Max Planck (student preso)

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Information about Max Planck (student preso)
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Published on February 22, 2009

Author: ae77

Source: slideshare.net

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student presentation
general physics 1
Presentation 2 group 5
Physics Nobel Prize Winner
21 Feb 2009

Max Planck

Content Bibliography Work life Physic Theory

Bibliography -Was born in Kiel, Germany, on April 23, 1858 -Studied at the University of Munich and Berlin - His father was Professor of Constitutional Law in the University of Kiel - R eceived his doctorate of philosophy at Munich in 1879

-Was born in Kiel, Germany,

on April 23, 1858

-Studied at the University

of Munich and Berlin

Work life Planck's earliest work was on the subject of thermodynamics He published papers on entropy, on thermoelectricity and on the theory of dilute solutions . From these studies he was able to deduce the relationship between the energy and the frequency of radiation .

Planck's earliest work was on the subject of thermodynamics

He published papers on entropy, on thermoelectricity and on the theory of dilute solutions .

From these studies he was able to deduce the relationship between the energy and the frequency of radiation .

W ork Life Experimental observations was on the wavelength distribution of the energy emitted by a black body. He came up with idea that the energy emitted by a resonator could only take on discrete values or quanta . The energy for a resonator of frequency v is hv where h is a universal constant, now called Planck's constant .

Experimental observations was on the wavelength distribution of the energy emitted by a black body.

He came up with idea that the energy emitted by a resonator could only take on discrete values or quanta .

The energy for a resonator of frequency v is hv where h is a universal constant, now called Planck's constant .

W ork Life So basically , Planck was known for Planck’s constant, Planck’s postulate and Planck’s law of black body radiation He got a Nobel prize in 1918 He died on October 4 th in the year 1947 when he was 89

So basically , Planck was known for Planck’s constant, Planck’s postulate and Planck’s law of black body radiation

He got a Nobel prize in 1918

He died on October 4 th in the year 1947 when he was 89

Max Planck’s Works and Discoveries As Planck w as conducting an experiment, he found that experimental observations on the wavelength distribution of the energy emitted by a black body as a function of temperature were inconsistent with the predictions of classical physics . However, he was able to deduce the relationship between the energy and the frequency of radiation . In 1900, he announced his derivation of the relationship that the energy emitted by a resonator could only take on discrete values or quanta . The energy for a resonator of frequency v is hv where h is a universal constant, now called Planck's constant .

Planck’s Works -Planck’s law of Black-body radiation -Planck’s Constant -Planck Postulate

What is Black body? A black body is an object that absorbs all electromagnetic radiation that falls on it . No electromagnetic radiation passes through it and none is reflected. Because no light ( visible electromagnetic radiation ) is reflected or transmitted. A black body at temperature T emits exactly the same wavelengths and intensities which would be present in an environment at equilibrium at temperature T , and which would be absorbed by the body . Since the radiation in such an environment has a spectrum that depends only on temperature, the temperature of the object is directly related to the wavelengths of the light that it emits . The light emitted by a black body is called black-body radiation .

Pl anc k’s law of Bla ck-body radiation Planck's law describes the spectral radiance of electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths from a black body at temperature T . As a function of frequency ν , Planck's law is written as:                     This function represents the emitted power per unit area of emitting surface, per unit solid angle, and per unit frequency . where,               is the amount of energy per unit surface area per unit time per unit solid angle emitted in the frequency range between ν and ν+dν by a black body at temperature T ;     is Planck's constant ;     is the speed of light ; and     is Boltzmann's constant.

Planck's law describes the spectral radiance of electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths from a black body at temperature T . As a function of frequency ν , Planck's law is written as:

                   

This function represents the emitted power per unit area of emitting surface, per unit solid angle, and per unit frequency .

where,

              is the amount of energy per unit surface area per unit time per unit solid angle emitted in the frequency range between ν and ν+dν by a black body at temperature T ;

    is Planck's constant ;

    is the speed of light ; and

    is Boltzmann's constant.

Intensity of light emitted from a black body at any givenfrequency . Each color is a different temperature . Planck was the first to explain the shape of these curves . Intensity of light emitted from a black body at any given frequency . Each color is a different temperature . Planck was the first to explain the shape of these curves .

Intensity of light emitted from a black body at any givenfrequency . Each color is a different temperature . Planck was the first to explain the shape of these curves .

Planck’s Constant The Planck ’s constant ( denoted h ) , is a physical constant used to describe the sizes of quanta in quantum mechanics. It is named after Max Planck , one of the founders of quantum theory . The Planck constant is the proportionality constant between energy ( E ) of a photon and the frequency of its associated electromagnetic wave ( ν ). This relation between the energy and frequency is called the Planck relation .             erg.s 6.626   068   85 ( 33 ) ×10 −27 eV.s 4.135   667   33 ( 10 ) ×10 −15 J.s 6.626   068   96 ( 33 ) ×10 −34 Units Values of h

The Planck ’s constant ( denoted h ) , is a physical constant used to describe the sizes of quanta in quantum mechanics. It is named after Max Planck , one of the founders of quantum theory . The Planck constant is the proportionality constant between energy ( E ) of a photon and the frequency of its associated electromagnetic wave ( ν ). This relation between the energy and frequency is called the Planck relation .      

     

A closely related constant is the reduced Planck constant , denoted ħ ("h-bar") , which is equal to the Planck constant divided by ( or reduced by ) 2 π. T he reduced Planck constant is used when frequency is expressed in terms of radians per second instead of cycles per second . The expression of a frequency in radians per second is often called angular frequency ( ω ) , where ω   =  2 π ν .

Planck Postulate The Planck ’s Postulate was used by Planck in his derivation of his law of black body radiation in 1900 . It is the postulate that the energy of oscillators in a black body is quantized by : where n = 1, 2, 3, ... , h is Planck's constant , and ν is the frequency . This assumption allowed Planck to derive a formula for the entire spectrum of a black body. Planck's postulate was further applied to understanding the Compton effect , and was applied by Niels Bohr to explain the spectrum of the hydrogen atom and derive the correct value of the Rydberg constant. Moreover, Einstein used and adapted the Planck postulate to explain the photoelectric effect .

The Planck ’s Postulate was used by Planck in his derivation of his law of black body radiation in 1900 . It is the postulate that the energy of oscillators in a black body is quantized by :

where n = 1, 2, 3, ... , h is Planck's constant , and ν is the frequency .

This assumption allowed Planck to derive a formula for the entire spectrum of a black body.

http :// nobelprize . org / nobel_prizes / physics / laureates / 1918 / planck - bio . html http :// nobelprize . org / nobel_prizes / physics / laureates / 1918 / planck - bio . html http :// en . wikipedia . org / wiki / Black_body#Equations_governing_black_bodies http :// en . wikipedia . org / wiki / Planck%27s_law_of_black - body_radiation http :// en . wikipedia . org / wiki / Planck%27s_constant http :// en . wikipedia . org / wiki / Planck_postulate References

http :// nobelprize . org / nobel_prizes / physics / laureates / 1918 / planck - bio . html

http :// nobelprize . org / nobel_prizes / physics / laureates / 1918 / planck - bio . html

http :// en . wikipedia . org / wiki / Black_body#Equations_governing_black_bodies

http :// en . wikipedia . org / wiki / Planck%27s_law_of_black - body_radiation

http :// en . wikipedia . org / wiki / Planck%27s_constant

http :// en . wikipedia . org / wiki / Planck_postulate

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