Mark Griffiths Keynote Presentation

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Information about Mark Griffiths Keynote Presentation

Published on January 6, 2009

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CPD in Sports Coaching: Developing a Learning Coach. : Westminster Institute of Education CPD in Sports Coaching: Developing a Learning Coach. Mark Griffiths & Kathleen Armour Slide 2: Westminster Institute of Education Effective and ineffective coaching - CPD: an analysis of participants’ experiences (individual analysis). Effective and ineffective CPD: an overview of the research evidence from education. Coaching - CPD that impacts upon coach and learning……. Possible solutions? Summary – The challenge. Overview Slide 3: Westminster Institute of Education Historically sport coaching has been pre-occupied with merely enhancing the opportunities for mastery of physical, technical, and strategical skills of the sport (Miller & Kerr, 2002) Coaching Defined…….. Slide 4: Westminster Institute of Education Coaching Defined – emerging specialisms……. Coaching defined as an interpersonal process. It is about interacting with people. It is about the coach and the athlete (Jowett, 2005) Slide 5: Westminster Institute of Education Recently, sports coaching conceptualised through focusing on the pedagogy of coaching (Armour, Jones & Potrac 2004). Coaching pedagogy - four individual yet interlinked elements: 1) coaches, 2) learners, 3) knowledge, 4) learning environment. Coaching Defined – emerging specialisms……. Slide 6: Westminster Institute of Education For the purpose of today’s session – a high quality coach is defined as a learning coach. Slide 7: Westminster Institute of Education Key point…coaches are learners too! Professional development is all about viewing coaches as learners but… Professional development for coaches often ignores the most basic knowledge about learning! Slide 8: Westminster Institute of Education How do coaches learn most effectively? How do different coaches learn? How can athletes learning inform coach learning… And how does coach learning impact on athlete learning? Over to you…..Thinking back on your career, identify examples of professional development courses/activities that have ‘worked’ for you and why: also examples that didn’t work for youHow do you learn best ? (approach taken, media used, timing, location). : Westminster Institute of Education Over to you…..Thinking back on your career, identify examples of professional development courses/activities that have ‘worked’ for you and why: also examples that didn’t work for youHow do you learn best ? (approach taken, media used, timing, location). Slide 10: Westminster Institute of Education Consensus It is ‘ineffective’ to provide a series of ‘one shot’ professional development activities, undertaken away from the place of work, without specific follow up and without making links with previous learning. Findings from coach-CPD Slide 11: Westminster Institute of Education Research confirms that coaching experience and learning from other coaches are the primary sources of knowledge for coaches. Coaches serve an apprenticeship of observation – but this may not be embraced (formally) within the coach education process. Previous experiences form a filter for all future learning. Coach education may be relatively ‘low impact’ endeavour. Findings from coach-CPD Slide 12: Westminster Institute of Education Theory/practice split deskills coaches. Focus on performance enhancement overshadows the social processes that are coaching. Coaching presented as a series of logical steps. Findings from coach-CPD Slide 13: Westminster Institute of Education A coaches story “At the end of the day you are there to pass and if you want to pass you take it in and you relay it back to them in a way that seems as though you’ve agreed. Whether you do or not is another matter”. “A lot of the things I do are a bit wishy-washy. There are a lot of workshops, a lot of what do you think and actually I’d like to go to a course where they tell me what they do and then I can choose what is applicable to me. I don’t really want to go to a course and then discuss amongst ourselves what we are doing. That will obviously happen during lunchtimes and breaks but if I ask a tutor a question and they ask me what I think then there are only so many times I can handle that”. Slide 14: Westminster Institute of Education A coaches story “You had to draw a poster. I didn't, my kids did it. There you go, you like playing on the computer, download some pictures and do me a little picture”. Slide 15: Westminster Institute of Education Coaches arrive at coach education courses with powerful personal beliefs and dispositions – coaches may be forced to attend/pass – but that doesn’t mean they have to learn or continue to learn Lessons from PE-CPD research : Westminster Institute of Education Lessons from PE-CPD research ‘Good’ courses recalled vividly for years but rarely any follow-up activities. PE-CPD not viewed as ‘challenging’. These teachers did not read/use PE research. Patterns of CPD haphazard. Lack of relevance. ‘fragmented professional development hodgepodge’ (McLaughlin & Zarrow, 2001, p. 99) What can we learn so far? : Westminster Institute of Education What can we learn so far? Career-long PD