Management Of Technology(Ravish Roshan,9968009808)

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Published on October 7, 2008

Author: atulravish88

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STUDENT- PGDM INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, NOIDA Prepared by – RAVISH ROSHAN (atulravish@gmail.com),9968009808 (mail ur comments, please)

Prepared by –

RAVISH ROSHAN (atulravish@gmail.com),9968009808

Management of Technology Technological evolution

Management of technology It is defined as the know-how, physical equipment, and procedures used to produce products and services. Support network -- A network comprised of the physical, informational, and organizational relationships that make a technology complete and allow it to function as intended.

It is defined as the know-how, physical equipment, and procedures used to produce products and services.

Support network -- A network comprised of the physical, informational, and organizational relationships that make a technology complete and allow it to function as intended.

MOT CASE LET OF – seven eleven, Japan Question for discussion --- explain how seven eleven has done the development and innovative use of technology to make distinctive competence.

CASE LET OF – seven eleven, Japan

Question for discussion --- explain how seven eleven has done the development and innovative use of technology to make distinctive competence.

Management criteria for effective innovation Early in the corporate era, it may have been easy to believe that technological stability was the normal condition and technological innovation the occasional. Motorola corporation used the transistor to expand its position in consumer electronics and then, by integration backwards, gained a significant new role as competent supplier. Here we can identify management criteria which effectively discriminate between profitable and unprofitable new technologies.

Early in the corporate era, it may have been easy to believe that technological stability was the normal condition and technological innovation the occasional.

Motorola corporation used the transistor to expand its position in consumer electronics and then, by integration backwards, gained a significant new role as competent supplier.

Here we can identify management criteria which effectively discriminate between profitable and unprofitable new technologies.

Determinants of success It could be found in technology and business contexts. In technology, the determinants would depend on appraisal of quality and significance of innovative concepts– like it must be new and must be good. Hence there must be embodiment for the new device, a product or system, which is waiting for it. And so, Operational consequences of new technology on manufacturing, marketing, and distribution must be considered.

It could be found in technology and business contexts.

In technology, the determinants would depend on appraisal of quality and significance of innovative concepts– like it must be new and must be good.

Hence there must be embodiment for the new device, a product or system, which is waiting for it.

And so, Operational consequences of new technology on manufacturing, marketing, and distribution must be considered.

Balancing old and new constraints Three questions turn out to be crucial – What fundamental technical constraints limiting the prior art are lifted ? --- this is the key technical challenge. Identify the core physical constraints underlying the previous technologies that have been lifted by the new invention and assess the significance of lifting those constraints. Example – aircraft engine. In the piston engine, upper limit in compression ratio is set to be the detonation of the fuel charge in the cylinder. A turbine engine has no such limit. It is possible to have higher compression ratio in turbine engine that makes it successful.

Three questions turn out to be crucial –

What fundamental technical constraints limiting the prior art are lifted ? --- this is the key technical challenge. Identify the core physical constraints underlying the previous technologies that have been lifted by the new invention and assess the significance of lifting those constraints.

Example – aircraft engine. In the piston engine, upper limit in compression ratio is set to be the detonation of the fuel charge in the cylinder. A turbine engine has no such limit. It is possible to have higher compression ratio in turbine engine that makes it successful.

Balancing … cont’d What new technical constraints are inherent in the new art? …. The first question had to do with credit side, and this question determines the debit side. This reflects what fundamental constraints limits the effectiveness of innovation. Example– in jet engines, the wake efficiency of aircraft propulsion system depends on the ratio of velocity of rearward stream of air to the forward velocity of the aircraft; the lower the ratio , the more efficient the propulsion. A propeller, moving a large amount of cold air slowly, has a higher wake efficiency than a jet engine moving a small amount of hot air rapidly, so a new constraint exists.

What new technical constraints are inherent in the new art? …. The first question had to do with credit side, and this question determines the debit side. This reflects what fundamental constraints limits the effectiveness of innovation.

Example– in jet engines, the wake efficiency of aircraft propulsion system depends on the ratio of velocity of rearward stream of air to the forward velocity of the aircraft; the lower the ratio , the more efficient the propulsion. A propeller, moving a large amount of cold air slowly, has a higher wake efficiency than a jet engine moving a small amount of hot air rapidly, so a new constraint exists.

Balancing… cont’d How favorable is relief of the former weighted against the stringencies of the latter ? …… the net of the first two questions with respect to any inventive concept is a qualitative technical balance. The comparisons can’t be quantitative because they are not necessarily of similar characteristics; so this is highly judgemental balance, but it can be technically quite meaningful.

How favorable is relief of the former weighted against the stringencies of the latter ? …… the net of the first two questions with respect to any inventive concept is a qualitative technical balance. The comparisons can’t be quantitative because they are not necessarily of similar characteristics; so this is highly judgemental balance, but it can be technically quite meaningful.

Putting innovation in context The management criteria here is to analyze the embodiment in which the new technology will go to the market. The first question …. Is the end product enhanced by additional technology and components required to make use of innovation ? …… this calls for analysis of the changes which must be made to a product if the innovation is to be used. Example – every radio must have a power supply, an RF section, an IF section, an audio section. The transistor penetrated the automobile radio as a replacement for the output power tube, but the RF and IF sections were unaffected by the presence of germanium power transistor instead of an output power pentode; however because the output stage no longer required 300-volts B+ plate potential, it was possible to eliminate the unreliable vibrator power supplies as soon as RF and IF tubes requiring only 12-volts B+ potential were developed. These hybrid radios were much more reliable , but they could not have succeeded without 12-volt tube development.

The management criteria here is to analyze the embodiment in which the new technology will go to the market.

