Material Selection for Shark-Resistant Chainmail Gloves

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Information about Material Selection for Shark-Resistant Chainmail Gloves

Published on March 6, 2014

Author: ZacharyDavison



Material selection of shark resistant chainmail gloves based on best material for gloves and not mass production.

Material  Selection  for  Shark  Resistant  Chainmail   Gloves                                           By:     Zack  Davison   Cody  Potyczka   Juho  Vaittinen   Joel  Lappalainen                                

        Our  goal  was  to  create  a  high  quality  chainmail  glove,  specifically  geared   toward  scuba  divers.  This  product  is  mainly  to  protect  against  manageable  sharks,   which  would  be  up  to  6  feet,  which  one  could  come  into  contact  with  while  in  the   ocean.  The  goal  of  the  glove  is  keep  appendages  from  being  torn  off  or  removed   from  the  sharpness  and  abundance  of  teeth  that  sharks  have  in  the  event  of  a  shark   attack.       Our  target  demographic  is  chosen  based  on  people  that  are  part  of  dive  clubs,   since  only  experienced  and  serious  scuba  divers  have  a  real  need  for  a  product  such   as  this.  This  is  projected  to  range  between  148,000  to  482,000  divers  per  year  as  the   average  amount  of  people  who  become  certified  each  year  sits  around  500,000.  The   worldwide  population  of  divers  is  about  3  to  6  million.    The  quality  is  excellent  for   this  product,  which  only  means  that  the  cost  will  be  high,  but  also  worth  the  money.   Throughout  the  report  you’ll  find  the  material  that  we  selected  and  how  we  decided   to  choose  it.  These  gloves  can  be  fitted  to  the  user  in  a  small  variety  of  general  sizes.                               (Courtesy  of                                

Benchmark  material     We  chose  304  stainless  steel  for  our  benchmark  material  because  it  is  most   widely  used  grade  of  stainless  steel  on  the  market.  It  has  excellent  corrosion   resistance  so  it  can  be  used  in  sea  water  conditions  and  has  excellent  forming   properties  to  bend  the  wire  to  the  desired  ring  form.  304  stainless  steel  also  has   great  welding  properties  to  keep  the  rings  together.     304  can  be  bought  for  about  $1.30  a  pound,  so  it’s  fairly  cheap  considering   the  quality  we  want  in  our  product.  We  decided  that  corrosion  resistance  is  a   priority  so  it  needed  to  be  excellent.  304  stainless  has  a  shear  strength  of  36.6  ksi   which  we  thought  was  a  little  more  than  we  needed  so  we  lowered  it  to  25  ksi.  The   wire  that  we  are  forming  is  only  1-­‐3mm  in  diameter,  which  makes  it  easy  to  bend.   304  stainless  has  a  40%  elongation  to  break  so  we  decided  to  lower  it  to  20%   because  the  wire  is  so  thin  and  we  are  using  a  machine  to  close  the  rings.  304   stainless  has  a  hardness  of  70  Rockwell  B  scale  but  we  placed  our  target  value  a   little  lower  because  it  was  more  than  we  needed.     Weldability  in  304  is  excellent  but  we  don’t  need  it  to  be  better  than  “good”   so  we  lowered  our  target  to  “good”  weldability.  Weight  for  our  product  was   somewhat  important  of  a  factor  and  304  stainless  has  a  density  of  0.289lb/in³  so  we   only  lowered  that  to  0.250lb/in³.     The  304  stainless  wire  has  a  yield  strength  of  31,200  psi  which  is  much  more   than  what  we  needed  so  we  lowered  that  to  20,000  psi.  Our  final  factor  was  cost,   which  wasn’t  that  important  because  our  product  was  meant  to  be  high-­‐end  shark   resistant  gloves  which  are  sold  to  mostly  experienced  divers  because  of  their   reliability  to  resist  shark  attacks.  The  304  stainless  is  fairly  cheap  so  we  decided  to   increase  the  price  to  $2,500  per  ton  to  put  higher  quality  metals  in  the  mix.  The  304   stainless  steel  wire  we  chose  is  used  to  manufacture  a  similar  glove  so  it  our  choice   will  be  fairly  close  to  that  or  better.                                    

Manufacturing  Process         Start  with  coiled  wire   from  supplier.  The   diameter  can  range  from   1  to  2.3  mm.             Place  the  end  of  the  wire  into  the   former  (smooth  bar  with  a  hole   through  it  and  crank  on  the  end)  and   wrap  tightly  around  and  together  until   the  former  is  full.  The  former  can   range  from  2-­‐5  mm  and  dictates  the   inside  diameter  of  the  ring.                       (Mandrel  Courtesy  of             The  rings  are  then  joined   Remove  the  coiled  up  wire  from  the   together  by  way  of  a  “4  in  1”   former  and  cut  through  all  of  the  coils     pattern  where  1  ring  has  4   so  that  the  rings  are  all  open.       attached  to  it.                               A  ring  mesh-­‐joining     machine  squeezes  the   (Ring  mesh  joiner  Courtesy  of   desired  ring  together  and     welds  it  at  the  same  time,     which  is  controlled  by  the     operator  as  well  as  the  pace   of  the  work.    

