Matter_and_energy

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Information about Matter_and_energy
Education

Published on May 25, 2018

Author: HempWorx

Source: authorstream.com

MATTER: MATTER Slide2: Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space Slide3: Mass vs. Weight Mass = 68kg Wt =150 lb Mass = 68kg Wt = 25 lb Mass = 68 kg Wt = 0 lb Earth Moon In space PROPERTIES OF MATTER: PROPERTIES OF MATTER Physical qualities observed or measured without changing the composition of the material Extensive/Extrinsic depend on the amount of matter e.g. mass, volume, width. area, thickness, height, weight, length PROPERTIES OF MATTER: PROPERTIES OF MATTER Intensive/Intrinsic do not depend on the quantity of matter e.g. density, color, taste, odor. malleability,solubility, hardness, boiling point, melting point, freezing point,ductility, miscibility, luster Slide6: Ductility Malleability PROPERTIES OF MATTER Chemical –properties that can only be observed by changing the identity of the substance e.g. when iron rusts : PROPERTIES OF MATTER Chemical –properties that can only be observed by changing the identity of the substance e.g. when iron rusts STATES OF MATTER: STATES OF MATTER Solid has definite shape and volume rigid and compact atoms held tightly together with very little spaces between them Liquid has no definite shape, assumes shape of container, has definite volume atoms are loosely arranged STATES OF MATTER: STATES OF MATTER Gas no definite volume and shape, takes the shape of the container atoms more loosely arranged,expand indefinitely Plasma made up of ionized or electrically charged particles exists at very high temperature : : States of Matter: States of Matter Slide15: Identify the states of matter Slide16: CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER: CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER Pure substances Elements Compounds Mixtures Homogeneous Heterogeneous CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER: CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER Elements – pure substances that cannot be separated into simpler form, made up of only one kind of atom e.g. metals non metals metalloids noble/inert gases Slide19: Different metals What properties are common to metals? CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER: CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER Compounds- substances composed of two or more elements chemically combined in a definite proportion Acids Bases Salts oxides Slide21: What properties are common to acids? To Bases? CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER: CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER Mixtures – physical combinations of two or more elements where each element retains its own properties, can be separated by physical means Homogeneous – mixture whose parts are not distinguishable , consists only of one phase, e.g. solutions like sugar in water CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER: CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER Heterogeneous- mixture wherein the parts can be distinguished or differentiated by the naked eye, consists of 2 or more phases Colloids Suspensions Coarse mixtures CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER: CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER Colloid-heterogeneous mixture that appear homogeneous,particles are fine but can still be differentiated under the microscope,manifests Tyndall effect e.g. blood, milk, jelly, mayonnaise Slide25: A colloid (left glass) contains particles 1-100 nm in size, large enough to scatter a beam of light (Tyndall effect) A solution (right glass) contains particles 1nm or less in size, do not scatter light CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER: CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER Suspension - heterogeneous mixture wherein the suspended particles are big enough to be seen by the naked eye,settle down upon standing e. g. – nail polish, paint CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER: CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER Coarse mixtures- heterogeneous mixture wherein the suspended particles are larger and can be seen by the naked eye e.g. sand in water CHANGES IN MATTER: CHANGES IN MATTER Physical – change in state or form only, the composition remains the same, hence no new substance is formed cutting of wood tearing of paper pounding melting, freezing, evaporation CHANGES IN MATTER: CHANGES IN MATTER Chemical – change at which the composition of the substance is altered resulting in the formation of a new substance e.g. burning of wood rusting of iron digestion of food Slide30: Copper metal placed in a solution of Silver nitrate forming silver metal and a blue solution of copper(II) nitrate. What type of change occurred ? Change in matter Slide31: Identify the change in matter Slide32: Identify the change in matter Slide33: Identify the changes Slide34: Identify the type of change Slide35:                                                                                                                                                                                                                   HIGHLIGHTS Slide36: Atomic Metal Emissions Monitoring                             Iron filings injected into a plasma release atoms that become excited and emit light which can be readily analyzed. An atomic metal emissions monitor can be positioned within a smokestack where it could detect hazardous emissions in real time. Slide37: Water Purification Systems                              Plasma-based sources can emit intense beams of UV & X ray radiation or electron beams for a variety of environmental applications. For water sterilization, intense UV emission disables the DNA of microorganisms in the water which then cannot replicate. There is no effect on taste or smell of the water and the technique only takes about 12 seconds. This plasma-based UV method is effective against all water-born bacteria and viruses. Intense UV water purification systems are especially relevant to the needs of developing countries because they can be made simple to use and have low maintenance, high throughput and low cost. Plasma-based UV water treatment systems use about 20,000 times less energy than boiling water! Slide38: Real-time Clean Fuel Generation                                                 A plasma device being developed produces hydrogen-rich gas from diesel fuel, gasoline, methane and other hydrogen-rich fuels; provides cleaner burning fuels for conventional engines; works with fuel cells for higher efficiency and reduced pollution; and dramatically reduces environmentally toxic substances in the products of combustion. Slide39: Pollution Monitoring: Exhaust gas flow from a furnace passes through a microwave plasma, becomes excited and emits light which is analyzed by a spectrometer to identify any hazardous elements. Slide40: Drastically Reduce Landfill Size                                                                                 High-temperature plasmas in arc furnaces can convert, in principle, any combination of materials to a vitrified or glassy substance with separation of molten metal. Substantial recycling is made possible with such furnaces and the highly stable, nonleachable, vitrified material can be used in landfills with essentially no environmental impact. REFERENCES: REFERENCES Schools.pinellas.K12fl.us/educators/tec/Davis2/matter.ppt/sld001.htm Zumdahl, Steven S. Chemistry.1986. D.C. Heath and Company Plasmas.com Corwin, Charles H. Introductory Chemistry.2 nd ed.Prentice Hall

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