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Marine Invertebrates II

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Information about Marine Invertebrates II
Education

Published on February 23, 2014

Author: DorveraOwens

Source: authorstream.com

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PowerPoint Presentation: Mod 5- Marine Invertebrates II Animals without backbones PowerPoint Presentation: The Domains of Life PowerPoint Presentation: The 6 Kingdoms PowerPoint Presentation: Kingdom Animalia PowerPoint Presentation: Characteristics of Kingdom Anamalia PowerPoint Presentation: Kingdom Animalia Must eat- heterotrophs Do not perform photosynthesis like autotrophs PowerPoint Presentation: Kingdom Animalia Multicellular- have many cells PowerPoint Presentation: Kingdom Animalia No cell walls and chloroplasts PowerPoint Presentation: Kingdom Animalia Active movement and locomotion PowerPoint Presentation: Kingdom Animalia Diverse in form- many body shapes PowerPoint Presentation: Kingdom Animalia Diverse in habitat- live on land, water, underground, and in the air. PowerPoint Presentation: Kingdom Animalia Sexual reproduction PowerPoint Presentation: Kingdom Animalia Embryonic development PowerPoint Presentation: Kingdom Animalia Unique tissues PowerPoint Presentation: Vertebrate Invertebrate PowerPoint Presentation: The Marine Invertebrates II PowerPoint Presentation: Marine Invertebrates II You will learn about four major phyla that display much more complexity in their body forms and processes than the Marine Invertebrates I. The four phyla that will be covered are: Phylum Mollusca ( muh lus ' kuh ) Phylum Arthropoda ( ar thrah ' poh duh) Phylum Echinodermata ( ee kye ' noh der mah tah ) Phylum Chordata ( kor dah' tah ). PowerPoint Presentation: Phylum Mollusca PowerPoint Presentation: Phylum Mollusca:  Mollusks                         Snails, clams, octopi, squids, oysters   There are at least 150,000 known species   All mollusks have similar body plans: a.  Muscular foot b.  Visceral mass with organs         c.  Mantle that secretes the shell Phylum Mollusca: Phylum Mollusca 1)Bilaterally symmetrical. 2)Body has more than two cell layers, tissues and organs. 3)Body without cavity. 4)Body possesses a through gut with mouth and anus. 5)Body monomeric and highly variable in form, may possess a dorsal or lateral shells of protein and calcareous spicules. 6)Has a nervous system with a circum-oesophagal ring, ganglia and paired nerve chords. 7)Has an open circulatory system with a heart and an aorta. 8)Has gaseous exchange organs called ctenidial gills. 9)Has a pair of kidneys. 10)Reproduction normally sexual and gonochoristic. 11)Feed a wide range of material. 12)Live in most environments. Phylum Mollusca: Phylum Mollusca Although many of the species in this group have very different appearances, they all share common traits. Most mollusks have a bilaterally symmetric soft body protected by a shell made of calcium carbonate. The shell provides protection from the elements and predators and can also provide body support. The soft body is covered by a mantle , which is a layer of tissue surrounding the animal. Phylum Mollusca: Phylum Mollusca Mollusks have gills for exchanging gases with the surrounding water, a digestive tract, and a somewhat complex nervous system. A special organ allows these organisms to scrape food into their mouths. It is called a radula (rad' yoo lah) and is made up of multiple rows of small teeth. PowerPoint Presentation: Phylum Mollusca Class Gastropoda The head of a gastropod is very complex compared to that of most other mollusks. Usually connected to the body by a mobile neck, it often has one or two pairs of tentacles covered with receptors that help the gastropod sense its surroundings. PowerPoint Presentation: Class Gastropoda “Snails” PowerPoint Presentation: The very descriptive name is made up of the prefix “gastro,” meaning “stomach,” and the root word “pod,” meaning “foot.” So the word “gastropod” tells you that these animals display a “stomach-foot” body shape. A gastropod is basically a coiled mass of organs surrounded by a dorsal shell and resting on a ventral crawling foot. Many snails have a horny plate, called an operculum (oh per' kyew lum), that forms a lid over the opening of the shell when the head and foot are pulled inside. This acts much like a door to a house, keeping predators from getting inside the shell and moisture from getting out . PowerPoint Presentation: Class Gastropoda Cypraea spadicea Littorina keenae Tegula brunnea PowerPoint Presentation: Class Gastropoda Littorina keenae Diodora aspera Lottia gigantea PowerPoint Presentation: Class Gastropoda Aplysia californica Phyllaphysia taylori Tylodina fungina Marine Gastropods: Marine Gastropods The name “nudibranch” literally means “naked gills” and is very descriptive of this group of gastropods. They are some of the most beautiful animals in the ocean, with colorful frills or branches along their dorsal side. Some of these animals prey on hydrozoans and other invertebrates. PowerPoint Presentation: Protathaca staminea Mytilus californianus Mytilus edulis Class Bivalvia PowerPoint Presentation: Bivalves have a hinged, two-piece (two-valve) shell. All bivalves lack radulas and do not really have a noticeable head. They have large and sometimes elaborate gills used not only for gas exchange but also for filtering food particles from the water. They extend siphons to suck in and expel seawater. Tiny cilia on the gills beat back and forth, creating a current that pulls in the water so that plankton and food particles can be trapped by the gills and swept to the mouth. Class Bivalvia PowerPoint Presentation: Class Bivalvia PowerPoint Presentation: Class Bivalvia PowerPoint Presentation: Class Bivalvia Class Cephalopoda: Class Cephalopoda Their name – “cephal” meaning “head,” and “pod” meaning “foot” – is very descriptive of this “head-footed” group of animals. PowerPoint Presentation: Class Cephalopoda Rapid movement; well-developed nervous systems.  Examples:  Octopus, squid, nautilus   PowerPoint Presentation: Class Cephalopoda Octopus bimaculoides Octopus dolfeini PowerPoint Presentation: Loligo opalescens Class Cephalopoda PowerPoint Presentation: Cephalopods have complex eyes that include a retina, cornea, iris, and lens. They also have a brain that coordinates and stores information. A cephalopod's body is protected by a muscular mantle enclosing its gills. Cephalopods can forcefully contract their mantle cavity, shooting out a jet of water, which propels them backward. Class Cephalopoda PowerPoint Presentation: In the squid and the octopus, the siphon can be turned in nearly any direction, giving them the ability to move in any direction they choose. In addition to the siphon, cephalopods have sacs from which they can release a dark fluid to confuse their enemies and allow a retreat. Class Cephalopoda PowerPoint Presentation: Class Cephalopoda PowerPoint Presentation: Class Cephalopoda PowerPoint Presentation: Class Cephalopoda cuttlefish PowerPoint Presentation: Class Cephalopoda PowerPoint Presentation: Octopuses have a foot divided into eight arms, completely lack a shell, and rarely reach a diameter of greater than 30 centimeters. They usually live on the ocean floor and hunt for their food, especially crabs and lobsters. Their hawk-like beak is used to bite their prey. Some octopus species can also inject a paralyzing poison into their victims. Class Cephalopoda PowerPoint Presentation: Class Cephalopoda Click video to play PowerPoint Presentation: Class Polyplacophora Polyplacophora have eight armored plates protecting their flattened oval shape. Chitons usually live on rocky shores and graze on algae. Another group is the tusk shells (class Scaphopoda – [skah' foh poh' dah]). They are found buried in the sediments of deep water, feeding on microscopic organisms. Like its name implies, a tusk shell looks like an elephant tusk with openings on both the broad and pointed ends. PowerPoint Presentation: Class Polyplacophora Cryptochiton stelleri Katharina tunicata PowerPoint Presentation: Phylum Arthropoda :  Arthropods (crustaceans, spiders, insects)             Hard exoskeleton, segmented bodies, jointed appendages             Arthropods are the most successful of all animal phyla based on diversity, distribution, and numbers.   Nearly one million species identified so far, mostly insects.   The exoskeleton, or cuticle, is composed of protein and chitin.   The process of shedding an exoskeleton and replacing it with a new one is molting. Molting of the cuticle is called ecdysis .   Extensive cephalization.   