Masculinity Presentation

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Information about Masculinity Presentation

Published on October 20, 2016

Author: MichaelHope6

Source: slideshare.net

1. Masculinity and Lad Culture By Michael Hope @EduMikehope91 1

2. • Introduction to Masculinity • Lad Culture at High School • Lad Culture at University • My Research 2 © Michael Hope

3. Masculinity 3 © Michael Hope

4. • Characteristics, qualities or roles usually attributed to men (Hearn, 2013) • There is no one definitive model of Masculinity (Connell, 2008) 4 © Michael Hope

5. Tiered Masculinity (Carrigan, Connell and Lee, 1985) • Complex identities and sub-identities of Masculinity • Gay-male community: • ‘lady-boys’ • Masculine gay men • Highest, most ideal and sought is Hegemonic Masculinity (Connell, 1995; Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005) 5 © Michael Hope

6. Hegemonic Masculinity • ‘The most honoured and desired’ form of masculinity (Connell, 2000, p. 69) • ‘Hardness’ (Looking and sounding tough), excessive alcohol consumption (Whitehead, 2002) • Participation in sport (Dempster, 2009) • In rare cases, mindless violence (Benyon, 2002) 6 © Michael Hope

7. Hegemonic Masculinity in Practise (Benyon, 2002) • Observed office-based-workplace • Aggressive emails and memos • Shouting face-to-face with men showing ‘lesser’ masculinities 7 © Michael Hope

8. However…. (Flood, 2002) • Simplistic • Predictable • Doesn’t allow for gender fluidity 8 © Michael Hope

9. Lad Culture 1 Maguire, 2014 McCann, 2015 Martin, 2015 Chittenden & Griffiths, 20159 © Michael Hope

10. Lad Culture 2 10 © Michael Hope

11. History 11 © Michael Hope

12. • Paul Willis (1977) study ‘Learning to Labour’ • Young, white working class males (Kes) • Anti-school subculture • Left school ASAP • Valued drinking, objectifying women, playing the fool and valued physical over mental achievements • Then, nothing for a long long time 12 © Michael Hope

13. Cultural Shift ‘Traditional Man’ Cortese and Ling, 2011 • No Sissy Stuff • Big Wheel • Sturdy Oak • Give ‘Em Hell 13 © Michael Hope

14. ‘Traditional Man’ • Defined by what he consumes, not what he creates through labour (Alexander, 2003) • Coincides with shift towards lifestyle advertising (Chapman, 1998) and consumerism (Mort, 1988) • Seen as embracing the new world order where women and men could work together - equal opportunities • Men started to feel inadequate • Started a backlash against feminist movement 14 © Michael Hope

15. ‘New Man’ • Emerged from anti-sexist and feminist movements • In touch with their emotions (Messner, 1993) • ‘Turned his back on competitive sports (and) sexist jokes’ (Morrell, 1998, p. 7) 15 © Michael Hope

16. New Lad 16 © Michael Hope

17. • Move back to ‘traditional man’ characteristics • ‘Drinking with mates, taking risks, telling dirty jokes, and, most of all, looking at skimpily dressed women’ (McKay, Mikosza and Hutchines, 2005, p. 282) • Started with white working class men however, through lads mags (‘Loaded’, ‘Nuts’ and ‘Zoo’) this new model spread to all parts of society • ‘New Laddism’ (Phipps, 2016) or Laddism/Lad/Lad Culture • Now the go-to model of masculinity for most young men (Dempster, 2011; Jackson, et al. 2015) 17 © Michael Hope

18. Spreading Lad Culture • Lads Mags (Nuts, ‘For Him Magazine’ (FHM), Zoo) - lots of research on this: Alexander, 2003; Benwell, 2003; Burrell, 2015; Cortese and Ling, 2011; Stribbe, 2004; Warrington and Younger, 2000. • Lads websites (UniLad, LAD Bible) • Social • Friends - Peer groups, older students • Family - Parents, older siblings, Uncles, Cousins • Celebrities - ‘Old’ Top Gear, Joey Essex, Jack Wilshere, Joe Weller, Joe Sugg Connell, 2008 • Social Media - Twitter, Facebook 18 © Michael Hope

