Published on March 27, 2013
Lecturer: Bahman MoghimiDoctor of Business AdministrationM.Sc. Of “Industrial Marketing & e-Commerce”Business Markets and Business Buyer BehaviorUniversity of Georgia B.Moghimi@yahoo.c o.uk
Business buyer behavior refers to the buying behavior of the organizations that buy goods and services for use in production of other products and services that are sold, rented, or supplied to others. Also included are retailing and wholesaling firms that acquire goods to resell or rent to others for profit. Business buying process is the process where business buyers determine which products and services are needed to purchase, and then find, evaluate, and choose among alternative brands B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Compared with consumer purchases, a business purchase usually involves more decision participants and a more professional purchasing effort. Often, business buying is done by trained purchasing agents who spend their working lives learning how to buy better. The more complex the purchase, the more likely it is that several people will participate in the decision-making process. Buying committees composed of technical experts and top management are common in the buying of major goods. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Business buyers usually face more complex buying decisions than do consumer buyers. Business purchases often involve large sums of money, complex technical and economic considerations, and interactions among many people at many levels of the buyer’s organization also it takes longer to make the decisions. The business buying process tends to be more formalized than the consumer buying process. Large business purchases usually call for detailed product specifications, written purchase orders, careful supplier searches, and formal approval. Finally, in the business buying process, the buyer and seller are often much more dependent on each other. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
It is the systematic development of networks of supplier-partners to ensure an appropriate and dependable supply of products and materials that they will use in making their own products or resell B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Business buying decisions can range from routine to incredibly complex, involving only a few or very many decision makers and buying influences. A Model of Business Buyer Behavior B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Straight re-buy is a routine purchase decision such as reorder without any modificationModified re-buy is a purchase decision that requires some research where the buyer wants to modify the product specification, price, terms, or suppliersNew task is a purchase decision that requires thorough research such as a new productSystems selling involves the purchase of a packaged solution from a single seller (solution selling) B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Buying center is all of the individuals and units that play a role in the business decision-making process ◦ Users ◦ Influencers ◦ Buyers ◦ Deciders ◦ Gatekeepers B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Users: Members of the buying organization who will actually use the purchased product or service. Influencers: People in an organization’s buying center who affect the buying decision; they often help define specifications and also provide information for evaluating alternatives. Buyers: People in an organization’s buying center who make an actual purchase. Deciders: People in an organization’s buying center who have formal or informal power to select or approve the final suppliers. Gatekeepers: People in an organization’s buying center who control the flow of information to others. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Buying center: Cardinal Health deals with a wide range of buying influences, from purchasing executives and hospital administrators to the surgeons who actually use its products. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Economic Personal Factors Factors Price EmotionService B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Environmental FactorsDemand for Economic Cost of product outlook money Resource Technology Cultureavailability Politics Competition B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Organizational Factors Objectives Policies Procedures Structure Systems B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Interpersonal FactorsInfluence ExperienceAuthority Dynamics B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Individual FactorsMotives Perceptions Preferences Age Income Education Attitude toward risk B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
It occurs when someone in the company recognizes a problem or need Internal stimuli ◦ Need for new product or production equipment External stimuli ◦ Idea from a trade show or advertising B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
General need description describes the characteristics and quantity of the needed itemProduct specification describes the technical criteriaValue analysis is an approach to cost reduction where components are studied to determine if they can be redesigned, standardized, or made with less costly methods of production B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Supplier search: The stage of the business buying process in which the buyer tries to find the best vendors. Proposal solicitation: The stage of the business buying process in which the buyer invites qualified suppliers to submit proposals. Supplier selection: The stage of the business buying process in which the buyer reviews proposals and selects a supplier or suppliers. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Order-routine specifications is the final order with the chosen supplier and lists all of the specifications and terms of the purchase Performance review The stage of the business buying process in which the buyer assesses the performance of the supplier and decides to continue, modify, or drop the arrangement. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Purchasing through electronic connections between buyers and sellers; usually online. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
E-procurement strategies B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Advantages ◦ Access to new suppliers ◦ Lowers costs ◦ Speeds order processing and delivery ◦ Shares information ◦ Sales ◦ Service and support Disadvantages ◦ Can erode relationships as buyers search for new suppliers ◦ Security B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Consist of Schools, hospitals, nursing homes, and prisons that provide goods and services to people in their careCharacteristics• Low budgets• “Captive” audience General Mills Foodservice produces, packages, prices, and markets its broad assortment of foods to better serve the specific food service requirements of various institutional markets. B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
Governmental units—federal, state, and local—that purchase or rent goods and services for carrying out the main functions of government. It tends to favor domestic suppliers and require suppliers to submit bids and normally award to the lowest bidder Carefully monitored Affected by similar environmental factors Good credit Non-economic factors Minority suppliers Depressed suppliers Small businesses B.Moghimi@yahoo.co.uk
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