MD SuDeChallenges TTBe

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Published on January 9, 2008

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Challenges to Sustainable Development in the Mekong Delta: a regional perspective on important policy issues & research needs :  Challenges to Sustainable Development in the Mekong Delta: a regional perspective on important policy issues & research needs Tran Thanh Be – MDI CTU Bach Tan Sinh – NISTPASS Fiona Miller – SEI June 2007 Aims of Monograph:  Aims of Monograph review and analyse existing literature to produce a “state of knowledge” on specific issues; identify where there is consensus; lack of consensus and why on key issues; identify where there are information and knowledge gaps, with an eye to identifying knowledge gaps to be addressed in future research; provide a “regional perspective on each issue”; and make the wider importance and policy linkages of each issue explicit. MD & agro-ecological zones of VN:  MD & agro-ecological zones of VN (* 2002) Mekong Delta:  Mekong Delta 3.96 mil. ha most downstream of MR Basin (12% VN land area) 17 million inhabitants (22% VN population) Contribution to the country: > 50% rice production > 80% fruit production > 60% fish production 27% GDP 3.21 million ha agricultural land 1.85 mil. ha for rice 0.22 mil. ha for fruit trees 0.22 mil. ha for annual industrial crops 0.63 mil. ha for aquaculture 0.39 mil. ha for forestry Vietnam GDP structure:  Vietnam GDP structure Mekong Delta GDP structure MAIN SOILS IN MEKONG DELTA:  MAIN SOILS IN MEKONG DELTA alluvial soils 1.1 mil. ha, 28% actual acid soils 1.1 mil. ha, 28% potential acid soils 0.5 mil. ha, 13% saline soils 0.8 mil. ha, 21% hilly and peat soils 0.4 mil. ha, 10% Flood:  Flood Salinity intrusion Rainfall 1600mm 90% in rainy season (May-Dec) Mekong river wet season 40,000m3/s dry season 1,800m3/s MD agro-ecological zones:  900,000 ha FAZ 500,000 ha PRZ 400,000 ha LXZ 100,000 ha HMZ 600,000 ha TBZ 600,000 ha CZ 800,000 ha CPZ MD agro-ecological zones CROPPING PATTERNS IN THE MEKONG DELTA, before 1966 (prior to the introduction of IR5, IR8) >1000 local varieties: early, medium, late maturing, and floating:  CROPPING PATTERNS IN THE MEKONG DELTA, before 1966 (prior to the introduction of IR5, IR8) >1000 local varieties: early, medium, late maturing, and floating Floating Double Transplanting Single Transplanting Mangrove LAND USE 1976:  LAND USE 1976 M 1.4 mil ha R 0.5 mil ha 2R 0.7 mil ha R 1.0 mil ha 2R 0.2 mil ha 3R 0.2 mil ha S LAND USE 1996 R R U R = single rice 2R = double rice 3R = triple rice R+ = rice+other crop F = fruits P = pineapple S = shrimp M = mangrove U = unused land LAND USE 2002 Rice production in MD:  Rice production in MD Monograph structure – the 5 papers:  Monograph structure – the 5 papers MD sustainable development: problems, challenges and policies MD flood and salinity management MD livelihoods and resource use strategies MD fisheries policy: transboundary challenges & implications for economic growth and food security MD water use and competition Regional context and linkages Upstream – downstream interactions:  Regional context and linkages Upstream – downstream interactions Monograph highlights the transboundary nature of water and fisheries MD downstream region, vulnerable to the impacts of upstream developments dry season water quantity decline water quality decline severe floods Developments in MD also contribute to ‘upstream’ environmental impacts Flood protection dykes in upper delta result in banking up of floodwaters in Cambodian part of delta Modification of floodplain and decline in wetlands, and increased agrochemical use, contribute to decline in migratory fisheries Growing regional integration of economies rise in cross-border trade and migration Within the delta there are upstream-downstream interactions Sub-theme 1 Problems, Challenges and Policies Relating to Sustainable Development in the Mekong Delta NVSanh, TTBe and PCHuu:  Sub-theme 1 Problems, Challenges and Policies Relating to Sustainable Development in the Mekong Delta NVSanh, TTBe and PCHuu overview of problems, challenges and policies for sustainable development in the Mekong Delta particular focus on water,considering its fundamental role in the environment, economy, food security and livelihoods in the delta Highlighting some of challenges associated with policy implementation potential future research areas Sub-theme 2 Floods and Salinity Management in the Mekong Delta LATuan, CTHoanh, Fiona Miller and BTSinh :  Sub-theme 2 Floods and Salinity Management in the Mekong Delta LATuan, CTHoanh, Fiona Miller and BTSinh Review of 2 main transboundary environmental problems confronting MD people: flood in rainy season salt water intrusion in dry season Description of current state of knowledge on these phenomena and approaches to their management Conclusions with some recommendations and the identification of research gaps Sub-theme 3 Livelihoods and Resource Use Strategies in the Mekong Delta NDCan, LTDuong, Fiona Miller and Eva Lindskog :  Sub-theme 3 Livelihoods and Resource Use Strategies in the Mekong Delta NDCan, LTDuong, Fiona Miller and Eva Lindskog Review of changes in farmers’ livelihoods, resources use strategies Highlights how society deals with a very dynamic – natural, economic and policy – environment, and the impacts of government interventions Identifies research needs that can contribute to generating appropriate strategic recommendations for water resources management, rural development and poverty reduction Sub-theme 4 Transboundary challenges for fisheries policy in the Mekong Delta: implications for economic growth and food security VTTLoc, LXSinh and Simon Bush :  Sub-theme 4 Transboundary challenges for fisheries policy in the Mekong Delta: implications for economic growth and food security VTTLoc, LXSinh and Simon Bush Overview of current knowledge on fisheries in light of the transboundary nature of MD (natural resources, production systems, and trade and livelihoods) implications of national and international fisheries policy key transboundary environmental challenges for fisheries implications of national and international fisheries policy on food security, quality and safety in MD Identification of gaps in policy for sustainable development of fisheries and future research needs Sub-theme 5 Water Use and Competition in the Mekong Delta DKNhan, NVBe and NHTrung :  Sub-theme 5 Water Use and Competition in the Mekong Delta DKNhan, NVBe and NHTrung Analysis of water conflicts among water users in MD & possible options for more efficient and equitable water use Impacts of current intensive rice and aquaculture farming systems and institutional