Maryland IBC2006

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Information about Maryland IBC2006
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Published on January 30, 2008

Author: Urban

Source: authorstream.com

IBC 2006 - Chapter 3 Use & Occupancy Classification:  IBC 2006 - Chapter 3 Use & Occupancy Classification Equivalent Risk:  Equivalent Risk How to maintain the same level of safety with a wide variety of occupancies and construction types Originates with property protection Primary Goal: Life Safety Use and Occupancy Classification (302.1):  Use and Occupancy Classification (302.1) Based on what the structure or portion of the structure is being used for If a space is occupied at different times for different purposes, it must comply with all of the requirements for each purpose Assembly Group (303.1):  Assembly Group (303.1) Structure, building or portions of used for the gatherings for the purposes such as civic, social, religious, recreational functions, the consumption of food or drink, or waiting areas Exceptions Building < 50 occupants – Group B Room/Space < 50 occupants – Group B Room/Space < 750 sq. ft. and Accessory- Group B or part of Occupancy Assembly Group A-1:  Assembly Group A-1 Performing arts or motion pictures usually fixed seating Concert Halls and Theaters Motion Pictures Theaters TV and Radio Studios admitting audience Assembly Group A-2:  Assembly Group A-2 Food and/or drink consumption Banquet halls Night Clubs Restaurants Taverns and bars Assembly Group A-3:  Assembly Group A-3 Worship, recreation, amusement and other uses not classified elsewhere Art galleries, exhibition hall and museums Amusement arcades Bowling alleys Churches Courtroom Lecture halls Libraries Indoor sports areas (no spectators) Dance and Community halls Assembly Group A-4:  Assembly Group A-4 Indoor sporting events with spectators Arenas Skating rinks Swimming pools Tennis courts Assembly Group A-5:  Assembly Group A-5 Participation or viewing outdoor sports Amusement park structures Bleachers Grandstands Stadiums Business Group B (304.1) :  Business Group B (304.1) Office, professional or service-type transactions Animal Hospitals Banks Barber shops, beauty shops Clinic - outpatient Dry cleaning and laundries: pick up/delivery Post offices Business Group:  Business Group Laboratories Professional services Print shops Motor vehicle showrooms Clinics - outpatient Radio/TV stations Car wash Educational occupancies – above 12th grade Educational Group E (305.1) :  Educational Group E (305.1) Used for educational purposes by 6 or more persons over 2 ½ years of age through the 12th Grade Day care (305.2) Education, supervision, or personal care More than 5 children Older than 2 ½ years old Educational Group E Exceptions:  Educational Group E Exceptions Religious educational rooms accessory to a church with an occupant load of less than 100 are an A-3 occupancy Child care facility more than 5 and less than 100 children (308.5.2) 2 ½ years old and under All rooms with these children require exit doors directly to exterior at the level of exit discharge Factory Group – F (306.1):  Factory Group – F (306.1) Assembling, dissembling, fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, repair or processing operations not classified as Group H or Group S F-1 – Moderate hazard F-2 – Low hazard Factory Group F-1 (306.2) Moderate hazard :  Factory Group F-1 (306.2) Moderate hazard Aircraft Appliances Automobiles Bakeries Beverages (>12% alcohol) Boats Broom or brushes Clothing Dry cleaning plants Cameras Canvas Electronics Furniture Machinery Millwork Musical instruments Optical goods Paper mills or products Photographic film Printing & publishing Plastics RVs Refuse incineration Shoes Soaps Textiles Tobacco Trailers Upholstering Woodworking (cabinet) Factory Group F-2 (306.3) Low hazard:  Factory Group F-2 (306.3) Low hazard Beverages (12% alcohol or less) Brick and masonry Ceramic products Foundries Glass products Gypsum Ice Metal products (fabrication and assembly) High Hazard Group (307.1):  High Hazard Group (307.1) Manufacturing, processing, generation or storage of materials [quantities in excess of those in Table 307.7(1) and (2)] that are a physical or health hazard. Exceptions 15 total Control areas Wholesale and retail sales and storage per IFC Batteries for emergency power Cleaning establishments – liquid solvents >200F Liquor stores without bulk storage High Hazard Group H-1 (307.3) Detonation hazard :  High Hazard Group H-1 (307.3) Detonation hazard Explosives Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable Class 4 oxidizers Detonable pyrophoric material Unstable (reactive) material High Hazard Group H-2 (307.4) Deflagration, accelerated burning hazard:  High Hazard Group H-2 (307.4) Deflagration, accelerated burning hazard Class I, II, IIIA flammable or combustible liquids Combustible dusts Cryogenic liquids, flammable Flammable gases Organic peroxides, Class I Oxidizers, Class 3 Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases; non detonable Unstable reactive material, Class 3, nondetonable Water reactive materials, Class 3 High Hazard Group H-3 (307.5) Readily support combustion:  High Hazard Group H-3 (307.5) Readily support combustion Class I, II, IIIA liquids < 15 psi Combustible fibers Consumer fireworks Cryogenic liquids, oxidizing Flammable solids Organic peroxides, Class II and III Oxidizers, Class 2 Oxidizers, Class 3 < 15 psi Oxidizing gases Unstable reactive material, Class 2 Water reactive materials, Class 2 High Hazard Group H-4 (307.6) Health Hazards:  High Hazard Group H-4 (307.6) Health Hazards Corrosives Highly toxic materials Toxic materials High Hazard Group H-5 (307.7) Semiconductor fabrication facilities:  High Hazard Group H-5 (307.7) Semiconductor fabrication facilities Semiconductor fabrication facilities or comparable research & development Where hazardous production materials (HPM) used in quantities in excess of Table 307.7(1) and 307.7(2) Must be designed according to Section 415.8 – Group H5 (special use and occupancy) Institutional Group I (308.1) :  Institutional Group I (308.1) For the care or supervision of people having physical limitations due to health or age are harbored for medical treatment or other care or treatment or In which occupants are detained for penal or correctional purposes or Where the liberty of the occupants are restricted Institutional Group I-1 (308.2) :  Institutional Group I-1 (308.2) Housing for more than 16 persons on a 24 hour basis who due to age, mental disability or other reasons live in a supervised residential environment but can respond to emergency situations without physical assistance. Residential board and care facilities Assisted