Published on March 19, 2013
WEEK 7:MOTIVATION & LEADERSHIP Lecturer: Bahman Moghimi Doctor of Business Administration M.Sc. Of “Industrial Marketing & e-Commerce” Session 7 University of Georgia Source: Robbins,St.,Coulter,M. Management-11th ed.
Distinguishing Manager-ship from Leadership B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 5
The Place of Leadership Can Anyone Be a Leader? Some people don’t have what it takes to be a leader Some people are more motivated to lead than others Is Leadership Always Necessary? Some people don’t need leaders Leaders need to be aware of followers’ needs B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 6
Early Leadership Theories Trait Theories (1920s–30s) Research that focused on identifying personal characteristics that differentiated leaders from non-leaders was unsuccessful Later research on the leadership process identified seven traits associated with successful leadership: Drive, the desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, intelligence, job-relevant knowledge, and extraversion B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 7
Exhibit 12.2 Seven Traits Associated with Leadership B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 8
Behavioral Theories University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin) Identified three leadership styles: Autocratic style: centralized authority, low participation Democratic style: involvement, high participation, feedback Laissez-faire style: hands-off management Research findings: mixed results No specific style was consistently better for producing better performance Employees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic leader B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 9
Behavioral Theories (cont’d) Ohio State Studies Identified two dimensions of leader behaviour Initiating structure: the role of the leader in defining his or her role and the roles of group members Consideration: the leader’s mutual trust and respect for group members’ ideas and feelings Research findings: mixed results High-high leaders generally, but not always, achieved high group task performance and satisfaction Evidence indicated that situational factors appeared to strongly influence leadership effectiveness B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 10
Behavioral Theories (cont’d) University of Michigan Studies Identified two dimensions of leader behavior Employee oriented: emphasizing personal relationships Production oriented: emphasizing task accomplishment Research findings: Leaders who are employee oriented are strongly associated with high group productivity and high job satisfaction B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 11
Exhibit 12.3 Behavioral Theories of Leadership B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 12
Behavioral Theories (cont’d) Managerial Grid Appraises leadership styles using two dimensions: Concern for people Concern for production B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 13
Exhibit 12.4 TheManagerial GridSource: Reprinted by permission ofHarvard Business Review. An exhibitfrom “Breakthrough in OrganizationDevelopment” by Robert R. Blake,Jane S. Mouton, Louis B. Barnes,and Larry E. Greiner, November–December 1964, p. 136. Copyright ©1964 by the President and Fellows ofHarvard College. All rights reserved. B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 14
Contingency Theories of Leadership The Fiedler Model Effective group performance depends upon the match between the leader’s style of interacting with followers and the degree to which the situation allows the leader to control and influence Assumptions: Different situations require different leadership styles Leaders do not readily change leadership styles Matching the leader to the situation or changing the situation to make it favourable to the leader is required B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 15
Contingency Theories of Leadership (cont’d) The Fiedler Model (cont’d) Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire Determines leadership style by measuring responses to 18 pairs of contrasting adjectives High score: a relationship-oriented leadership style Low score: a task-oriented leadership style Situational factors in matching leader to the situation: Leader-member relations Task structure Position power B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 16
Exhibit 12.5 Fiedler’s Least-Preferred Co-workerQuestionnaire B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 17
Exhibit 12.6 Findings of the Fiedler Model Good Task Oriented Relationship Oriented PoorSituation Favourableness: Highly Favourable Moderate Highly Unfavourable Category I II III IV V VI VII VIII Leader– Member Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor Relations Task Structure High High Low Low High High Low Low Position Power Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 18
Contingency Theories… (cont’d) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) Successful leadership is achieved by selecting a leadership style that matches the level of the followers’ readiness Acceptance: do followers accept or reject a leader? Readiness: do followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task? Leaders must give up control as followers become more competent B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 19
Contingency Theories… (cont’d) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) (cont’d) Creates four specific leadership styles incorporating Fiedler’s two leadership dimensions: Telling: high task–low relationship leadership Selling: high task–high relationship leadership Participating: low task–high relationship leadership Delegating: low task–low relationship leadership B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 20
Contingency Theories… (cont’d) Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) (cont’d) Identifies four stages of follower readiness: R1: followers are unable and unwilling R2: followers are unable but willing R3: followers are able but unwilling R4: followers are able and willing B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 21
Exhibit 12.7 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model High relationship High task and and low task high relationship High STYLE OF LEADER S3 S2 High Moderate Low S4 S1 R4 R3 R2 R1 Able Able Unable Unable and and and and willing unwilling willing unwilling Low High Task Behaviour Follower Readiness Low relationship High task and Source: Reprinted with permission from the Center for Leadership and low task low relationship Studies. Situational Leadership® is a registered trademark of the Center for Leadership Studies. Escondido, California. All rights reserved. B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 22
Contingency Theories… (cont’d) Leader Participation Model (Vroom and Yetton) Leader behavior must be adjusted to reflect the task structure Suggests appropriate participation level in decision making B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 23
Contingency Theories… (cont’d) Leader Participation Model Contingencies: Decision significance Importance of commitment Leader expertise Likelihood of commitment Group support Group expertise Team competence B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 24
Leadership Styles: Vroom Leader Participation Model Decide Consult Individually Consult Group Facilitate Delegate B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 25
H – – – Decide H H H H L Delegate Exhibit 12.8 Time- L L – Consult (Group) L – H – Facilitate Driven ModelP HR H H LO H L – Consult (Individually)BL L – –E LM H Facilitate H HS H LT L L – Consult (Group)AT L – –EM H – – – – DecideEN H FacilitateT H L H L L – L – Consult (Individually) L – – H – – – Decide H – H Delegate Source: Adapted from V. Vroom, “Leadership and L L – – the Decision-Making Process,” Organizational L Facilitate Dynamics, vol. 28, no. 4 (2000), p. 87. L – – – – – Decide B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 26