Material  Screening  Matrix                 304   Stainless     Characteristic   Import   Benchmark   Target   (Property)   Rating           Corrosion   10   Resistance   Shear                             9   (1/2  UTS)   Formability   7   (Ductility)   Abrasion   Wear   7   (Rockwell  B)   Weldability   6   Weight   (Density   4   lb/in3)   Bending  (YS)   3   Cost                                         2   ($  per  ton)                                           Marine  Grade                 Aluminum   Value       Pure  Grade                                               Austenitic                                     Titanium   Stainless  Steel   Matl   Ind.         Matl   Ind.                 Matl   Ind.       Value   Value   Rate   Score   Rate   Score   Rate   Score                                   Good   Excell.   Excell.   10   100   Excell.   10   100   Good   7   70   36600   25000   21000   5   45   25000   10   90   37500   10   90   40%   20%   22%   10   70   20%   10   70   55%   10   70   70  Rb   65  Rb   44  Rb   4   28   70  Rb   10   70   95  Rb   10   70   Excellent   Good   Good   10   60   Fair   6   36   Excell.   10   60   0.289   lb/in3   .250   lb/in3   .096   lb/in3   10   40   .163       lb/in3   10   40   .291       lb/in3   5   20   31200   20000   21000   10   30   50000   10   30   30000   10   30   $1,000     $2,500     $1,500     10   20   25,000   1   2   $2,500     10   20                             Overall  Score   393   Overall  Score   438   Overall  Score   430  

Specific  Material  Matrix             Grade  1   Grade  2   Grade  3   Grade  4   Characteristic   Matl   Matl   Matl   Matl   Value   Value   Value   Value   (Property)   Rate   Rate   Rate   Rate                                       Corrosion   Good   2   Good   2   Excellent   4   Good   2   Resistance   Shear                             17500   1   25000   2   32500   3   40000   4   (1/2  UTS)   Formability   25%   4   20%   3   18%   2   15%   1   (Ductility)   Abrasion   Wear   (Rockwell  B)   70   1   80   2   90   3   100   4   Weldability   Excellent   4   Excellent   4   Good   2   Good   2   Bending  (YS)   25000   1   40000   2   55000   3   70000   4   $25     3   $40     1   $30     2   Cost                                         $23     4   ($  per  kg)         Gr1   17   Overall  Score                                               Gr2     18     Gr3     18     Gr4   19  

Material  Chosen     We  chose  Pure  Titanium  Grade  4  as  our  winning  candidate  and  the  decision   was  very  close  between  the  four  different  grades.  Titanium  may  have  been   expensive,  but  since  it  wasn’t  a  cost  issue  but  a  performance  battle  with  strength   and  corrosion  resistance,  which  for  this  product,  titanium  is  excellent.  The   manufacturing  process  was  our  biggest  dilemma  in  choosing  our  material  because   titanium  is  so  strong  and  hard  to  form  and  weld,  but  pure  grade  titanium  is  much   easier  to  work  with  and  has  perfectly  adequate  qualities.       Prototype  Testing     Shark  gloves  are  not  intended  to  protect  the  user  from  getting  their  hand  bit   off  in  the  rare  case  of  a  fully-­‐grown  great  white  attack.  The  gloves  are  designed  to   protect  only  against  smaller  sharks,  and  the  gloves  would  mainly  protect  the  fingers.   The  shark  makes  it’s  damage  with  biting  in  two  ways;  first  there's  the  actual  impact   and  pressure  of  teeth  cutting  to  the  object  of  biting,  and  then  there's  the  back  and   forth-­‐type  of  movement  by  its'  jaws  it  generates  to  cut  through  the  flesh.     Product  testing     There's  basically  only  one  main  purpose  for  this  glove  to  fill  its'  required   function,  the  testing  of  this  glove  would  test  just  that  ability  –  ability  to  resist  a   shark's  bite.   The  ultimate  simulation  of  shark's  jaws,  the  shark-­‐bite-­‐machine  would  do  the   final  testing.  The  glove  would  be  put  onto  artificial  hand,  and  the  hand  would  be  put   into  the  machine.  The  machine  bites  the  jaws  together  and  moves  its'  jaws  back  and   forth  to  simulate  a  real  shark  bite.  The  idea  is  to  resist  the  penetration  from  the   teeth.                                               (Picture  from:­‐content/uploads/2012/05/NTI-­‐LOADOUTROOM-­‐dot-­‐com-­‐e1335930849516-­‐ 764x1024.jpg  )        