living facilities Halfway houses, group homes Congregate care facilities Social rehabilitation, alcohol and drug centers Institutional Group I-1 (308.2) Exceptions:  Institutional Group I-1 (308.2) Exceptions 6 to 16 persons: Classified R-4 5 or fewer persons: Classified R-3 Institutional Group I-2 (308.3):  Institutional Group I-2 (308.3) Medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing, custodial care facilities for over 5 persons who are not capable of self preservation. Hospitals Nursing homes Mental hospitals Child care on 24 hour basis for more than 5 children under age 2 ½ years of age (308.3.1) Institutional Group I-3 (308.4):  Institutional Group I-3 (308.4) Restraint facilities or security facilities for more than 5 persons. Prisons and Jails Reformatories Detention Centers Correctional Centers Pre-release Centers Institutional Group I-3 Conditions:  Institutional Group I-3 Conditions Condition 1: Free movement allowed throughout permitted to be considered Group R Condition 2: Free interior movement, locked exits Condition 3: Free movement within a compartment; Egress with remote release Condition 4: Restricted movement within compartments; remote control release within compartments and egress Condition 5: Restricted movement within compartments; Staff controlled manual release within compartments and egress. Institutional Group I-4 (308.5):  Institutional Group I-4 (308.5) Day Care facilities (for over 5 persons) Any Age Adult care (A-3 if capable of self preservation) Child care under 2 ½ years of age Receive custodial care for less than 24 hours Does not include places of worship during religious functions Mercantile Group M (309.1):  Mercantile Group M (309.1) Display and sale of merchandise involving stocks of goods accessible to the public Department stores Drug Stores Markets Motor fuel stations Retail or wholesale stores Sales rooms Residential Group R (310.1) :  Residential Group R (310.1) Used for sleeping purposes not classified as Group I or per IRC R-1 – Multi-unit transient R-2 – Multi-unit non transient R-3 – Not classified elsewhere R-4 – Residential care Residential Group R-1:  Residential Group R-1 Occupants are primarily transient in nature (not more than 30 days) Hotels Boarding Houses Motels Residential Group R-2:  Residential Group R-2 More than 2 dwelling units per building where occupants are primarily permanent Apartments Boarding houses (not transient) Convents Dormitories Fraternities or Sororities Hotels and Motels (not transient) Monasteries Residential Group R-3:  Residential Group R-3 Not more than 2 dwelling units per building, not classified as R-1, R-2, R-4 or I, where occupants are more permanent Houses Duplex units Adult and child day care (less than 24 hours) with not more than 5 occupants Residential Group R-4:  Residential Group R-4 Residential care/assisted living 6-16 residents, excluding staff 24 hour per day basis Greater than 16 residents classified I-1 Fewer than 6 residents classified R-3 Storage Group S (311.1):  Storage Group S (311.1) For storage not classified as hazardous occupancy S-1 – Moderate hazard storage S-2 – Low hazard storage Storage Group S-1 (311.2) Moderate hazard storage:  Storage Group S-1 (311.2) Moderate hazard storage Aerosols, Level 2 and 3 Aircraft repair hangers Bags, burlap, cloth, paper Bamboo, rattan, baskets, belts, canvas, leather Books, boots, shoes buttons, cardboard, clothing, wool, furniture, glues, grains, horns, combs, linoleum, lumber Motor vehicle repair garage (maximum quantities of hazardous materials) Silks, soaps, tires, tobacco, upholstery, wax candles Storage Group S-2 (311.3) Low hazard storage:  Storage Group S-2 (311.3) Low hazard storage Aircraft hanger Beverages (up to 12% alcohol) in metal, ceramic or glass containers Cement in bags Chalk & crayons Dairy products (in non-waxed coated paper containers) Dry cell batteries Electrical coils and motors Empty cans Food products Food (noncombustible containers) Glass bottles Gypsum board Meats Metals and metal parts Mirrors Porcelain Stoves Talc and soap stones Washer or dryers Parking garages, open and enclosed. Utilities and Miscellaneous Group U (312.1):  Utilities and Miscellaneous Group U (312.1) Accessory and miscellaneous structures not classified in other occupancies Agriculture buildings Aircraft hangers accessory to one or two family dwellings Barns Carports Fences over 6 feet high and retaining walls Grain silos accessory to residential occupancy Greenhouses Livestock shelters Private garages Sheds Tanks and Towers New for 2006:  New for 2006 Moves all provisions for Mixed Uses to Ch. 5 Adds “Training and skill development not within a school or academic program” to Group B Classifies congregate living facilities with <16 occupants as R-3 Clarifies that any amount of hazardous material is regulated by section 414 and IFC Questions?:  Questions? IBC 2006 - Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use & Occupancy:  IBC 2006 - Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use & Occupancy Introduction:  Introduction Contains requirements for specific types of buildings and occupancies Typically supplemental to other code provisions Building Types: Malls, High Rises and Parking Garages Building Areas: Atriums, Stages, Group I and Group H Special Detailed Requirements:  Special Detailed Requirements Covered Malls High-Rise Atriums Underground Buildings Motor-Vehicle-Related Group I-2 & I-3 Motion Picture Projection Rooms Stages & Platforms Special Amusement Aircraft-Related Hazardous Materials Application of Flammable Finishes Drying Rooms Organic Coatings Group I-1, R-1, R-2, R-3 Hydrogen Cutoff Rooms Covered Mall Buildings (402):  Covered Mall Buildings (402) A building three stories or less enclosing two or more tenants with access to a covered common pedestrian area Typically a shopping center but provisions have been used for airports and offices Does not include Anchor Building Covered Mall Buildings:  Covered Mall Buildings Unlimited area Construction Types I, II, III, IV Fully Sprinklered Mall independently of tenants and anchors Mall, anchor stores and attached parking surrounded by 60 feet of open space and Anchor stores less than 3 stories Anchor Stores over 3 stories per Sec. 503 Parking Garages always per Sec. 406 Covered Mall Buildings:  Covered Mall Buildings Kiosks (temporary or permanent) (402.10) Limited combustible construction Horizontal separation - 20 foot minimum Size – 300 ft2 maximum Children’s playground structures (402.11) Limited combustible construction Horizontal separation - 20 foot minimum Size – 300 ft2 maximum High-Rise Buildings (403.1):  High-Rise Buildings (403.1) Highest occupied floor over 75 feet above lowest level of fire