constraints on water access and sharing in upper irrigated acid sulphate soil area coastal zones Analysis of constraints and possible solutions in each specific context for policy recommendations Further investigations and recommendations Key findings Sustainable development: problems, challenges and policies:  Key findings Sustainable development: problems, challenges and policies Conflicts over the use of water occur at different levels (regional, local and sectoral); need to introduce the integrated water resource management in MD to address the issue of conflicts over the use of water; A need to verify and clarify land use for agricultural and fishery production in the Mekong region; Key findings Floods and Salinity Management:  Key findings Floods and Salinity Management Copping capacity and resilience of local communities depend on the changing flood regimes shaped by the global climate change. The institutionalization of this integration principle requires the establishment of a mechanism promoting the institutional and social learning as well as sharing experience on how best manage water resource across provinces and sectors in the MD and across Vietnam and Cambodia; Floods and saline instrusion have both damages and benefits Key findings Livelihoods and Resource Use Strategies:  Key findings Livelihoods and Resource Use Strategies Changes in livelihoods of MD people associated with physical conditions, resettlement, canal excavation and socio-economic situations and government policies. Three key policies and economic changes From rice intensification to livelihood diversification Effective land use Land and water use conflicts Multiple resource interests need to be addressed in natural resources management to avoid resource conflicts Institutional support for farmers needs to address technical AND socio-economic issues Participation of many stakeholders is required when major infrastructure development occurs Key findings Transboundary challenges for fisheries policy:  Key findings Transboundary challenges for fisheries policy Transboundary issues: regional fisheries ecology (habitat, migration) and fish trade Fisheries production: from habitat to market involved series of scaled networks – formal & informal regulations / norms / rules, including EurepGAP & GAA Domestic fisheries policy challenges: better regulations though top-down Need for continuing support for quality improvements within fisheries supply chain Lack of strict implementation of environmental regulations for protection of aquatic resources Key findings Water Use and Competition:  Key findings Water Use and Competition Increasing water competition between upper and lower delta Dry-season farming results in a decline in freshwater and salinity intrusion downstream Expansion of aquaculture in upper delta creates water quality problems downstream Improvements in water use efficiency needs to be seriously considered. Most ASS areas have been converted to agriculture or aquaculture production creating serious water quality problems Further expansion of production activities on ASS poses serious health and environmental risks, and thus requires improved monitoring and assessment. Water conflicts in the coastal zone are due to both interventions in the upper delta and changes in the coastal zone (infrastructure, aquaculture, deforestation). Conflict has resulted in a rethink of government policy and planning in the coastal zone, giving greater consideration to multiple water values, integrated farming systems and participation Priority research needs Development policies:  Priority research needs Development policies Master plan for MD’s sustainable development regarding multi-sector use of natural resources in the socio-economic context of Vietnam as a member of WTO Master plan for MD people (staff and villagers) capacity building in resources (natural, financial, technological, human, social) management Supply chain analysis of main agricultural and aquacultural products of MD Market (land, financial, labor, main commodities) development at provincial and regional levels Infrastructure development Priority research needs Flood & salinity management:  Priority research needs Flood & salinity management Impacts of hydropower dams upstream on downstream hydrology and ecology Environmental impact assessments of full-flood protection dykes upstream and downstream within MD Effects of global warming scenarios on water and land resources, and human activities in MD Flood and salinity hazard maps Multi-purpose water management Impacts of over-exploitation of groundwater resources on land depression or arsenic contamination in MD Conservation of wetland ecosystems in MD Priority research needs Livelihoods & resources use strategies:  Priority research needs Livelihoods & resources use strategies Community-based approach to natural resources management and the local poor livelihood improvement Strategies to strengthen the asset base of the rural poor aiming to poverty alleviation and sustainable development Priority research needs Fishery policies:  Priority research needs Fishery policies Measures for a better regional policy integration of fisheries ecology, trans-boundary sources of aquaculture feed, and for improvement of trans-boundary trade of aquatic products in the Delta region Fisheries sustainable development by appropriate chain policy, supply chain quality management, and value chain analysis – case of the Vietnamese Delta Priority research needs Water use and competition:  Priority research needs Water use and competition Improvement of water productivity in rice farming and aquaculture for remaining high income of production systems and safeguarding the environment Spatial and temporal patterns of salinity intrusion and determinants in the context of water resources developments in upstream countries Maximising economic value of water in aiming at less environmental impacts, improved livelihoods of the poor and ensuring national food security Farmers’ incentives to water saving practices in agriculture and aquaculture Mechanisms (cooperation, participation, coordination) for secure and equitable water access and use at local and delta scales Priority Sumernet Research Needs:  Priority Sumernet Research Needs Study of changes in flood situation in upper Mekong Delta (Cambodia and Vietnam) and impacts on livelihoods The role and effectiveness of community organisations in coping and responding to environmental changes and other risks Sustainable fisheries development by appropriate supply chain quality management –value chain analysis of the Mekong Delta with an emphasis on regional linkages

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