Manufacturing  Testing     Although  the  method  of  manufacturing  will  have  a  reasonable  tolerance  for   the  rings,  there's  still  a  chance  that  the  rings  could  come  out  different  sizes  in  the   manufacturing  process.  Before  going  to  the  Ring  Mesh  Joining  machine,  the  metal   rings  would  be  tested  for  their  size  every  so  often  to  make  sure  they  are  similar   sizes,  which  determines  how  close  the  rings  stay  together.  The  closer  they  are   together  the  more  protection  from  teeth  they  will  give.  The  test  would  include   measuring  the  inner  and  outer  diameter.  There  would  be  a  pin  that  acts  as  a  go-­‐gage   that  all  the  rings  would  be  put  through  to  ensure  the  right  diametrical  size.   After  coming  from  the  Ring  Mesh  Joining  machine  and  before  going  to  the   final  product  test,  there  will  be  a  stretching  test  to  make  sure  the  welds  are  holding   up.  This  method  would  include  pulling  a  single  ring  in  separate  directions  until   destruction.  This  is  a  good  way  to  see  how  well  the  Ring  Mesh  Joining  machine  is   operating  with  its  welds.       Executive  Summary       Our  findings  have  shown  that  the  best  material  for  shark  resistant  chainmail   gloves  is  Pure  Titanium  Grade  4.  Although  Marine  Grade  Aluminum  and  Austenitic   Stainless  Steel  are  also  both  great  choices,  which  is  shown  in  our  matrices,  but  they   didn’t  quite  have  the  qualities  that  we  were  looking  for.       304  Stainless  Steel  was  our  benchmark  material  as  this  is  the  ideal  metal  for   this  material  based  on  cost  and  our  desired  properties.  We  wanted  a  higher  quality   material  so  we  cut  cost  out  of  the  equation  and  came  up  with  titanium.  It’s  lighter   and  stronger  and  has  great  corrosion  resistance.       Our  manufacturing  process  includes  buying  wire  by  the  coil  at  the  desired   diameter  and  creating  the  links  by  hand  with  a  simple  mandrel  machine,  which  will   save  money.  A  Ring  Mesh  Joining  machine  is  how  we  will  accomplish  “sewing”  all  of   the  rings  together  to  form  the  glove.  Our  projections  for  the  target  demographic  of   experienced  divers  is  somewhere  in  between  148,000  and  482,000  and  we  believe   this  process  will  suffice  for  the  amount  of  gloves  we  will  sell.       Lastly,  we  will  be  testing  the  product  during  the  manufacturing  process  and   after  the  product  is  finished.  The  manufacturing  testing  will  involve  testing  the   individual  rings  for  weld  strength  and  rigidity.  The  product  testing  will  involve   using  a  “shark  bite”  machine,  which  will  simulate  a  shark  latching  it’s  jaws  on  to  the   user’s  hand  and  seeing  how  the  overall  glove  stands  up  to  puncture  into  an  artificial   hand.                  

References     "All  About  Stainless  Steel."  Berkley  Point.  N.p.,  Web.  3  Dec.  2013.   <>.   "Charleston  Aluminum  Marine  Products."  .  Charleston  Aluminum,  LLC,  2013.  Web.  20   Nov  2013.  <>.   "Ring  Mesh  Joining  Machine."  Azon  Corporation,  n.d.  Web.  3  Dec  2013.   "Titanium  Grade  1."  .  ASM  Aerospace  Specification  Metals  Inc.,  n.d.  Web.  19  Nov  2013.   <>.   "Titanium  Grade  Overview."  .  Titanium  Specialists,  2013.  Web.  20  Nov  2013.   <­‐grades.php>.   "Titanium  and  Titanium  Base  Alloys."  .  Dynamic  Metals  International  LLC,  2005.  Web.  20   Nov  2013.  <>.,  2013.  Web.  3  Dec  2013.  <­‐1-­‐ titanium-­‐sheet.html>.   Australian  Stainless  Steel  Development  Association  (ASSDA).  ASSDA,  Oct.  1996.  Web.  10   Nov.  2013.   < &Itemid=152>.   Blackwell,  Paul,  and  Trevor  Barker.  Butted  Mail:  A  Mailmaker's  Guide  4th  Edition.  Ed.   Robert  F.  John.  N.p.,  2  Apr.  2001.  Web.  10  Nov.  2013.     Nelson,  Bryan.  "Which  Shark  Species  Has  the  Strongest  Bite?."   Discovery  Communications,  LLC,  21  Oct  2012.  Web.  3  Dec  2013.   Webb,  Brandon.  RDT&E  Look:  The  Neptunic  Combat  Multi-­‐Purpose  Glove.  N.p.,  2  May   2012.  Web.  3  Dec.  2013.  <­‐look-­‐the-­‐neptunic-­‐ combat-­‐multi-­‐purpose-­‐glove/>.                  

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