needs a focus Enhancing teacher learning to enhance pupil learning is the core purpose Teacher learning needs to be relevant, coherent and progressive (more on this later) What is ‘effective’ CPD? : Westminster Institute of Education What is ‘effective’ CPD? Deepens teachers’ content knowledge and pedagogical skills; Includes opportunities for practice, reflection and research; Is embedded in the workplace and takes place in the school day; Is sustained over time; Is founded on a sense of collegiality and collaboration (Sparks, 2002) Schools that were ‘turned around’ byCPD… : Westminster Institute of Education Schools that were ‘turned around’ byCPD… Ensure that student-centred goals underpin all professional development Accept an expanded definition of professional development, embracing a wide range of formal and informal learning experiences Structure a collaborative learning environment Ensure there is time for professional learning and collaboration Check (constantly) whether professional development is having an impact on pupils’ learning (WestEd, 2002). Slide 20: Westminster Institute of Education ‘If the purpose of teaching is to facilitate learning and professional development is designed to improve teaching we suggest quality professional development needs to be ‘successful’ professional development, and result in improved student learning’(Kubitskey, Fishman & Marx, 2003, p.3) Implication…who is accountable for which CPD outcomes? For what are CPD providers willing to be held accountable? What does this mean in practice? : Westminster Institute of Education What does this mean in practice? Pupil learning (your athletes/participants) provides the starting point rather than an aspirant end point for CPD A ‘theory of change’ approach toPE-CPD : Westminster Institute of Education A ‘theory of change’ approach toPE-CPD How it is anticipated that the CPD will ‘work’?…… It will ‘work’ if teachers learn, change their practice, enhance pupils’ (all/some?) learning AND want to learn more. Theories of change – and underlying assumptions - should be identified at the CPD planning stage Slide 23: Westminster Institute of Education Evaluation of the National PE-CPDProgramme : Westminster Institute of Education Evaluation of the National PE-CPDProgramme Some early findings: Relevance and meeting teachers’ individual needs are pivotal Creating, developing and sustaining cross curricular links will be challenging Opportunities to be active, interactive and to network are valued by teachers E-learning communities have potential… Over to you… : Westminster Institute of Education Over to you… Small groups… So…what needs to change in order to ensure coach-CPD is ‘effective’? What can you do from your position? Who is to be held accountable??? Developing Professional Learning Communities in Coaching : Westminster Institute of Education Developing Professional Learning Communities in Coaching Learning Together Slide 27: Westminster Institute of Education The challenge – how can we utilise the findings of effective CPD research within the unique coaching context…… Slide 28: Westminster Institute of Education “people can go through accreditation….. But that doesn’t mean to say that they’re a good coach. Lois Muir (Netball). An expert coaches story “A coaching course has never produced an international coach……if you are relying on coaching courses, you are relying on things that are probably 5 years out of date anyway….” Ian McGeechan (Rugby) Found that the most valuable knowledge in coaching comes from other coaches, “It’s a copying thing, plus the fact that you learn as you go along, so you learn by experience and you add variations” Steve Harrison (Football) Slide 29: Westminster Institute of Education Found coaching courses to be unhelpful, “For high level coaches who have wide experience and who are also reading extensively in the field, this kind of professional development is always likely to be unsatisfying and inappropriate” Di Bass (Swimming) “coaching courses should be viewed as only the start of professional learning, not the end”. Graham Taylor (Football) Possible solutions : Westminster Institute of Education Possible solutions A social learning theory. Communities of Practice. Building knowledge through construction. Mentoring – bridging the theory/practice gap Self-reflection. Key finding from PE-CPD research : Westminster Institute of Education Key finding from PE-CPD research Traditional model of CPD predominated in these teachers’ profiles But They placed the highest value on learning with and from professional colleagues But This was not viewed as ‘real’ CPD Slide 32: Westminster Institute of Education ‘I think it would be brilliant to go into other schools…not do a critique of anybody’s teaching, just to watch them, see how they present things’ ‘Networking amongst ourselves as a group of professionals is very, very good CPD’ ‘I would like to see it [CPD] spent working in my department with maybe people coming in and sharing ideas…[on a course] you come back and you never have that contact with another teacher who you learn from’ Social Learning : Westminster Institute of Education Social Learning ‘I always pick carefully who I sit next to on courses. Because you can learn just as much from people, other people there who have taught’ Slide 34: Westminster Institute of Education Encourage coaches to: Take the lead in CPD Build on their tentative PLCs Demand CPD that meets their learning needs and those of their athletes / participants. Slide 35: Westminster Institute of Education The Challenge To develop self-sustaining learning communities - (In PE research, unofficial learning communities were compensating for the shortcomings of official CPD). Slide 36: Westminster Institute of Education The Challenge “In a deep sense, it is by these communities that knowledge is “owned”. In practice communities of practice preserve the tacit aspects of knowledge that formal systems cannot capture. For this reason, they are ideal for initiating newcomers into practice. They can retain knowledge in “living” ways, unlike a database or a manual”. (Wenger, 1998) Knowledge : Westminster Institute of Education Knowledge Knowledge construction: constructivist coaching should feature active, social and creative learning. The application of content and pedagogical knowledge should be the outcome of a coach education programme. “This knowledge could be delivered through hypothetical situations and the dilution of inappropriate beliefs already ingrained in coaches” (Abraham & Collins, 1998). Slide 38: Westminster Institute of Education Participants favoured: Material delivered in a structured and coherent manner. Content introduced progressively. Time to apply. Atmosphere conducive to learning……. “It was nice to hear her (the instructor) oops stories too!!” Knowledge Construction McCullick et al. (2005) – evaluation of coaching programmes in Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA). Slide 39: Westminster Institute of Education “To focus exclusively on teaching as the shared construction of knowledge runs the risk of ignoring the extent to which learning depends on independent practice and problem solving. It tends to highlight learning as conceptualisation and to ignore learning as the formation, or revision, of skills. As well as sharing knowledge, we have to make knowledge our own”. (Fox, 2001). However…… Slide 40: Westminster Institute of Education “What coaches need is decision making. The game plan. If you and I sat down and watched a game (and analysed that game) that’s what should be in the accreditation and it isn’t. And you see that’s the art of coaching” (Lois Muir) Slide 41: Westminster Institute of Education Self Reflection For the sports coach, the most important benefit of bridging the gap between theory and practice is that the individual is equipped to investigate and develop his or her own practice, rather than rely on supplementary training. The challenge: to make explicit issues of meaning and ownership. Slide 42: Westminster Institute of Education Reflection – aid coach education. Skills gap between theory and practice ? Although coaches increase their theoretical knowledge base, little of this transfers to significantly improve coaching practice. Professional knowledge. Changes in behaviour – self-esteem, confidence. Cognitive – thinking skills, decision making. Self-Reflection in Coaching Slide 43: Westminster Institute of Education Mentoring Dominant role of personal experience suggests it ought to be harnessed more effectively. Mentoring operating in coach development – but largely unstructured and uncritical (Gilbert & Trudel, 2001; Cushion, 2001) Mentoring most successful when mentor has a helping rather than an evaluative role (Abell et al, 1995) Slide 44: Westminster Institute of Education Mentoring Need to provide a mirror to see practice. Question assumptions underpinning personal practice – otherwise they remain untouched. Those in positions of power need to be committed to reflective practice. But how would it work? : Westminster Institute of Education But how would it work? Need more research.. But… CPD should begin with coaches working together to systematically analyse and prioritise their athletes learning needs (micro/macro) Coaches systematically analyse their capabilities to address their athletes learning needs…is there expertise locally, elsewhere? Some identified needs may require reading/research (where/how?) Some identified needs require external CPD provision (where/how?) Recall…what is ‘effective’ CPD? : Westminster Institute of Education Recall…what is ‘effective’ CPD? Is embedded in the workplace; Is sustained over time; Is founded on a sense of collegiality and collaboration (Sparks, 2002) Solution – it’s all about learning! : Westminster Institute of Education Solution – it’s all about learning! Base design of CPD on models on effective coach learning Encourage governing bodies/stakeholders to become learning organisations where coaches are recognised as learners, and… CPD Organisations: : Westminster Institute of Education CPD Organisations: CPD aims: To provide ongoing relevant CPD to support high quality coaching. To create networks. To provide CPD opportunities to ensure members are leaders in their field of expertise. Slide 49: Westminster Institute of Education Coaching is a complex social encounter… it should not be viewed exclusively as a systematic, technical set of standardised models and procedures. So…we must aim high! : Westminster Institute of Education So…we must aim high! Thank you !

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