department access Not always noted on plans Not readily apparent from exterior High-Rise Buildings (403.1):  High-Rise Buildings (403.1) Highest occupied floor over 75 feet above lowest level of fire department access Not always noted on plans Not readily apparent from exterior High-Rise Buildings:  High-Rise Buildings Reduction in Construction Type Less than 420 feet – Type IA to IB Other than F-1, M, S-1 – Type IB to IIA Fire Command Center per 911 Standby and Emergency Power Atriums (404):  Atriums (404) Opening connection two or more stories other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escalators, or MEP equipment and not a covered mall Use of floor area Enclosure Smoke control Motor-Vehicle-Related (406):  Motor-Vehicle-Related (406) Private garages and carports (406.1) Open parking garage (406.3) Openings – area and perimeter (406.3.3.1) Special area and height (406.3.5) Enclosed parking garage (406.4) Height and area – Table 503 Mechanical Ventilation Fuel-dispensing facilities – canopies (406.5) Repair garages (406.6) Group I-2 (407):  Group I-2 (407) Hospitals and Nursing Homes Corridor walls – Smoke Partitions Smoke barriers – stories w/ sleeping or treatment rooms or < 50 occupants Refuge area and independent egress Egress to secured yard > 50 feet from building Groups I-1, R-1, R-2, R-3:  Groups I-1, R-1, R-2, R-3 Dwelling Unit separation walls and horizontal separation 1 hour required ½ hour in IIB, IIIB, VB with NFPA 13 New for 2006:  New for 2006 Adds children’s playground structure Adds 420 foot high rise limitations Requires doors between garages and dwelling units to be self-closing Removes specific limitation on number of control areas for Group M and S Questions?:  Questions? IBC 2006 – Chapter 5 General Building Heights & Areas:  IBC 2006 – Chapter 5 General Building Heights & Areas Building Heights and Areas:  Building Heights and Areas Table 503 – Tabular values Allowable height and area depends on Group Type construction Overall size is based on the specific fuel load and fire hazard associated with both the occupancy and the materials used to construct the building Table 503 Allowable Height and Building Areas:  Table 503 Allowable Height and Building Areas Building Heights and Areas:  Building Heights and Areas Height from the grade plane. Maximum number of stories applies only to stories above grade. A basement is a story above grade plane when the finished surface of the floor above the basement is: More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground level at any point. Building Heights and Areas:  Building Heights and Areas Buildings on the same lot (503.1.2) Separate buildings Portions of the same building Height Modifications (504):  Height Modifications (504) Sprinklers (504.2)** NPFA 13 (903.1.1) increase of 20 feet and 1 story. NFPA 13R (903.3.1.2) Group R-1, R-2, and R-4 Buildings increase of 20 feet and 1 story increase can not exceed four stories or 60 feet.** NFPA 13D (903.3.1.3) Group R-3 increase of 20 feet and 1 story increase can not exceed four stories or 60 feet.** Mezzanines (505):  Mezzanines (505) Considered part of floor below. Does not contribute to building area or number of stories Area – 1/3 of room open to (2/3 industrial occupancies or ½ Type I or II) Openness – Must not have walls over 42” in height, unless one of the following: Occupant load of enclosed space does not exceed 10 2 means of egress, w/one having direct access to an exit Enclosed space < 10% of mezzanine area Specific industrial and factory applications Area Modifications (506):  Area Modifications (506) (Equation 5-1) where Aa = Allowable area per story (sq ft) At = Tabular area per story in per Table 503 (sq ft). If = Area increase factor due to frontage as calculated in accordance with Section 506.2 Is = Area increase factor due to sprinkler protection per Section 506.3 Multiple stories = 2 Single Story = 3 Frontage Increase (506.2):  Frontage Increase (506.2) (Equation 5-2) where If = Area increase from frontage. F = Building perimeter fronting a public way or open space having 20 feet (6096 mm) open minimum width (ft). P = Perimeter of entire building (ft). W = Width of public way or open space (ft) in accordance with Section 506.2.1 W at least 20 feet and W divided by 30 shall not exceed 1.0. Where the value of W varies it is based on the weighted average of each portion of exterior wall and open space where the value of W is between 20 and 30 feet. Total Building Area (506.4):  Total Building Area (506.4) Determined by multiplying the allowable area of the first floor (Aa), per Section 506.1, by the number of stories as listed below. For two-story buildings, multiply by 2: For three-story or higher buildings, multiply by 3; and, No story shall exceed the allowable area per floor (Aa), as determined in Section 506.1 for the occupancies on that floor. Exceptions: Unlimited area buildings in accordance with Section 507 The maximum area of a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system per Section 903.3.1.2 (NFPA 13R) determined by multiplying the allowable area per floor (Aa), per Section 506.1 by the number of stories. Building Heights and Areas:  Building Heights and Areas 506.1.1 – Basements need not be included in the total allowable area provided they do not exceed the area permitted for a one-story building. Unlimited Area (507):  Unlimited Area (507) Requires 60ft clear around perimeter 60 feet to 40 feet Not more than 75% of perimeter of building Minimum 3 hour exterior walls in reduced space Opening protectives have 3 hour rating in reduced space One Story, unsprinklered Groups F-2, S-2 One Story, sprinklered Groups B, F, M, or S Groups A-4 one story, other than Type V Two Story, sprinklered Groups B, F, M, or S Unlimited Area:  Unlimited Area One story, sprinklered, Type II Group A-3 used as a church, community hall, dance hall, exhibition hall, gymnasium, lecture hall, indoor swimming pool or tennis court No stage other than platform Floor 21 inches of grade and ramps for all exits One story, sprinklered, Type II, IIIA, or IV Group E Each classroom, 2 means of egress with one a direct exit Group H-2, H-3, H-4 in F and S if < 10% building area Aircraft paint hangar Motion picture theaters of Type I or II construction Covered malls and anchor buildings per 402.6 Example:  Example Solution:  Solution Step One: Determine actual area: Aact = 200 × 125 = 25,000 sf Step Two: Determine Tabular height and area, from Table 503: Tabular height = 4 stories, 55’ Tabular area, At = 19, 000 sf. Solution:  Solution Step Three: Apply Height increase for sprinklers (1 story, 20’) Allowable height = 5 stories, 75’ Actual height = 5 stories, 72’ OK ! Solution:  Solution Step Four: Apply area