Three (3) Regimes of Autonomous Control Under “7” mph Between 7- 25 mph Above 25 mph Slide55:  Operational Processes used by Capital District Advanced Traveler Information System (CD-ATIS) CoPilot|MinETA: Real-Time Dynamic Minimum ETA Sat/Nav by Alain L. Kornhauser Co-founder & Board Chair, ALK technologies, Inc. Slide56:  PROBLEM: How to get from A to B Many Paths Each with a Different Value to the Decision Maker Each Segment Changing with Uncertainty over Time Things Change!! Slide57:  Link Travel Times Historic, Actual & Forecast During Day One week-day on one link Things change! Real-Time Dynamic Minimum ETA Sat/Nav:  Real-Time Dynamic Minimum ETA Sat/Nav 250 Volunteers using CoPilot|Live commuting to/from RPI CoPilot continuously shares real-time probe-based traffic data CoPilot continuously seeks a minimum ETA route Conducted its version of the abandoned “ADVANCE” (Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation ConcEpt )project Link Project Objectives:  Project Objectives Create: real-time data collection from vehicles and dissemination to vehicles of congestion avoidance information which is used to automatically reroute drivers onto the fastest paths to their destinations Target locations: small to medium-sized urban areas Aspects: operations, observability, controllability, users, information transfer to travelers Experiment Details:  3-month field test Capital District (Albany), NY, USA Journey-to-work 200 participants 80 Tech Park employees 120 HVCC staff & students “Techy” travelers Network: Freeways & signalized arterials Congested links Path choices exist Experiment Details Basic Operational Architecture:  Basic Operational Architecture Two-way cellular data communications between The In-Vehicle “Device”:  The In-Vehicle “Device” Every Second:  Every Second CoPilot|Live Determines “Where am I”, Then… Set i=j Every “n” Minutes:  Every “n” Minutes ALK Server … Send… New TT(mi, mj ) for every (i,j) in Uk (280 bytes/100arcs) CoPilot|Live … Updates TT(mi, mj ) in Uk , ETA on current route, Finds new MinETA route, if MinETA “substantially” better then… Adopt new route ALK Server … Determines Uk : set of TT(mi, mj ) within “bounding polygon” of (Location;Destination)k that have changed more than “y%” since last update. When Available:  When Available ALK Server … Receives: Other congestion information from various source, blends them in TT(mi, mj ) What We Heard:  What We Heard I find it interesting how willing I am to listen to a machine tell me which route to take I like using it for when I have no idea on how to get somewhere, and it is good for my normal route because it keeps me out of traffic on route 4. It is great, it took a while to trust it telling me where to go, but i like it because i cant get lost! Thanks. This thing is awesome. I was a little skeptical at first but once i got the hang of it I don’t know how I went along without it. I think any student commuting to school will benefit from this. I'm very impressed with the CoPilot program thus far. The directions are accurate and it adapts quickly to route changes. also Can Watch Vehicles:  1 2 3 also Can Watch Vehicles North American Monument Network:  North American Monument Network ~125,000 North American “Monuments” ~106 (mi, mj) 1st Commercial application in PC*Miler v19 (contains Median Travel Time by Time-of-Day for all NA) Slide70:  Thank you Alain L. Kornhauser alaink@alk.com www.alk.eu.com www.princeton.edu/~alaink/

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

MDA-KTN_Seminar - Ace Recommendation Platform - 8

Jan 26, 2006TeamworkReal-time Decision SystemAndrew Saxe’08Object Detection SystemBrendan Collins’08Mechanical SystemsGordon Franken&rsquo ...
Read more

MDA-KTN_Seminar - Ace Recommendation Platform - 1

Prospect Eleven: Princeton University’s Autonomous Vehicle Entry 2005 DARPA Grand ChallengeThursday, February 6, 2006National Physical ...
Read more

Kärntner Veranstaltungsdatenbank

Das Seminar richtet sich an alle, die sich für dieses Thema interessieren, ... E-Mail: abt6.kultur@ktn.gv.at; ATU 36845900; Impressum Datenschutzerklärung
Read more

IOM3 | The Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining

The Institute is a body incorporated by Royal Charter, Registered Charity No 269275. Patron: HM The Queen. The Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining ...
Read more

Las Vegas, Nevada News and Weather | KTNV-TV | ktnv.com

Local ABC affiliate (KTNV) offers news, weather, sports, traffic and health reports, TV and radio program schedules, polls, chat, contests.
Read more

KTEN News - KTEN.com - No One Gets You Closer

KTEN News - KTEN.com - No One Gets You Closer. Member Center: Create Account | Log In; ... Denison ISD offering seminar on ways to protect kids online
Read more

Introduction of Electronic Commerce - About ORFE ...

Applications of Knowing “Where am I” Two Examples: Prospect Eleven: Princeton University’s Autonomous Vehicle Entry 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge
Read more

Shohruh.Tk - Universal portal!!!

Shohruh.Tk - Universal portal!!!. O'zbekcha yuklamalar olami. Eng sara yuklamalar siz uchun, faqat bizning saytda!
Read more