Materialsselection

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Information about Materialsselection

Published on July 17, 2007

Author: luyenkimnet

Source: slideshare.net

Materials Selection for Engineering Design

Materials Selection The designer of any product, other than software must get involved with material selection. Only occasionally will the exact grade of material be specified by the customer. Even then the designer must understand the material to be able to design the product.

The designer of any product, other than software must get involved with material selection.

Only occasionally will the exact grade of material be specified by the customer.

Even then the designer must understand the material to be able to design the product.

Decisions, decisions! So many materials, so much information. How do we decide? How do we begin to choose? First we need to look at the function of the product – product analysis

So many materials, so much information.

How do we decide?

How do we begin to choose?

First we need to look at the function of the product – product analysis

Product Analysis Just what it says – analyse the product! What does it do? How does it do it? Where does it do it? Who uses it? What should it cost?

Just what it says – analyse the product!

What does it do?

How does it do it?

Where does it do it?

Who uses it?

What should it cost?

Case Study – a bike What is the function of a bike – obvious? How does the function depend on the type of bike? Racing Touring Mountain bike Commuter Childs

What is the function of a bike – obvious?

How does the function depend on the type of bike?

Racing

Touring

Mountain bike

Commuter

Childs

Case Study – a bike (2) How is it made to be easily maintained? What should it look like (colours etc.)? What should it cost? How has it been made comfortable to ride? How do the mechanical parts work and interact?

How is it made to be easily maintained?

What should it look like (colours etc.)?

What should it cost?

How has it been made comfortable to ride?

How do the mechanical parts work and interact?

Component or system? 1 st problem is……. Is it one component or a system of components working together? A spanner is a component, a cordless screwdriver is a system.

1 st problem is…….

Is it one component or a system of components working together?

A spanner is a component, a cordless screwdriver is a system.

System Analysis When we analyse a system we need to break the system down into individual components and then analyse each one.

When we analyse a system we need to break the system down into individual components and then analyse each one.

Cordless screwdriver

System Analysis – the bike The bike breaks down (we hope not!) into various parts: Frame Forks Wheels Saddle Etc.

The bike breaks down (we hope not!) into various parts:

Frame

Forks

Wheels

Saddle

Etc.

System Analysis – the bike (2) We now need to look at the following for each part: Requirements (mechanical, ergonomic, aesthetic etc.) Function How many are going to be made? What manufacturing methods are we going to use?

We now need to look at the following for each part:

Requirements (mechanical, ergonomic, aesthetic etc.)

Function

How many are going to be made?

What manufacturing methods are we going to use?

Manufacturing Oh No! We have to actually make it! This is a key question which has a massive influence on materials selection. e.g. The frame, what materials could we use?

Oh No!

We have to actually make it!

This is a key question which has a massive influence on materials selection.

e.g. The frame, what materials could we use?

Frame Materials Steel – Strong, stiff, heavy, but cheap Aluminium – weaker, lighter, more expensive than steel Composite (CFRP) – strong, stiff, very light, but expensive to buy and to fabricate

Steel –

Strong, stiff, heavy, but cheap

Aluminium –

weaker, lighter, more expensive than steel

Composite (CFRP) –

strong, stiff, very light, but expensive to buy and to fabricate

Bike Frame

Frame Design Detail

What Properties? Mechanical – Strength, modulus etc. Physical – Density, melting point. Electrical – Conductivity, resistivity. Aesthetic – Appearance, texture, colour Processability – Ductility, mouldability And last, but not least………. Cost, cost, cost!

Mechanical –

Strength, modulus etc.

Physical –

Density, melting point.

Electrical –

Conductivity, resistivity.

Aesthetic –

Appearance, texture, colour

Processability –

Ductility, mouldability

And last, but not least……….

Cost, cost, cost!

Where do I find the data? Textbooks Databooks Manufacturer’s literature Internet Sites

Textbooks

Databooks

Manufacturer’s literature

Internet Sites

Textbooks Good for general information Some have tables of properties Not good for detailed specifications and properties. A useful first point of call

Good for general information

Some have tables of properties

Not good for detailed specifications and properties.

A useful first point of call

Databooks One of the quickest sources of detailed information. Usually contain grades and specifications as well as properties. Small and perfectly formed – pocketbooks Easy to navigate around

One of the quickest sources of detailed information.

Usually contain grades and specifications as well as properties.

Small and perfectly formed – pocketbooks

Easy to navigate around

Manufacturer’s literature Variable in quality and usefulness. Often only cover their products. Usually do not compare materials. Can be biased. Good for final selection before ordering.

Variable in quality and usefulness.

Often only cover their products.

Usually do not compare materials.

Can be biased.

Good for final selection before ordering.

Internet Sites Can be a real minefield. Lots of poorly presented information. Google searches bring up lots of rubbish. Hard to find technical information. Best to use non-commercial sites.

Can be a real minefield.

Lots of poorly presented information.

Google searches bring up lots of rubbish.

Hard to find technical information.

Best to use non-commercial sites.

Materials Selection Charts

Modulus - Density Chart Modulus spans 5 orders of magnitude 0.01 GPa for foams to 1000 GPa for diamond The charts therefore use logarithmic scales, where twice the distance means ten times. This makes it possible to show the full range on one chart,

Modulus spans 5 orders of magnitude

0.01 GPa for foams to 1000 GPa for diamond

The charts therefore use logarithmic scales, where twice the distance means ten times.

This makes it possible to show the full range on one chart,

Materials Selection Charts

Materials Selection Charts Allow easy visualisation of properties Show lots of different materials Can be ‘drilled down’ to specifics Show balances of properties e.g. strength v cost Ideal for a first ‘rough cut’ selection

Allow easy visualisation of properties

Show lots of different materials

Can be ‘drilled down’ to specifics

Show balances of properties e.g. strength v cost

Ideal for a first ‘rough cut’ selection

Summary Think about the design from ergonomic and functional viewpoint. Decide on the materials to be used. Choose a suitable process that is also economic Steps 2 & 3 may be iterative. Don’t forget the ……………

Think about the design from ergonomic and functional viewpoint.

Decide on the materials to be used.

Choose a suitable process that is also economic

Steps 2 & 3 may be iterative. Don’t forget the ……………

Bigger Picture Is the product performance driven or cost driven? This makes a huge difference when choosing materials.

Is the product performance driven or cost driven?

This makes a huge difference when choosing materials.

Manufacturing Process Although we usually choose materials first sometimes it is the shape and process which is the limiting factor.

Although we usually choose materials first sometimes it is the shape and process which is the limiting factor.

Case Study (2) Drink Container What are the requirements?

What are the requirements?

Case Study (2) Drink Container Provide leak free environment for storing liquid. Comply with food standards & protect liquid from health hazards. For fizzy drinks, withstand pressure. Brand image & identity Easy to open Easy to store & transport Cheap for high volumes

Provide leak free environment for storing liquid.

Comply with food standards & protect liquid from health hazards.

For fizzy drinks, withstand pressure.

Brand image & identity

Easy to open

Easy to store & transport

Cheap for high volumes

Possible Materials Steel Aluminium Glass Plastic Paper

Steel

Aluminium

Glass

Plastic

Paper

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