increase for frontage: F = 650’ P = 650’ W = (25×200+30×125+30×200+30×125)/650 W=28.46 If = [600/600-0.25]×28.33/30=.7115 Solution:  Solution Step Five: Apply area increase for sprinklers: for multiple story building, Is=2 Step Six: Compute area formula: Aa = 19,000+[19,000×.7115]+[19,000×2] Aa =70,518 > 25,000 OK! Solution Amax =SAt:  Solution Amax =SAt Step Eight: Compute maximum area: Amax= SxAt, where S=3, At= 70,518 Amax= 70,518 ×3 = 211,554 Actual area of all floors: Afloors = 25,000 × 5 =125,000 Building complies ! Mixed Occupancies:  Mixed Occupancies Two or more uses that are in different Groups within the same building Accessory occupancies Nonseparated occupancies Separated occupancies Incidental Use Area (508.2):  Incidental Use Area (508.2) Classified according to portion of building containing incidental use area Dwelling Unit exception Sprinklers protection required only in incidental use area Sprinklers require area to be separated by smoke resistant construction Slide79:  IBC Table 508.2 Accessory Occupancies (508.3.1):  Accessory Occupancies (508.3.1) Similar to Incidental Subset of Mixed Occupancies No separation required Limited to 10% of the area of the story Can not exceed Table 503 values Area Height Accessory Assembly (508.3.1):  Accessory Assembly (508.3.1) Accessory Assembly < 750 sq ft not considered separate occupancies Limited in area to 750 sq ft Example #1:  Example #1 Example #2:  Example #2 Nonseparated Occupancies(508.3.2):  Nonseparated Occupancies(508.3.2) Each portion individually classified as to use Most restrictive type construction used for entire building Apply most restrictive parts of Chapter 9 (fire protection) and Section 403 (high-rise) to entire building Apply other code sections based on the use of each part of the building Separated Occupancies (508.3.3):  Separated Occupancies (508.3.3) Separated by fire barrier walls or horizontal assemblies per Table 508.3.3 Each fire area must comply with height limitations based on use Ratio of floor area/allowable area shall not exceed 1 Notes on Table 302.3.2 Storage in B or M Commercial kitchens Table 508.3.3 Required Separation of Occupancies:  Table 508.3.3 Required Separation of Occupancies Special Provisions (509.2):  Special Provisions (509.2) “Pedestal Buildings” - Enclosed Parking Garage (S-2) with A, B, M or R above Separate buildings Area Limitation Continuity of Fire Walls Number of Stories Type of Construction NOT Building Height Typical “Pedestal Building”:  Typical “Pedestal Building” Basic Requirements:  Basic Requirements Basement/First Story is IA construction and separated with a 3 hour horizontal assembly. Building above is Group A (max. 300 Occupants), B, M, or R Shafts through separation assembly rated 2 hours Exceptions:  Exceptions Shafts 3 hours rated below separation 1 hour above when less than 4 stories 1 hour opening protectives required Use below separation other than S-2 Entry Lobbies, Mechanical Rooms Group A (300 max), B or M New for 2006:  New for 2006 Moved Mixed Occupancy provisions Mezzanine area to 50% in Type I and II Group A-1 & A-2 in single story unlimited area buildings Occupancy separation now based on dissimilar risk Groups B and M under opening parking Questions?:  Questions? IBC 2006 – Chapter 6 Types of Construction:  IBC 2006 – Chapter 6 Types of Construction Construction Types:  Construction Types Specified by the designer Type I and II - Concrete and Steel Non-combustible Type III – Masonry exterior and wood interior Non-combustible exterior Combustible interior Type IV – Heavy Timber Non-combustible exterior (FRT in some cases) Sawn or laminated timber interior Type V – Wood frame Combustible Combustibles in Type I and II:  Combustibles in Type I and II List of 22 permitted uses FRT Wood Non-bearing partitions <2 hours rated Unrated non-bearing exterior walls Roof construction in some cases Interior finishes, trim and millwork Blocking for handrails, millwork, etc Materials to protect joints and penetrations in fire rated assemblies Ducts, Piping and Wiring methods Table 601 Fire resistance requirements for Building Elements:  Table 601 Fire resistance requirements for Building Elements Table 602 Fire resistance requirements for exterior walls based on fire separation distance:  Table 602 Fire resistance requirements for exterior walls based on fire separation distance New for 2006:  New for 2006 Provided dimensions for Glulam members in Type IV construction IBC 2006 – Chapter 7 Fire Resistance-Rated Construction:  IBC 2006 – Chapter 7 Fire Resistance-Rated Construction Fire Rated Walls/Assemblies:  Fire Rated Walls/Assemblies Many Levels of Separation Exterior walls Fire Walls Party Walls Fire Barriers Shaft Enclosures Fire Partitions Smoke Barriers Horizontal Assemblies Exterior Walls (704):  Exterior Walls (704) Measured at a right angle from the building face to the closest interior lot line, or the center line of a street alley or public way, or an imaginary line between two buildings on the lot. Exterior Wall Openings:  Exterior Wall Openings NFPA 13 system in other than group H-1, H-2 and H-3 permits the maximum allowable area of unprotected openings to be the same as the tabulated limitations for protected openings. Exterior Walls:  Exterior Walls Fire-resistance rating for fire separation distance of < 5 feet for exposure from both sides > 5 feet rated for exposure from the inside Projections - the more restrictive of the following: A point one-third the distance to the lot line from an assumed vertical plane located where the protected openings are required in accordance with section 704.8 More than 12 inches into areas where openings are prohibited Fire Walls (705):  Fire Walls (705) Used to create separate buildings Structurally independent Ratings not reduced by sprinklers Continuous from Foundation to Roof Imaginary Lot Lines Noncombustible except Type V Fire Walls Table 705.4:  Fire Walls Table 705.4 Openings are limited in size and protected Slide107:  F i r e w a l l Slide108:  F i r e w a l l Fire Wall - Horizontal Continuity:  Fire Wall - Horizontal Continuity Required to extend 18” beyond exterior Exceptions 1 Hour exterior wall with opening protectives 4 feet to each side of the wall Non-combustible exterior sheathing with non-combustible exterior finish/siding Non-combustible exterior sheathing with building sprinkler system Op t i o n #2:  Op t i o n #2 Slide111:  Op t i o n #3 Fire Wall Continuity:  Fire Wall Continuity Vertical (705.6) Extend from the foundation to a termination point at least 30 inches above both adjacent roofs. 