Published on March 2, 2014
• A pogrom (series of organized attacks) by civilians and some SA (Sturmabteilung) storm troopers against Jews • Happened throughout Nazi Germany and some of Austria (which was then also Germany) • Happened on November 9-10, 1938 • German authorities didn’t intervene
Torched Synagogues Killed and Arrested Innocent Jews Vandalized Homes Annihilated Schools Demolished Businesses with Sledgehammers
Because of all the shattered glass that surrounded the synagogues and Jewishowned shops
• 91 Jews were killed during the night • 30,000 Jews were arrested and put into concentration camps • Over 1,000 synagogues were burned • 7,500 Jewish businesses damaged or destroyed • An extra 2,000 Jews died in concentration camps from causes directly related to Kristallnacht afterwards
• In the 1920s, most German Jews were fully integrated into German society as citizens • Conditions for German Jews worsened when Hitler got appointed Chancellor • Propaganda made Jews into an enemy, and the government made laws restricting their rights “Der ist schuld am kriege” means “Who is to blame for the wars” The finger is pointing at what appears to be a Jewish man.
• Shop windows in thousands of Jewish-owned stores were smashed • Jewish cemeteries were also destroyed and many Jews were attacked by mobs of storm troopers • The men were ordered to arrest as many Jews as the local jails would hold • The violence was finally called to a stop on November 11 by Goebbels Footage of Destruction Play to 35 secs no audio
Their Logo These are depictions of the Sturmabteilung (shtoo Rm-ahp-tahy-loong) Stormtroopers (aka Brownshirts or SA), who were the perpetrators of Kristallnacht (along with the German civilians)
• Many people say that Kristallnacht was a huge turning point, and even that it marked the beginning of the Holocaust itself • The Jewish community was forced to pay money to the government, instead of it being the other way around • At the concentration camps afterward, 2,000 people died out of the 30,000 captured
Susan - Play to 1:32 Robert - Play to 2:22
What factors cause good government to go so terribly bad? Shutting down and trying to destroy not only a religion, but the lives of millions (e.g. Nazis) Using extremely violent methods to promote one’s cause (e.g. Kristallnacht) Trying to conform a whole population, however big, to be the same (e.g. Nazis) In any society, what characterizes equal treatment for all people? Everybody having equal opportunities, not only a select few The right to property Everyone should, at the very least, have to right to be alive, and even this right was violated millions of times during the entirety of the Holocaust
• Mr. Ellenberg • "IWitness. One Voice at a Time." Browse Topics/IWitness:Video Testimonies from Holocaust Survivors and Witnesses. N.p., 23 June 1997. Web. 04 Feb. 2014. • "HOLOCAUST SURVIVOR ESTHER CLIFFORD RECALLS KRISTALLNACHT." Frequency. N.p., 2013. Web. 4 Feb. 2014. • "Kristallnacht." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 1996. Web. 02 Feb. 2014. • "Kristallnacht." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 10 Sept. 2002. Web. 02 Feb. 2014. • "News Brief." Jewish Telegraphic Agency. N.p., 25 Nov. 1938. Web. 04 Feb. 2014. • United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 1993. Web. 04 Feb. 2014. • "Survivors Remember Kristallnacht: Susan (Strauss) Taube." YouTube. YouTube, 13 Aug. 2012. Web. 05 Feb. 2014. • Press, The Associated. The New York Times. The New York Times, 1851. Web. 01 Feb. 2014. • "The Free Automatic Bibliography and Citation Generator." EasyBib. N.p., 2001. Web. 07 Feb. 2014. • Microsoft Word and Microsoft PowerPoint
Walk out more knowledgeable about Kristallnacht! Thank you for being good and obedient children during the presentation!
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