Open circulatory systems in which a heart pumps hemolymph through short arteries and into open spaces (sinuses). Aquatic members- gills for gas exchange; terrestrial members- tracheal system of branched tubes leading from surface throughout body. PowerPoint Presentation: Phylum Arthropoda PowerPoint Presentation: Phylum Arthropoda PowerPoint Presentation: Phylum Arthropoda *Jointed Appendages PowerPoint Presentation: *hard exoskeleton *Chiton Phylum Arthropoda PowerPoint Presentation: *molting (ecdysis) Phylum Arthropoda PowerPoint Presentation: Insects Crustaceans PowerPoint Presentation: Class Crustacea Crustaceans are considered the “insects” of the sea. This might be an unappetizing thought if you like to eat members in this group such as shrimp, crabs, and lobsters. These animals are well suited for a marine environment. They have gills for obtaining oxygen, special appendages for swimming (and many other functions as well), and an exoskeleton hardened by calcium carbonate. Crustaceans also have two pairs of antennae to help in sensing their surroundings. Click video to play PowerPoint Presentation: Subphylum Crustacea zooplankton PowerPoint Presentation: Copepods Tiny crustaceans are found in countless numbers throughout the ocean. They can be found on reefs, floating as plankton, or hiding among other animals. An abundant group found among the plankton is the copepods (coh' pee pods). PowerPoint Presentation: a California intertidal species Tigriopus californicus Copepods PowerPoint Presentation: Balanus Pollicipes polymerus Tetraclita rubescens Barnacles Barnacles are commonly mistaken for mollusks because they have calcium plates surrounding their bodies, but they are true crustaceans. PowerPoint Presentation: Barnacle anatomy PowerPoint Presentation: Whale barnacles Feeding barnacle Barnacles PowerPoint Presentation: Amphipods Corophium Amphipods (am' fee pods) and isopods are slightly larger than 1 centimeter in length. Amphipods generally have laterally compressed bodies while isopods have ventrally flattened bodies. They are both found among seaweeds and on seashores. Some are found living among the plankton. Others are parasitic, burrowing into the skin of whales or fish. PowerPoint Presentation: Amphipods PowerPoint Presentation: Megalorchestia californiana Ampithoe Amphipods PowerPoint Presentation: Isopods PowerPoint Presentation: Parasitic Isopod PowerPoint Presentation: Ligia occidentalis Idotea stenops Subphylum Crustacea PowerPoint Presentation: Krill (euphausiids) Krill are a little larger than the amphipods and isopods, growing to about 5 centimeters. They are planktonic organisms that resemble shrimp. Most krill are filter feeders, eating other plankton. PowerPoint Presentation: Crabeater seal ( Lobodon carcinophagus ) Blue whale ( Balaenoptera musculus ) Examples of organisms that feed on krill. PowerPoint Presentation: Decapods The shrimp, lobsters, and crabs belong to the order Decapoda, meaning “10 legs,” and are the largest of the marine arthropods. Decapods have five pairs of legs for walking. The first pair is usually larger and has claws for obtaining food and for defense. Their body is divided into two major parts. The carapace covers the fused head and thorax sections of the cephalothorax. The other part is the abdomen, which is incorrectly called the “tail” by seafood lovers. Biologists usually refer to a “tail” as the area posterior to the anus. PowerPoint Presentation: Petrolisthes cinctipes Pagurus samuelis Decapods PowerPoint Presentation: Decapods – shrimps, crabs and lobsters PowerPoint Presentation: Decapods – shrimp and lobsters Shrimp and lobsters have a long abdomen, and many live on the ocean bottoms where they scavenge for leftover bits of food. Some shrimp actually feed on the parasites of fish. They set up “cleaning stations” where a fish can swim up and allow the shrimp to crawl all over its body (and even inside its mouth!), picking off and eating the various parasites. PowerPoint Presentation: Decapods – shrimp and lobsters Lobsters feed in the same way as shrimp, but they usually do it at night. They also have been known to capture prey with their large, ominous claws. Hermit crabs, which are not really crabs, fit their elongated soft abdomens into abandoned gastropod shells. Many cover their shells with algae or even other animals, like sea anemones and sponges, in order to camouflage themselves. PowerPoint Presentation: Decapods- crabs Crabs have a small abdomen that is folded under their larger, usually rounded cephalothorax. The males have a small, narrow abdomen, but the females have a wider, flattened abdomen for carrying eggs. There are more species of crabs than all the other decapods. Most scavenge for their food in the same way as shrimp. You may have seen them scurrying sideways along beaches. Because the hard exoskeleton keeps the moisture on their gills from evaporating, crabs can survive on land for quite some time. In fact, there are some species that spend their entire adult lives on land, returning to the water only to reproduce. PowerPoint