19. Activity/Observation - Marcus Butler vlog 19 Youtube. 2014 1) What characteristics of your perception of Lad Culture do you see? © Michael Hope

20. High School Lad Culture 20 © Michael Hope

21. • Extreme • Negotiating path and identity + hormones (Francis, 1999; Jackson, 2006a) • Francis and Jackson interviewed High School students on views of lad culture • Desire to impress + maintain acceptance of male friends • ‘boys think if their friends think you know they’re hard and, stand up to the teachers they’re, like, a better person to know’ (Francis, 1999, p. 360) • Why? 21 © Michael Hope

22. • Fear of Academic Failure • Defence mechanism • Provide a reason for their failure • Not be seen as feminine • Femininity seen as weak • Hegemony - ‘Traditional Man’ - No Sissy Stuff • Yet homosexual behaviours is encouraged (Francis, 1999) • Fear of Social Failure • Uncool to work (Francis, 1999; Jackson, 2006a 22 © Michael Hope

23. University Lad Culture 23 © Michael Hope

24. • High School lads + Booze = University Lad • Trinity of ‘drinking, football and fucking’ (Edwards, 1997) • ‘having a laugh’ in the pub or clubs (Francis, 1999) • Tends to coalesce around sport teams and drinking • In Lectures: • Messing about • Arriving late • Low level disruption Dempster, 2007 24 © Michael Hope

25. 25 © Michael Hope Activity/Observation - BBC ‘Lad Culture - it stops here’ video 1) What characteristics of your perception of Lad Culture do you see? 2) Have these changed during this lecture? Youtube, 2015

26. The case FOR Lad Culture • Way of males expressing themselves • ‘Banter’ can play a pivotal role in forming and maintaining friendships • Can be a model in which we can make fun of ourselves • Lad culture now transcends gender, ethnicity and cultural divides • Those inciting violence, rape, sexist language are in the minority • Curtailing lad culture is curtailing free speech 26 © Michael Hope

27. The case AGAINST Lad Culture • Normalisation of sexual violence • Normalisation of hate speech • ‘Let boys be boys’ lets the young men get away with a lot of bad stuff 27 © Michael Hope

28. Why Lad Culture matters • Crisis of masculinity - change from Traditional Man to more ‘feminine’ model • Universities need to find ways to help to curtail sexual violence • Often young men showing lad tendencies are kicked out from University • Often these are working class, first generation students • Is it they who are misbehaving or the Universities not understanding new behaviours? 28 © Michael Hope

29. Reference List • Alexander, S. (2003). “Stylish hard bodies: Branded masculinity in Men’s Health Magazine”. Sociological Perspectives 46(4) pp. 535-554. • Benyon, J. (2002) Masculinities and culture. Buckingham, Philadelphia: Open University Press. • Benwell, B. (2003). Introduction: Masculinity and men’s lifestyle magazines. Oxford: Blackwell. • Burrell, I. (2015) The Lad Bible: How a media success story has harnessed social media to fill the void left by lads’ mags. [Online] 20th November Independent [Accessed 1st July 2016] http://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/online/the-lad-bible-how-a-media-success-story-has- harnessed-social-media-to-fill-the-void-left-by-lads-a6742656.html • Carrigan, T., Connell, R.W. and Lee, J. (1985) “Toward a new sociology of masculinity” Theory and Society 15(5) pp. 551 – 604. • Chapman, R. (1988). The great pretender: variations on the new man theme. In Male order: Unwrapping masculinity, London: Lawrence & Wilshart. • Chittenden, M & Griffiths, S. (2015) Cambridge master calls for end to laddish culture. The Sunday Times [Online] [Accessed on 21st April 2016] http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/uk_news/Education/article1620988.ece 29 © Michael Hope