5 exceptions: most common is 4’ of non combustible roof sheathing or decking with no openings. Horizontal Projecting Elements (705.5.2) Extend to the outer edges of horizontal projecting elements such as balconies, roofs, overhangs, canopies, marquees and architectural projections that are within 4 feet of the fire wall. Exceptions: 3, see text Stepped buildings (705.6.1) Terminate > 30 inches above the lower roof level Exterior wall to 15 feet above the lower roof is 1 hour fire resistance rated from both sides 2 exceptions Vertical Continuity (705.6):  Vertical Continuity (705.6) Maryland Exception 6. In Groups R-2 and R-3 as applicable in Section with Type III, IV, and V construction – walls permitted to terminate at roof sheathing or deck, if 6.1 Vertical Continuity (705.6)**:  Vertical Continuity (705.6)** Exception 6 - Groups R-2 and R-3 with Type III, IV, and V construction – walls permitted to terminate at roof sheathing or deck, if 6.1 Noncombustible or FRT for 4 feet to each side of walls 6.2 Group R-2 – NFPA 13 or 13R 6.2 Group R-3 – NFPA 13, 13R, or 13D 6.3 5/8” Type X gypsum underside of roof to 4 feet each side No openings within 4 feet of fire wall Roof covering a minimum of Class C Party Walls:  Party Walls Special type of Fire Wall Located on a lot line All penetrations are prohibited Fire Barriers (706):  Fire Barriers (706) Only walls/vertical Shafts Exit enclosures Exit passageways Horizontal exits Incidental use areas Separation of mixed occupancies Single occupancy fire areas Fire Barriers (706):  Fire Barriers (706) Less restrictive than Fire Walls Continuous from top of floor/ceiling assembly to the floor or roof slab/deck above Supporting construction of at least equal rating Shaft Enclosures (707):  Shaft Enclosures (707) Sub-set of Fire Barriers Protect openings and penetrations through floor/ceiling assemblies 13 exceptions Rating based upon stories connected and floor ratings Continuous through concealed spaces Supported by same fire resistance rating Openings limited to those required for use of shaft Enclosures at top and bottom Fire Partitions (708):  Fire Partitions (708) Dwelling unit separation walls Sleeping unit separation walls Tenant separation walls in covered malls Corridor walls Elevator lobby separation 1 hour rating NFPA 13 – Type IIB, IIIB, VB - ½ rating F i r e P a t i t i o n:  F i r e P a t i t i o n Smoke Barriers (709):  Smoke Barriers (709) One hour fire-resistance rating Continuous from floor slab to deck above and from outside wall to outside wall Primarily used in group I occupancies Permits occupants to be moved to other compartments rather than evacuated Penetrations and openings per 712 and 715 Smoke Partitions (710):  Smoke Partitions (710) Corridors in Group I-2 occupancies Not fire rated walls Resists the passage of smoke Air transfer openings need smoke dampers Self closing doors Horizontal Assemblies (711):  Horizontal Assemblies (711) Fire resistance rating not be less than that required by: Type of construction Occupancy separation Fire area separation Dwelling Unit separation Penetrations (712):  Penetrations (712) Listed fire stop systems for : Fire-resistance-rated walls Fire-resistance-rated assemblies Rated membrane penetrations Non-fire-resistance-rated assemblies Opening Protective (715):  Opening Protective (715) Openings in: Rated exterior walls Fire barriers Shafts Fire partitions Smoke barriers Require: Fire-resistance-rated glazing Fire doors Fire shutters Fire windows Determination of Fire-resistance:  Determination of Fire-resistance Fire resistance ratings and fire test (703) Tested per ASTM E 119 and listed Calculated fire resistance ratings (721) Generally done by a fire protection engineer Only as prescribed in this section of the code Prescriptive ratings and tests (720) Tables 720.1(1), 720.1(2) 720.1(3) New for 2006:  New for 2006 Redefines “Fire Barrier” to be vertical only Adds labeling requirement for fire resistance-rated glazing Adds elevator lobby exceptions for shaft pressurization and smoke partitions Adds testing requirements for smoke barrier penetrations Questions?:  Questions? IBC 2006 – Chapter 10 Means of Egress:  IBC 2006 – Chapter 10 Means of Egress Means of Egress:  Means of Egress Occupant Load Size and capacity of egress system Number and location of exits Specific egress components General (1001.1)**:  General (1001.1)** Means of egress requires may be covered concurrently in State Fire Prevention Code Enforced by State Fire Marshal or fire official Public Safety Article, §§6-101 – 6-602, Annotated Code of Maryland COMAR 29.06.01 Definitions:  Definitions Exit Access Leads from any occupied point to an exit Exit Separated from other interior spaces by fire barriers to provide protected path from Exit Access to Exit Discharge Exit Discharge Between termination of an exit and the public way Exit Passageway Horizontal exit component Exit Enclosure Vertical or horizontal exit component General Means of Egress (1003):  General Means of Egress (1003) Ceiling Height Minimum 7’ with some exceptions Protruding Objects Minimum 6’-8” required under projections Max. 4” horizontal projection between 27” and 80” Elevation Change < 12” and the floor slopes at 1:20 or less, stairs or a ramp are not required. Continuity The path of egress from any occupiable point in the building to the public way must be uninterrupted. Occupant Load (1004):  Occupant Load (1004) Without fixed seating Determined per Table 1004.1.1 If not listed Building Official determines Building official can approve a smaller load Floor area/floor area per occupant = occupant load Add occupant loads where occupants from an accessory area discharge through a primary space Table 1004.1.1 (Partial):  Table 1004.1.1 (Partial) Determining Occupant Load:  Determining Occupant Load The designer may increase the occupant load up to one occupant for every 7 SF. Seating/aisle/furniture plan may be required to be posted by the building official Posting of Occupant Load Assembly rooms must be posted Sign near main exit Approved legible, permanent design Determining Occupant Load:  Determining Occupant Load Treat outdoor areas like a room in the building Legitimate means of egress required from fenced areas. An outdoor area will increase the occupant load if the means of egress is back through the building The occupant loads from stacked stories are NOT added together Where floor levels converge from above and below coverage on an intermediate discharge level, the occupant loads ARE added Add mezzanine’s occupant load to the floor below Determining Occupant Load:  Determining Occupant Load Fixed Seating Count seats or 18” per occupant on benches and 24” per occupant in dining booths Multiple Occupancies Each occupancy must meet its minimum egress requirements. Shared egress elements must meet the requirements for stricter occupancy. Occupant Load Solution:  