Information about Master's Degree - Giuseppe Papa

Multipath channel characterization aboard AnsaldoBreda ETR 212 Train

Multipath channel characterization aboard AnsaldoBreda ETR 212 Train Multipath channel characterization aboard SFSM ETR 212 AnsaldoBreda – Firema (WiFi band) • Objective: Evaluation of multipath channel influence on indoor signal propagation aboard train • Context: Wireless network planning • Measurements: Channel impulse response capture through Vector Network Analyzer Data analysis and Multipath Channel parameters • Data extrapolation from .dat and .csv files, impulse response function and frequency response function evaluation through MATLAB code • Multipath channel parameters evaluation: Path Loss, RMS Delay Spread, Coherence Bandwidth, Rician K-Factor 2

Multipath channel characterization aboard AnsaldoBreda ETR 212 Train Multipath Channel • Multiple Paths • LOS Propagation (Line Of Sight) • NLOS Propagation (No Line of Sight) Impulse response • Signal repetition • Random amplitude and phase • Impulse response dependence on time and receiver position 3

Multipath channel characterization aboard AnsaldoBreda ETR 212 Train Relative Path Loss PL is the reduction in power density (attenuation) of an electromagnetic wave as it propagates through space, expressed in dB. Relative PL as a mean value is [1]: RMS Delay Spread Delay Spread is defined as the difference between the time of arrival of the earliest significant multipath component (typically the LOS component) and the time of arrival of the latest multipath component. In terms of root mean square: [1] Rappaport, S. T., “Wireless communications – principles and practice”, Prentice-Hall, 2002 4

Multipath channel characterization aboard AnsaldoBreda ETR 212 Train Coherence Bandwidth Coherence bandwidth is a statistical measurement representing the approximate maximum frequency interval over which two frequencies of a signal are likely to experience comparable or correlated amplitude fading. Heuristically [2]: Rician K Factor Rician K Factor is defined as the ratio between the power in the direct path and the power in scattered paths [1]: [1] Rappaport, S. T., “Wireless communications – principles and practice”, Prentice-Hall, 2002 [2] John G. Proakis, "Digital Communications", McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, (1989) 5

Multipath channel characterization aboard AnsaldoBreda ETR 212 Train Measurement Setup Train Ansaldo Breda – Firema SFSM ETR 212 Tx Antenna Schwarzbeck BBHA 9120D (Horn) Rx Antenna Electrometrics EM6865 (Biconical) VNA #1 Agilent FieldFox N9918A VNA #2 Rohde&Schwarz ZVL13 6

Multipath channel characterization aboard AnsaldoBreda ETR 212 Train Measurement Setup 7

Multipath channel characterization aboard AnsaldoBreda ETR 212 Train Tx Antenna Rx Antenna POL VNA Distance Points Fixed (0 m) Mobile (1 m – 20 m) VER FieldFox Variable (1 m – 20 m) 171/151 Mobile (0 m – 10 m) Mobile (5 m – 15 m) VER/HOR ZVL13 Fixed(5 m) 89/85 Mobile (0 m – 10 m) Mobile (10 m – 20 m) VER/HOR FieldFox Fixed (10 m) 77/76 Mobile (0 m – 10 m) Mobile (15 m – 25 m) VER/HOR ZVL13 Fixed (15 m) 82/75 8

Multipath channel characterization aboard AnsaldoBreda ETR 212 Train Path Loss Exponent Mean 95% Confidence Interval Path Loss Exponent Middle DX Side [1.61; 1.81] [1.58; 1.88] [1.59; 1.89] 1.72 1.77 Free Space Urban Context Buildings (NLOS) 1.6 ~ 1.8 1.74 Buildings (LOS) 2 2.7 ~ 3.5 4~6 9

Multipath channel characterization aboard AnsaldoBreda ETR 212 Train Experimental distribution – Rician K Factor 10

Multipath channel characterization aboard AnsaldoBreda ETR 212 Train Experimental distribution - RMS Delay Spread As expected, CDF fit a Normal distribution [3] 11 [3] P. A. Bello, “Characterization of randomly time-variant linear channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. Syst., (1963)

Multipath channel characterization aboard AnsaldoBreda ETR 212 Train Experimental distribution – Coherence Bandwidth B09 12

Multipath channel characterization aboard AnsaldoBreda ETR 212 Train Coherence Bandwidth VS RMS Delay Spread [4] [4] Howard, S. and Pahlavan, K., "Autoregressive Modeling of Wide-Band Indoor Radio Propagation,“ IEEE Transactions on Communications, (1992) 13

Multipath channel characterization aboard AnsaldoBreda ETR 212 Train Delay Spread VS distance and polarization • Delay increase as length increases 15 m 10 m V H • Vertical Polarization is more affected 5m 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 τ [ns] 14

Multipath channel characterization aboard AnsaldoBreda ETR 212 Train Coherence Bandwidth VS distance and polarization • BC decrease as length increases 15 m 10 m V H 5m 0 5 10 15 20 • Vertical Polarization is less affected 25 BC[MHz] Rician K Factor VS distance and polarization 15 m • Rician K Factor increase as length increases 10 m V H 5m 8.5 9 9.5 10 • Vertical Polarization is less affected 10.5 Rician K-Factor [dB] 15

Multipath channel characterization aboard AnsaldoBreda ETR 212 Train Conclusions • Path Loss Exponent suggests a space free propagation law • Delay Spread and Coherence Bandwidth behaviour depends on distance and polarization • Rician K Factor analisys shows a less strong dependence Further developments • Additional measurement campaigns (more points, alternative configurations) • Mathematical model creation from IRF (parametric – non parametric) 16

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