Contingency Theories… (cont’d) Path-Goal Model Leader’s job is to assist his or her followers in achieving organizational goals Leader’s style depends on the situation: Directive Supportive Participative Achievement-oriented B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 27
Exhibit 12.9 Path-Goal Theory Environmental Contingency Factors • Task Structure • Formal Authority System • Work GroupLeader Behaviour Outcomes• Directive • Performance• Supportive • Satisfaction• Participative• Achievement Oriented Subordinate Contingency Factors • Locus of Control • Experience • Perceived Ability B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 28
Cutting-Edge Approaches to Leadership Transactional Leadership Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements Transformational Leadership Leaders who inspire followers to go beyond their own self-interests for the good of the organization Leaders who have a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 29
Cutting-Edge Approaches to Leadership (cont’d) Charismatic Leadership An enthusiastic, self-confident leader whose personality and actions influence people to behave in certain ways Characteristics of charismatic leaders: Have a vision Are able to articulate the vision Are willing to take risks to achieve the vision Are sensitive to the environment and to follower needs Exhibit behaviours that are out of the ordinary B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 30
Cutting-Edge Approaches to Leadership (cont’d) Charismatic Leadership (cont’d) Effects of Charismatic Leadership Increased motivation, greater satisfaction More profitable companies Charismatic leadership may have a downside: After recent ethics scandals, some agreement that CEOs with less vision, and more ethical and corporate responsibility, might be more desirable B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 31
Cutting-Edge Approaches to Leadership (cont’d) Visionary Leadership A leader who creates and articulates a realistic, credible, and attractive vision of the future that improves upon the present situation Visionary leaders have the ability to: Explain the vision to others Express the vision not just verbally but through behaviour Extend or apply the vision to different leadership contexts B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 32
Cutting-Edge Approaches to Leadership (cont’d) Team Leadership Characteristics Having patience to share information Being able to trust others and to give up authority Understanding when to intervene Team Leader’s Job Managing the team’s external boundary Facilitating the team process Coaching, facilitating, handling disciplinary problems, reviewing team and individual performance, training, and communicating B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 33
Exhibit 12.10 Specific Team Leadership Roles Liaison with Coach External Constituencies Conflict Team Leader Troubleshooter Manager Roles B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 34
Current Leadership Issues Managing Power Legitimate power Expert power The power a leader has The influence a leader as a result of his or her can exert as a result of position his or her expertise, Coercive power skills, or knowledge The power a leader has Referent power to punish or control The power of a leader Reward power that arises because of a The power to give person’s desirable positive benefits or resources or admired rewards personal traits B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 35
Developing Trust Credibility (of a Leader) The assessment, by a leader’s followers, of the leader’s honesty, competence, and ability to inspire Trust The belief of followers and others in the integrity, character, and ability of a leader Dimensions of trust: integrity, competence, consistency, loyalty, and openness Trust is related to increases in job performance, organizational citizenship behaviours, job satisfaction, and organization commitment B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 36
Tips for Managers:Suggestions for Building Trust Practice openness Be fair Speak your feelings Tell the truth Show consistency Fulfill your promises Maintain confidences Demonstrate competence B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 37
Providing Moral Leadership Address both the moral content of a leader’s goals and the means used to achieve those goals Ethical leadership is more than being ethical Includes reinforcing ethics through organizational mechanisms B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 38
Providing On-line Leadership Challenges of On-line Leadership Communication Choosing the right words, structure, tone, and style for digital communications Performance management Defining, facilitating, and encouraging performance Trust Creating a culture where trust is expected, encouraged, and required B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 39
Empowering Employees Empowerment Involves increasing the decision-making discretion of workers Why empower employees? Quicker responses to problems and faster decisions Relieves managers to work on other problems B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 40
Empowerment: Cautions The following conditions should be met for empowerment to be introduced: Clear definition of company’s values and mission Employees have relevant skills Employees need to be supported, not criticized, when performing Employees need to be recognized for their efforts B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 41
Exhibit 12.11 Selected Cross-Cultural Leadership Findings Korean leaders are expected to be paternalistic toward employees. Arab leaders who show kindness or generosity without being asked to do so are seen by other Arabs as weak. Japanese leaders are expected to be humble and speak frequently. Scandinavian and Dutch leaders who single out individuals with public praise are likely to embarrass, not energize, those individuals. Malaysian leaders are expected to show compassion while using more of an autocratic than a participative style. Effective German leaders are characterized by high performance orientation, low compassion, low self-protection, low team orientation, high autonomy, and high participation B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 42
Cross-Cultural Leadership Universal Elements of Effective Leadership Vision Foresight Providing encouragement Trustworthiness Dynamism Positiveness Proactiveness B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 43
Gender Differences and Leadership Research Findings Males and females use different styles: Women tend to adopt a more democratic or participative style unless in a male- dominated job Women tend to use transformational leadership Men tend to use transactional leadership B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 44
Exhibit 12.12 Where Female Managers Do Better: A Scorecard None of the five studies set out to find gender differences. They stumbled on them while compiling and analyzing performance evaluations. Skill (Each check mark denotes which group MEN WOMEN scored higher on the respective studies) Motivating Others Fostering Communication * Producing High-Quality Work Strategic Planning * Listening to Others Analyzing Issues * * In one study, women’s and men’s scores in these categories were statistically even. Data: Hagberg Consulting Group, Management Research Group, Lawrence A. Pfaff, Personnel Decisions International Inc., Advanced Teamware Inc. Source: R. Sharpe, “As Leaders, Women Rule,” BusinessWeek, November 20. 2000, p. 75. B.Moghimi@Yahoo.co.uk 45
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