Occupant Load Solution Egress Width (1005):  Egress Width (1005) Occupant load × egress width per occupant. Doors net 32” clearance (34” for doors that open 180 deg.) When 2 means of egress are required, no single doorway can account for more than 50% of the required width Corridors, ramps net width as required elsewhere Table 1005.1 Egress Width per Occupant Load:  Table 1005.1 Egress Width per Occupant Load Means of Egress Illumination (1006) :  Means of Egress Illumination (1006) Illumination Required at all times space is occupied Illumination Level of 1 foot candle at walking surface Emergency Power for at least 90 minutes for egress elements in buildings requiring two exits. These include corridors, stairs, exterior stairs, and interior and exterior discharges Accessible Means of Egress (1007) :  Accessible Means of Egress (1007) One required where one means of egress is required. Two required when more than one means of egress is required. NOT required in alternations to existing buildings Continuous to the public way unless area of refuge is provided Accessible Means of Egress:  Accessible Means of Egress Elevator on emergency power required when building is four or more stories Unless fully sprinklered and horizontal exit or ramp is provided. Enclosed Stairways at least 48” wide between handrails and one 48” ×30” area of refuge per 200 occupants NFPA 13/13R – 48” wide not required but area of refuge still needed. Area of Refuge (1007.6):  Area of Refuge (1007.6) Minimum 30”×48” outside the required egress width Separated by smoke barrier or stairways in nonsprinklered buildings. Direct access to stair or elevator with emergency power 2 way communication (w/instructions) required. “AREA OF REFUGE” sign required. Doors (1008):  Doors (1008) Minimum 32” clear width w/ 4” project at least 34” AFF permitted. 3’-0” doors typ. meet this requirement Side-hinged swinging with 6 exceptions Swing in the direction of travel where serving a space with an occupant of 50 or more. Door swings can never reduce the required width by more than ½. Door swings shall never project more than 7” into the required width. Special Doors:  Special Doors Revolving doors are usually NOT part of means of egress Power-operated doors must swing open under 50 lb force. Horizontal sliding doors - 8 specific requirements. Access-controlled egress doors - 6 specific requirements. Security grilles - Groups B, F, M, and S only. Operable from egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort. No more than ½ of the means of egress doorways Always full-open when occupied by public Doors:  Doors Floor Elevation must be same on both sides of door ½” drop at exterior doors 4 other exterior door exceptions Landings at Doors Minimum width must equal door or stair it serves and at least 44” long Door arrangement Min. of 48” between one door and the arc of the other door. Both doors must swing in the same direction or out of the enclosed space. Door Operations:  Door Operations Readily operable from the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort. Hardware shall not require tight grasping or twisting of the wrist to operate and mounted 34” to 48” high Locks and Latches – effectively an exception to above Detention facilities Keyed dead bolt in Group A (<300 Occupants), Groups B, F, M, S and churches Readily identifiable Unlocked when occupied Group R (e.g. hotel door chains) Doors Locks:  Doors Locks Bolt Locks Manually operated flush bolts not permitted Unlatching Unlatching the door shall not require more than one operation Delayed Egress Locks Must meet all 6 specific requirements. Stairway Doors Locked from outside at the discharge door Doors per 403.12 Locked from inside in buildings 4 stories or less Stairways (1009):  Stairways (1009) Stairway Width Minimum 44” except 36” for < 50 occupants Headroom 6’-8” (80”) minimum Treads and Risers 7” max. riser. 11” min. tread 3/8” max. dimension change Stairway Landings Width as stair Length same as width up to 48” Tread and Risers (1009.3)**:  Tread and Risers (1009.3)** Removed exceptions 4 and 5 and replaced them with the following: Exception 4 Group R-3 and R-2 (inside dwelling unit and Group U accessory to R-3 Riser Height – 8-1/4” max Tread Depth – 9” min Winder Depth – 9” min @ walking line and 6” minimum Nosing (Tread depth < 11”) ¾” min and 1-1/4” max Exception 5 See Maryland Rehabilitation Code for replacement of existing stairways Stairways:  Stairways Stairway Construction Materials same as construction type Prevent accumulation of water Circular Stairways Same riser limitations as a regular stair Some variation in tread Winders Not permitted in a means of egress except in a dwelling unit Stairways:  Stairways Stairway to roof - buildings 4 or more stories Exceptions for sloped roofs and unoccupied roofs. Spiral Stairways Only a means of egress in dwelling or space < 250 SF and < 5 occupants Special consideration for treads, risers, width, and headroom. Alternating Tread Devices Means of egress in limited applications 250 SF mezzanines in Groups F, H and S Unoccupied roof Group I-3 – Guard and observation tower Ramps (1010):  Ramps (1010) Slope Maximum of 1:12 Non-pedestrian to 1:8 Cross slope maximum of 1:48 Maximum rise for any run is 30” Minimum dimensions Width same as a corridor, 36” minimum between handrails Headroom is 6’-8” minimum Ramp width shall not reduce in direction of travel Doors shall not reduce width to <42” Ramps:  Ramps Landings Minimum 60” long and equal to ramp width Change in direction requires a 60” ×60” landing Construction Materials same as construction type Slip-resistant surface Prevent accumulation of water Edge Protection Must provide railings or curb Guards Provide where the ramp surface > 30” above grade or floor Handrails (1012):  Handrails (1012) Handrails Both sides of stairs and ramps Exceptions for R occupancies and aisle stairs Intermediate handrails within 30” of the required stairway width Graspable and continuous Required to extend past top and bottom risers Clearance of 1-1/2” between wall and handrail Graspability (1012.3)**:  Graspability (1012.3)** Exception for Group R-3 and R-2 (in dwelling unit) Circular cross section 1.25” min to 2.625” max Other Shapes – equivalent grasping surface Edges 0.125” radius min. Exit Signs (1011):  Exit Signs (1011) Visible from any direction of egress travel such that no point in corridor is more than 100 foot or listed viewing distance from next sign. Only if more than one exit is required Not in main exit if obviously identifiable Not required in Group R-1, R-2, R-3 units Not required in Group I-3 sleeping rooms Not required in Group A-4 and A-5 in specific areas Exit Signs:  Exit Signs Internally or externally illuminated