Presentation: Horseshoe crabs (Class Merostomata) Horseshoe crabs are arthropods that live primarily in and around shallow ocean waters on soft sandy or muddy bottoms. They will occasionally come on shore for mating. PowerPoint Presentation: Horseshoe crabs (Class Merostomata) Decapods- crabs PowerPoint Presentation: Sea spiders (Class Pycnogonida) PowerPoint Presentation: Sea spiders (Class Pycnogonida) Ammothea hilgendorfi PowerPoint Presentation: Eggs of Halobates on seashell Marine water strider ( Halobates ) Marine insects – very, very few PowerPoint Presentation: Phylum Echindermata PowerPoint Presentation: Phylum Echinodermata (Echinoderms) Water vascular systems – network of hydraulic canals used for locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange.  It extends into tube feet that are used for locomotion and feeding. Echinoderms appear to be radial, but are bilateral in larval stages. PowerPoint Presentation: Phylum Echindermata PowerPoint Presentation: Phylum Echindermata Off the Californian coast, giant kelp grow to gigantic sizes. They provide a good source of food to armies of industrious sea urchins, which attack them in force in a seemingly unending chase of life seeking food. Watch an interesting video of sea urchins, brittle stars, and sea stars on this video: http://youtu.be/D3W4OCnHyCs PowerPoint Presentation: Sea stars Pisaster ochrachus Patiria miniata Class Asteroidea PowerPoint Presentation: Water vascular system PowerPoint Presentation: Water vascular system of a sea star PowerPoint Presentation: Class Ophiuroidea Ophiopholis aculeata Amphiodia occidentalis Brittle stars PowerPoint Presentation: Class Echinoidea Strongylocentrotus franciscanus Sea urchins, sand dollars Strongylocentrotus purpuratus PowerPoint Presentation: Endoskeleton of a sea urchin. The term sand dollar refers to species of extremely flattened, burrowing sea urchins belonging to the order Clypeasteroida. Some species within the order, not quite as flat, are known as sea biscuits. PowerPoint Presentation: Class Echinoidea Sea urchins, sand dollars https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O3uKWy5Vljs PowerPoint Presentation: male female Juvenile ‘weight belt’ Dendraster excentricus Class Echinoidea Sea urchins, sand dollars PowerPoint Presentation: Psolus chitonoides sea cucumbers Class Holothuroidea Parastichopus californicus PowerPoint Presentation: sea cucumbers Class Holothuroidea PowerPoint Presentation: Sea lilies, crinoids Class Crinoidea PowerPoint Presentation: Phylum Chordata PowerPoint Presentation: Phylum Chordata A very diverse group, ranging from tiny gelatinous zooplankton to large fishes and whales. But all chordates share a few main characteristics at some stage of their lives. One characteristic is the presence of a supportive notochord ( noh ' toh kord ) made of cartilage-like material that lies between the nerve cord and the gut. Notochord – A flexible supportive rod that runs the length of the body of the chordates PowerPoint Presentation: Members of this subphylum are called “tunicates” because as adults, the animals cover themselves with a leather-like “tunic.” The tunicates have a notochord and dorsal nerve cord throughout their larval stage, but they disappear when the organisms become adults. Some of the more common individuals are the sea squirts and the ascidians (uh sid' ee unz). These animals are attached to a soft substrate, and are often mistaken for sponges due to their rounded appearance. Subphylum Urochordata PowerPoint Presentation: Adult morphology Subphylum Urochordata Tunicates, sea squirts PowerPoint Presentation: Subphylum Urochordata Larvae PowerPoint Presentation: Metamorphosis into adult form Subphylum Urochordata PowerPoint Presentation: salps Subphylum Urochordata PowerPoint Presentation: Ciona intestinalis Aplidium californicum Subphylum Urochordata PowerPoint Presentation: Phylum Chordata Subphylum Cephalochordata Lancelates, amphioxus PowerPoint Presentation: niche Subphylum Cephalochordata These organisms, commonly called lancelets, are shaped much like a fish. They retain their notochords and dorsal nerve cords throughout their lives. They tend to spend the majority of their time buried in the sand. This allows them to hide from predators without hampering their ability to obtain food. Like the sea squirt, the lancelet takes in food by filtering the water. PowerPoint Presentation: Branchistoma californiense Subphylum Cephalochordata PowerPoint Presentation: Summary of Marine Invertebrates

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