30. • Connell, R. W. (1995) Masculinities (Sydney, Australia, Allen & Unwin. • Connell, R. (2000) The men and the boys. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. • Connell, R. (2008) "Masculinity construction and sports in boys' education: a framework for thinking about the issue", Sport, Education and Society, vol. 13 (2), pp. 131-145. • Connell, R. W. & Messerschmidt, J. W. (2005) Hegemonic masculinity: rethinking the concept, Gender & Society, 19(6), pp. 829-859. • Cortese, D. and Ling, P. (2011) “Enticing the New Lad: Masculinity as a Product of Consumption in Tobacco Industry-Developed Lifestyle Magazines” Men and Masculinities. 13(1). pp 4-30. • Dempster, S. (2007) Degrees of laddishness: Masculinities within the student experience of higher education. Thesis (PhD). Lancaster University. • Dempster, S. (2009) “Having the balls, having it all? Sport and constructions of undergraduate laddishness’” Gender and Education 21(5) pp 481 – 500. • Dempster, S. (2011) “I drive therefore I’m man: Gender discourses, alcohol and the construction of British undergraduate masculinities” Gender and Education 23(5): pp. 635-653. • Edwards (1997), 82: see Dempster (2009), p482 • Flood (2002), see Beasley, C (2008) ‘Rethinking Hegemonic Masculinity in a Globalizing World’, Men and Masculinities11(1): 86–103. • Francis, B (1999) ‘Lads, lasses and (new) Labour: 14–16-year-old students’ responses to the ‘laddish behaviour and boys’ underachievement’ debate’, British Journal of Sociology of Education 20(3): p355–371. • Hearn, J. (2013) Rethinking transnational men: beyond, between and within nations London: Taylor & Francis. • Stibbe, A. (2004). Health and the social construction of masculinity in Men’s Health Magazine. Men and Masculinities 7(1) pp. 31-51. 30 © Michael Hope

31. • Jackson, C., Dempster, S. and Pollard, L (2015) “They just don’t seem to really care, they just think it’s cool to sit there and talk”: laddism in university teaching-learning contexts. Educational Review 67(3) pp. 300-314. • Maguire, C. (2014) Is new wave of lad culture damaging young men's attitudes to women? Shocking rise of sexist comics and pick-up artists who catcall women and make jokes about rape. 11th November. Daily Mail online [Online] [Accessed on 21st April 2016] http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2829989/Is-new-wave-lad-culture-damaging-young-men-s- attitudes-women-Shocking-rise-sexist-comics-pick-artists-catcall-women-make-jokes-rape.html • Martin, C. (2015) The Death of British Lad Culture: How the UK’s Dumb Young Men Finally Grew Up. Vice.com [Online] [Accessed on 21st April 2016] http://www.vice.com/read/uni-lads-and-lad-culture- three-years-on-clive-martin • McCann, G. (2015) Lad Culture at Uni has gone too far. 14th September. The opinion panel community [Online] [Accessed on 21st April 2016] http://www.opinionpanel.co.uk/2015/09/14/the- repugnant-culture-of-the-unilad/ • McKay, J, Mikosza, J. and Hutchins, B. (2005). ‘‘Gentlemen, the Lunchbox Has Landed’’: Representations of masculinities and men’s bodies in the popular media”. In Handbook of studies on men & masculinities, ed. Kimmel, M., Hearn, J. and Connell, R. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. 270-288. • Messner, M. (1993). ‘‘Changing Men’’ and feminist politics in the United States.” Theory and Society 22(5) pp. 723-37. 31 © Michael Hope

32. • Warrington, M., Younger, M. and Williams, J. (2000) “Student attitudes, image and the gender gap. British Educational Research Journal 26(): pp 393-407. • Whitehead, S. (2002) Men and Masculunities: Key Themes and New Directions. Keele, UK: Polity Publishing. • Willis, P. (1977). Learning to labour: how working class kids get working class jobs. Aldershot: Gower. • Youtube (2014). [Online]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQiRsJSDDBU. Accessed 20th October 2016. • Youtube (2015). [Online]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6dmxkkubDGU. Accessed 20th October 2016. 32 © Michael Hope

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