at 5 foot-candles with a minimum of 90 minute emergency power Exceptions for tactile signs Graphics Legible letter, 6 inches high and ¾ inch wide strokes in high contrast Letters in “EXIT” 2 inches wide except “I” Minimum spacing between letters .375 inch Guards (1013):  Guards (1013) Where required Floor is 30 inches above floor or grade below Mechanical equipment or roof hatch within 10 feet of roof edge Guard height at least 42” Opening Limitations < 4” up to 34” and <8” above that Group R-2 and R-3 Units < 4.375” Loads on Guards (1607.7.1) 50 plf applied at top and 200 psf concentrated load For one and two family only single 200 pound concentrated load. Exit Access (1014):  Exit Access (1014) Egress through Intervening Spaces One tenant cannot pass through another Exception: small tenant inside large tenant, a bank in a supermarket or coffee shop in big box store (1014.2.1) Common Path of Egress Travel (1014.3) 75’ of travel before occupants have separate and distinct paths of travel to 2 exits. Group B, F and S with NFPA 13 - 100’ Group B, S and U with < 30 occupants - 100’ Group I-3 - 100’ Group R-2 with NPFA 13 – 125’ Aisles (1014.4):  Aisles (1014.4) An exit access component that defines and provides an path of egress travel Group B and M Width per Table 1005.1, minimum of 36” Group M with merchandise pad - Aisle Accessway Width minimum of 30” (Non-accessible) Common path of travel – 30’ 75’ < 50 occupants Seating at tables and counters Width measured of 19” from edges of tables and counters Exit and Exit Access Doorways (1015):  Exit and Exit Access Doorways (1015) Two Doorways are required when: Occupant load exceeds Table 1015.1 Common path of travel exceeds 1014.3 Where required for special rooms Doorway Arrangement Unobstructed Separation of doors from multiple exits. Two exits separated by ½ (or 1/3) diagonal Three or more exits: at least two exits separated by ½ (or 1/3) diagonal Exit Access Travel Distance (1016):  Exit Access Travel Distance (1016) Total travel distance from most remote point to the nearest exit from Table 1016.1 If egress path includes open stairs, measure down stairs to exit discharge from building Can get increases for roof vents in S-1 and F-1 Can get an increase for egress across an exterior balcony Corridors (1017):  Corridors (1017) Required rating per Table Not required in Group E where each room has a direct discharge to the exterior Not required in a Group R unit Not required in an open parking garage Not required in Group B that requires only 1 means of egress Corridors Width (1017.2):  Corridors Width (1017.2) Width not less than 44” 24” for utility access 36” with an occupant capacity < 50 36” in a dwelling unit 72” with an occupant capacity > 100 in an E 72” Group I surgery 72” I-2 where beds are moved Dead Ends (1017.3):  Dead Ends (1017.3) Dead ends limited to 20’ in spaces requiring 2 or more means of egress Group B and F with NFPA 13 -50’ Can extend to 2.5 times its least width Rated corridors continuous from point of entry to an exit Rated foyers, lobbies and reception rooms Ventilation in Corridors :  Ventilation in Corridors Air Movement in Corridors Can not be used for supply, return, exhaust, relief, or ventilation Corridor Ceiling Can use the space above the ceiling in a corridor as a return air plenum under any of five specific conditions Exits (1018):  Exits (1018) Shall not be used for any purpose that interferes with its function as a means of egress Once a level of protection is given it shall be continuous to the exit discharge Number of Exits and Continuity (1019):  Number of Exits and Continuity (1019) All occupants shall have access to the minimum number of exits required for the building Based on Table 1019.1 Occupant load 1 – 500 2 exits Occupant load 501 – 1000 3 exits Occupant load Over 1000 4 exits Parking structures require 2 exits for every level. Vehicle ramps not considered exits. Exit Continuity Exits must be continuous from the point of entry to exit discharge. Number of Exits and Continuity:  Number of Exits and Continuity Buildings with one exit Based on Table 1019.2 with maximum 1 basement level Group R-3 Single level building where the space served is a single means of egress space per 1015.1 Vertical Exit Enclosures (1020):  Vertical Exit Enclosures (1020) Two hour fire barrier where connecting 4 or more stories. Otherwise one hour. 9 exceptions Openings limited to those required for egress and must be protected Penetrations limited to required exit doors, sprinkler service, and required services. Vertical Exit Enclosures:  Vertical Exit Enclosures Ventilation independent of other systems and must connect directly to the exterior or be separated from the building. Exterior walls of interior stairs rated if exposed to the buildings exterior walls at angle < 180˚ Discharge must be identified clearly and have a barrier to keep occupants from passing it High-rise and underground buildings, a smoke-proof enclosure is required for stairs or stairs pressurized per 909.20 Exit Passageways (1021):  Exit Passageways (1021) Appear to be corridors, but part of an exit, same protection as enclosed exit stair Size as a corridor Fire Rating minimum 1 hour unless serving a 2 hour stair Openings – same as stair Penetrations – same as stair Horizontal Exits (1022):  Horizontal Exits (1022) An egress path through a fire wall or barrier where occupants remain on the same level Cannot be the only exit. Not more than ½ of the total exits or exit width Two hour separation down to grade or supported on two hour floors and must extend from exterior wall to exterior wall Provide an area of refuge at 3 sf per occupant for both sides of exit Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways (1023):  Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways (1023) Use in a Means of Egress Group I-2 – Not permitted Other Groups - < 6 stories or < 75’ above fire department access Open on at least one side at each floor or landing to a yard, court or public way with minimum 35 SF opening Separated from building interior the same as interior stairs 4 exceptions Exit Discharge (1024):  Exit Discharge (1024) Exits shall discharge to the exterior at grade or provide direct access to grade and shall not re-enter building 3 exceptions Up to 50% of number and capacity may discharge onto unobstructed, sprinklered floor areas Up to 50% of number and capacity may discharge into a 10’ ×30’ vestibule separated from the rest of the building Open parking stairs may discharge inside the building on the level of exit discharge Exit Discharge:  Exit Discharge Exit discharge location at least 10’ from property lines and buildings Egress Courts Sized per 1005.1 > 44” wide and 84” tall Rated one hour