map ftaa windows xp

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Information about map ftaa windows xp

Published on October 22, 2007

Author: Sudiksha


Slide1:  Office for Latin America and the Caribbean Slide2:  I. Background II. US Business Interests in Latin America III. Economic Asymmetries and Government Positions IV. Consumers and the FTAA V. Images of Latin America Slide3:  What is the FTAA? The FTAA is the Free Trade Area of the Americas, an agreement whose objective is to create a free trade zone covering the entire American continent, from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, though progressive elimination of barriers to trade, investment and other economic activities. Negotiations for the agreement are to be concluded by January 2005 and entry into force is to occur by January 2006. Who is participating in the FTAA? Governments of 34 countries in North, Central and South America and the Caribbean, excepting Cuba, are participating. Slide4:  "To promote prosperity through increased economic integration and free trade among the countries of our hemisphere, which are key factors for raising standards of living, improving the working conditions of people in the Americas and better protecting the environment.“ (4th. Trade Ministerial Joint Declaration, San Jose, Costa Rica, March 1998) Overall Objective of the FTAA Slide5:  FTAA Background First Summit of the Americas (Miami, 1994). 34 Heads of State agree to start negotiations and adopt a Plan of Action. Miami Summit Plan of Action The Plan of Action outlined four broad categories: I. Preserving and strengthening the community of democracies II. Promoting prosperity through economic integration and free trade III. Eradicating poverty and discrimination IV. Guaranteeing sustainable development and conserving the natural environment for future generations Slide6:  FTAA negotiations have been conducted in two stages: 1. Preparatory Phase (1995-1998): 12 working groups established to examine conditions in each of the 34 participating countries, including domestic legislation, compatibility among diverse legal frameworks, and similarities and differences between nations. 2. Negotiations (1998-2005): Nine negotiating groups established, plus a Technical Committee on Institutional Issues, a Consultative Group on Smaller Economies and the Committee of Government Representatives on the Participation of Civil Society. The Joint Government-Private Sector Committee of Experts on Electronic Commerce has been suspended temporarily but may be re-opened to counsel negotiating groups on relevant points. Slide7:  1. The FTAA will be fully consistent with the rules and disciplines of the World Trade Organization and will improve upon these where possible and appropriate. 2. Decisions taken in FTAA negotiations will be adopted by consensus. 3. The process will be conducted with transparency before governments and civil society. 4. FTAA negotiations shall be treated as part of a single undertaking. 5. The FTAA will coexist with bilateral and subregional agreements to the extent that the rights and obligations of these accords imply a greater degree of integration than provided for by the FTAA. 6. Attention must be given to the special needs, economic conditions and opportunities of smaller economies to ensure their full participation in the FTAA, and differences in levels of development must be taken into account. Negotiating Principles: Slide8:  Market Access: Agree upon rules for progressive elimination of tariffs, non-tariff measures and other measures restricting trade. The guiding principle is National Treatment for foreign business. Investment: Create a stable and predictable climate to protect foreign investment, based on the controversial chapter on investment in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Agriculture: Progressively eliminate agricultural tariffs, non-tariff barriers and export subsidies, and ensure that food security does not constitute a hidden restriction to trade. Negotiating Groups created in 1998 Slide9:  Intellectual Property Rights: Ensure protection of Intellectual Property Rights (rights to the legal possession and protection of ideas, artistic creations, technological innovations) based on the WTO Trade-Related Intellectual Property rights (TRIPs) accord Services: Liberalise trade in services (including financial services, health and education) and limit or ban governmental policies that would "interfere" with the market, leading to complete mercantilisation of utilities and basic services. Competition Policy: Stop anti-competitive business practices (e.g. monopolies) detrimental to consumers or contrary to efficient use of resources. Slide10:  Government Procurement: Procurements conducted by governments must increase the opportunities afforded by free market criteria to local and foreign investors. Subsidies, Antidumping and Countervailing Duties: Identify ways to strengthen rules on subsidies and compensatory measures and improve rules and procedures governing unjustified barriers to trade. Dispute Settlement: Establish a supranational mechanism to settle disputes over alleged breach of FTAA rules. The proposal replicates dispute settlement mechanisms of NAFTA and WTO. Slide11:  Secrecy, lack of transparency, undemocratic negotiations: From the start, negotiations have been conducted in secrecy and without the participation of civil society organisations. The First Draft was only made public in June 2001, three years after talks began. The Second Draft was released in November 2002. Drafts do not include the positions taken by governments on areas under negotiation, thus limiting civil society advocacy. Absence of issues important to civil society: Negotiations for the FTAA focus on trade issues (market liberalisation and barriers to investment) without incorporating key development concerns, like the environment, gender, labor and consumer interests. Consumers and the FTAA Slide12:  Asymmetric negotiations: FTAA negotiations are unprecedented insofar as they connect a bloc of developing countries with the world's most important economy. The contents and character of negotiations reflect US interests and seek to outstrip the WTO in incorporating new areas such as government procurement, competition and investment policy-- topics not yet being negotiated within the WTO. Loss of national sovereignty: The FTAA chapter on investment reflects the spirit of NAFTA Chapter 11 which allows TNCs to take disputes with States to supranational tribunals should they believe their interests to have been harmed by government environmental protection or social measures. Failure to comply with the Miami Plan of Action, whose major components seek to eradicate poverty and discrimination, ensure sustainable development and strengthen democracies. Slide13:  Consumers: The missing dimension: CI and its members have identified the consumer needs and rights that must be included in free trade negotiations. FTAA negotiations are advancing rapidly and behind the backs of citizens: The serious economic, political and social impacts of SAPs and indiscriminate market liberalisation have not been taken into account, with irreparable consequences for the majority of people of the Americas. Slide14:  II. US Business Interests in Latin America Slide16:  5,9% 7,0% 18,1% 4,4% 2,7% 5,9% 8,4% 10,4% 3,8% 9,2% 249,7% 5,8% 94,7% % Direct Foreign Investment by the US in Latin American and the Caribbean (as % of GDP) Fuente: CEPAL, 2001 y Oficina de Análisis Económico de la Secretaria de Comercio de Estados Unidos de América Slide17:  Nestlé Group (Switzerland ) Alcon Farmaceutics (U.S.A.) La Rosa S.A. L’OREAL (U.S.A.) Galderma Dermatology (U.S.A.) Ralston Purina (U.S.A.) Nestle Water Slide18:  Altria Group Inc (U.S.A.) Cigarettes, food, beer Kraft Foods Nabisco Philip Morris USA Philip Morris Capital Corp Philip Morris International SABMiller (brewery and Coca Cola's 2nd largest bottling facility worldwide)) Slide19:  Procter & Gamble (U.S.A.) Food Argentina Brasil Canadá Guatemala Chile Costa Rica Colombia República Dominicana El Salvador Honduras México Nicaragua Panamá Perú Puerto Rico Estados Unidos Venezuela Slide20:  México Nicaragua El Salvador Honduras Guatemala Costa Rica Panamá Belice Colombia Brasil Chile Uruguay Venezuela Argentina Puerto Rico Paraguay Uruguay Estados Unidos Perú Ecuador Bolivia Beverages Slide21:  JOHNSON & JOHNSON Pharmaceuticals: Alza Centocor Janssen Farmaceutics Lifescan Biotechnology: Biosense Webster INC (USA) Orthobiotech (USA) Slide22:  Airplane motors Household appliances Financial Services and Insurance Industrial Systems Medical Systems Television (NBC) Plastics (GE Plastics) Energy (production and distribution) Oils Gas Rail transport Mining Slide23:  CITIGROUP American Airlines Advantage Diners Club Int Citibank Citi Credit Cards CitiFinancial CitiMortgage CitiInsurance Travelers Life & Annuity Primerica Banamex SmithBarney Citigroup Asset Management Citigroup Private Bank Citigroup Alternative Investments Citicapital Slide24:  EXXONMOBIL (Hydrocarbons) Argentina Brasil Canadá Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana México Paraguay Suriname Estados unidos Slide25:  CHEVRONTEXACO (Hydrocarbons) Antigua y Barbuda Aruba Bahamas Barbados Islas Caimán Curaçao Dominica Rep. Dominicana Granada Guadalupe Haití Jamaica Martinica Puerto Rico St Kitts and Nevis St lucía St Martín St Vincent Trinidad y Tobago Turks & Caicos Island Virginia Islands México Belice Guatemala El Salvador Costa Rica Panamá Colombia Venezuela Ecuador Perú Chile Guayana Suriname French Guayana Brasil Uruguay Bolivia Paraguay Argentina Slide26:  III. Economic Asymmetries and Government Positions Slide27:  Total Assets of the Three Leading US Banks vs Latin America and the Caribbean GDP and Foreign Debt 1.918.382 2.366.789 764.880 0 500.000 1.000.000 1.500.000 2.000.000 2.500.000 Citigroup, J.P.Morgan Ch. co. Bank of America, (2001) PIB A. Latina y El Caribe (2001) Deuda Ext. de A. Latina y El Caribe (2001) Millones de US$ Fuente: Cepal, Banco Mundial Slide31:  Labor Costs in the Manufacturing Industry FTAA 1999 Compared to Salaries in the US EE.UU. U$ 13.91 /hora Canada 4/5 h. Argentina 1/3 Trinidad y Tobago 1/4 Chile y Brasil 1/7 Costa Rica 1/8 República Dominicana El Salvador 1/9 Panamá Colombia México Paraguay 1/11 Honduras Bolivia Guatemala 1/12 Ecuador Perú Jamaica Nicaragua 1/14 Fuente: Slide32:  Governments say: Slide36:  Consumers International Slide37:  Proposal No. 1: Move ahead decisively to eradicate poverty, giving urgent attention to the underlying factors of persistent social inequities and the unpayable foreign debt. Slide38:  Proposal No. 2: Establish judicial and institutional protection at the national and hemispheric levels to promote and protect consumer rights; implement the UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection. Slide39:  Proposal No. 3: Pave the way for sustainable development in all nations, ending environmental pollution and the depredation and depletion of natural resources. All thematic and sectoral agreements toward integration should be subordinated to strategies for sustainable development. Slide40:  Proposal No. 4: Ensure universal access by all consumers to basic goods and services; promote responsible, informed and ethical consumption. Slide41:  Proposal No. 5: Acknowledge asymmetries among countries; extend special and differential treatment to lesser-developed countries and build effective mechanisms for cooperation and development that can transcend the limited focus of implementation timetables. Slide42:  Proposal No. 6: Define and harmonise competition policies that answer to consumer interests and national development. Slide43:  Proposal No. 7: Prioritise attention to and protection of consumer rights to health, food safety and security, and biodiversity. These are the fundamental rights that must take precedence over intellectual property rights that have been incorporated into free trade agreements. Slide44:  Proposal No. 8: Reduce the vulnerability of countries to external economic factors. Design appropriate instruments and institutions to regulate and control both financial and monetary flows and financing for development. Slide46:  Economic Globalisation will lead to ... The Globalisation of Solidarity Slide47:  Banco Mundial Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI) Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) CEPAL Banco de Pagos Internacionales Federal Trade Commission (USA) Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN) Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR) Comunidad Económica del Caribe (CARICOM) Parlamento Centroamericano (PARLACEN) Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN) UNCTAD FAO OMC ALCA The Wall Street Journal The New York Times CNN en Español The Washington Post Miami Herald Financial Times Grupo de Diarios América Fortune El Mercurio (Chile) El País (España) La Jornada (México) Expreso (Perú) La Insignia La Hora (Ecuador) El Espectador (Colombia) El Tiempo (Colombia) Hoy (Ecuador) Estrategia (Chile) Portafolio (Colombia) El Comercio (Perú) La República (Colombia) Associated Press Reuters Crítica al Alca (Aurelio Suárez Montoya) Globalización & Alca (Ricardo Mosquera Mesa) El Malestar en la Globalización (Josept E. Stiglitz) Foro Social Mundial Foro Económico Mundial OXFAM INTERNATIONAL El Nuevo Siglo (Colombia) Sources Slide48:  Consumers International - Revista Consumidores y Desarrollo - Los Consumidores Frente al Alca - Responsabilidad Empresarial en el Mercado Global - Consumidores, Justicia Social y Mercado Mundial Claudio Lara Cristian Candia Marcela Ortiz Beatriz García MUSIC: Ricardo Arjona Si el Norte fuera el Sur ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: SYSTEMS ENGINEER: Héctor Raúl Sánchez Slide49:  Research team: Sandra Castañeda Sara Giraldo Marcela Gómez Jorge Eduardo Jurado Luis Fernando Mejía Director: Juan Carlos Castaño Research conducted with financial support from Consumers International Office for Latin America and the Caribbean. Slide50: Office for Latin America and the Caribbean

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