unless at least 10 feet wide Access to Public Way Direct and unobstructed access to a public way Safe dispersal area provided at least 50’ from the building Assembly (1025):  Assembly (1025) Main Exit Occupant load > 300 Sized for at least 50% of total occupant load Other Exits Occupant load > 300 Sized at least 50% of total occupant load Foyers and Lobbies – Group A-1 Separated from the required egress aisles by fixed barriers Emergency Escape and Rescue (1026):  Emergency Escape and Rescue (1026) Group R and I-1at least one exterior emergency escape Basements Sleeping rooms below fourth story Seven exceptions Minimum size and height 5.7 sf and 24” high and 20” wide 44” max. above floor Window wells 3’ ×3’ minimum Ladder if over 44” deep New in 2006:  New in 2006 Limits minimum SF/occupant to 7 Reduced panic hardware threshold to 50 Removed Area of Refuge exception for sprinklered buildings Increased common path of travel to 125 ft for NFPA 13 sprinklered Group R-2 IBC 2006 – Chapter 16 Structural Design:  IBC 2006 – Chapter 16 Structural Design Construction Documents (1603):  Construction Documents (1603) Design Details Structural Members Size Section Relative location Dimensions Floor levels Column centers Offsets dimensioned Structural Loading Floor live loads Roof live loads Roof snow loads Wind design data Seismic design data Dead loads Roof Live Loads (1603.1.1):  Roof Live Loads (1603.1.1) Live loads Per Table 1607.1 Partition Loads Live load < 80 psf Additional load of 15 psf Dead loads Building material Permanent fixed equipment (i.e. mechanical equipment) Roof Live Loads (1603.1.2):  Roof Live Loads (1603.1.2) Live loads Per Table 1607.1 Minimum of 20 psf Dead loads Building material Permanent fixed equipment (i.e. mechanical equipment) Roof Snow Load (1603.1.3):  Roof Snow Load (1603.1.3) Ground Snow Load - Pg Flat-Roof Snow Load - Pf Snow Exposure Factor - Ce Snow Load Importance Factor - I Thermal Factor - Ct Wind Design Data (1603.1.3):  Wind Design Data (1603.1.3) Basic Wind Speed (3-sec gust) Wind Importance Factor Wind Exposure Internal Pressure Coefficient Component and Cladding (psf) Earthquake Design Data (1603.1.5):  Earthquake Design Data (1603.1.5) Seismic Importance Factor – I and Occupancy Category Mapped Spectral Response Acc. SS and S1 Site Class Spectral Response Coefficients SDS and SD1 Seismic Design Category Basic Seismic Force Resisting System Design Base Shear Seismic Response Coefficient CS Response Modification Factor Analysis Procedure Used Flood Design Data (1603.1.6):  Flood Design Data (1603.1.6) For buildings in a Flood Hazard Area Not subject to wave action Elevation of lowest proposed floor including basement Elevation of non-residential building to be dry flood proofed Subject to wave action Elevation of lowest proposed structural member including basement New for 2006:  New for 2006 Changed simplified wind load and seismic design procedures to ASCE 7 references Provided formula to convert Fastest Mile wind speeds to 3 Second Gust Reduced partition load to 15 psf IBC 2006 – Chapter 18 Soil & Foundation:  IBC 2006 – Chapter 18 Soil & Foundation Foundation and Soils Investigations (1802):  Foundation and Soils Investigations (1802) Where required Questionable soil Expansive soil Ground water Pile and pier foundations Rock strata Soils Report Location of boring Record of samples Record of profile Water table Recommendations Settlement Excavation, Grading and Fill (1803):  Excavation, Grading and Fill (1803) Cut-and-fill grading must not remove lateral support for the footings of the proposed building and adjacent buildings Site grading must slope away from foundation at a min. 5% for at least 10’ Compacted fill to requirements of approved report Excavation, Grading and Fill (1803):  Excavation, Grading and Fill (1803) Cut-and-fill grading must not remove lateral support for the footings of the proposed building and adjacent buildings Site grading must slope away from foundation at a min. 5% for at least 10’ Compacted fill to requirements of approved report Footing and Foundation (1805):  Footing and Foundation (1805) Placed on undisturbed soil or on properly compact fill Top surface of footing shall be level Bottom surface of footing is allowed to a max. slope of 10% otherwise stepped Extends below the frost line of the locality (12” minimum) Dampproofing and Waterproofing (1807):  Dampproofing and Waterproofing (1807) Dampproofing Moisture present, but not under hydrostatic pressures. Floors and walls are min. 6” above the groundwater table. Soil side of floors and walls from top of footing to ground level Waterproofing Water under hydrostatic pressure at the site Bottom of the wall to at least 12” above the max. groundwater table Joints watertight Pier and Pile Foundations:  Pier and Pile Foundations Pier Foundation vs. Pile Foundation Soil report required Driven Pile Foundation Cast-in-Place Concrete Foundation Micropiles (1810.8) Composite Piles Pier Foundations New for 2006:  New for 2006 Separates masonry and concrete foundation wall sections Adds requirements for micropiles Questions?:  Questions? IBC 2006 – Appendix G Flood Resistant Construction:  IBC 2006 – Appendix G Flood Resistant Construction Flood Zones:  Flood Zones Zones B, C, X Moderate to low risk Zone A High risk 100 year floodplain Zone V High risk coastal Subject to wave action Zone D Undetermined risk Flood Area:  Flood Area Riverine Flood elevations without floodway designations impact to BFE limited to 1 foot increase Floodway encroachment No increase in BFE Watercourse alternation Notify adjacent jurisdictions and State Agencies No decrease to flood carrying capacity Alterations in coastal areas No increase potential for flood damage Flood Requirements:  Flood Requirements Subdivision Tentative and final plats Flood hazard areas Design flood elevations Residential lots Buildable area outside floodway Site Improvement High Velocity wave action Landward of mean high tide Fill for structural support prohibited Sewer Facilities Minimize/Eliminate infiltration of floodwaters and discharge into floodwaters Flood Requirements:  Flood Requirements Manufactured Homes (New & Replacement) Elevated with lowest floor above BFE Permanent, reinforced foundation Anchored to resist floatation, collapse and lateral movement Recreational Vehicles Prohibited from wave action and floodways Tanks Anchored to resist hydrostatic loads including floatation Inlets and vents – elevated or protected New for 2006:  New for 2006 Add section for Other Building Work Detached accessory structures Fences Oil derricks Retaining walls, sidewalks and driveways Prefabricated swimming pools Questions?:  Questions?

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