The first question …. Is the end product enhanced by additional technology and components required to make use of innovation ? …… this calls for analysis of the changes which must be made to a product if the innovation is to be used.

Example – every radio must have a power supply, an RF section, an IF section, an audio section. The transistor penetrated the automobile radio as a replacement for the output power tube, but the RF and IF sections were unaffected by the presence of germanium power transistor instead of an output power pentode; however because the output stage no longer required 300-volts B+ plate potential, it was possible to eliminate the unreliable vibrator power supplies as soon as RF and IF tubes requiring only 12-volts B+ potential were developed. These hybrid radios were much more reliable , but they could not have succeeded without 12-volt tube development.

Innovation in context… cont’d Is the inventive concept itself diluted or enhanced by the embodiment required ? Here now analyze the effects on the innovation itself of the changes required for its use in the product. There are favorable cases where the additional art surrounding the new invention enhances its value. This is very happy situation. But there are many cases where the embodiment surrounding the new art dilutes it.

Is the inventive concept itself diluted or enhanced by the embodiment required ?

Here now analyze the effects on the innovation itself of the changes required for its use in the product. There are favorable cases where the additional art surrounding the new invention enhances its value. This is very happy situation. But there are many cases where the embodiment surrounding the new art dilutes it.

Cont’d The third question is – does the additional embodiment offer opportunity for further inventive enhancement ? ….. Once more balance is needed, this time between the value added to a product and that subtracted from it by the requirements of the innovation. Does the new innovation on balance decrease the acceptability of the product into which it is incorporated ? Or does it add more punch ?

The third question is – does the additional embodiment offer opportunity for further inventive enhancement ? ….. Once more balance is needed, this time between the value added to a product and that subtracted from it by the requirements of the innovation. Does the new innovation on balance decrease the acceptability of the product into which it is incorporated ? Or does it add more punch ?

What will sell and what won’t Does the product incorporating the new technology provide enhanced effectiveness in the marketplace serving the final user ? ….. The Pilkington float glass process represents a substantially more effective way of making plate glass by casting the glass against molten tin instead of grinding the surfaces; there are dramatic cost savings. But smooth glass is a smooth glass, and there is no increased effectiveness resulting from its use in windows. The process is a perfect example of innovation which made no change at all in marketplace.

Does the product incorporating the new technology provide enhanced effectiveness in the marketplace serving the final user ? ….. The Pilkington float glass process represents a substantially more effective way of making plate glass by casting the glass against molten tin instead of grinding the surfaces; there are dramatic cost savings. But smooth glass is a smooth glass, and there is no increased effectiveness resulting from its use in windows. The process is a perfect example of innovation which made no change at all in marketplace.

Cont’d Does the operation reduce the cost of delivering the product or service ? …… taken together, this question and the earlier one are really the scissors of supply and demand, the first dealing with demand, the second with supply. If the answer of both the questions is no, we can forget the whole thing; but if yes, then there need be little market uncertainty. The challenging case is one where one of these is positive and other is not.

Does the operation reduce the cost of delivering the product or service ? …… taken together, this question and the earlier one are really the scissors of supply and demand, the first dealing with demand, the second with supply. If the answer of both the questions is no, we can forget the whole thing; but if yes, then there need be little market uncertainty. The challenging case is one where one of these is positive and other is not.

Cont’d Does latent demand expansion or price elasticity expansion determine the characteristics of the new market ? …… when the factor driving a market area is lower price per unit, market expansion by hundreds of percent is hard to obtain. Major expansion in revenue is much more likely when the change in the market is driven by a dramatic change in product effectiveness. This question , of course, determines the quantitative business balance.

Does latent demand expansion or price elasticity expansion determine the characteristics of the new market ? …… when the factor driving a market area is lower price per unit, market expansion by hundreds of percent is hard to obtain. Major expansion in revenue is much more likely when the change in the market is driven by a dramatic change in product effectiveness. This question , of course, determines the quantitative business balance.

Creating and applying technology Applying new technologies is an ongoing challenge at all firms. It is the process, which is aimed at creating and applying technologies to improve firm’s products, processes, and services. The innovation process focuses technical and scientific efforts on better ways to meet market needs. This can be achieved by R&D.

Applying new technologies is an ongoing challenge at all firms. It is the process, which is aimed at creating and applying technologies to improve firm’s products, processes, and services. The innovation process focuses technical and scientific efforts on better ways to meet market needs. This can be achieved by R&D.

Technology fusion It is the process of combining several existing technologies and scientific disciplines to create a hybrid technology. Two important factors here …. The market should drive the R&D process, not the other way round. Second, companies intelligence gathering abilities to monitor technological developments both inside and out side the industry. This concept is called Intelligent Monitoring System.

It is the process of combining several existing technologies and scientific disciplines to create a hybrid technology.

Two important factors here …. The market should drive the R&D process, not the other way round. Second, companies intelligence gathering abilities to monitor technological developments both inside and out side the industry. This concept is called Intelligent Monitoring System.

Which technologies will add to the Core competencies ? Achieving strategic fit, whereby chosen technologies help achieve current corporate and operations strategies, isn’t enough. New technologies can build new production capabilities that form the basis for new strategies, leading a long term path to improvement. It does so by developing a set of core competencies and technologies that enable the firm to adapt quickly to changing opportunities.

Achieving strategic fit, whereby chosen technologies help achieve current corporate and operations strategies, isn’t enough. New technologies can build new production capabilities that form the basis for new strategies, leading a long term path to improvement. It does so by developing a set of core competencies and technologies that enable the firm to adapt quickly to changing opportunities.

Finally , a question for discussion Discuss how increased internet use of business to business interactions would affect customer – supplier relationships .

Discuss how increased internet use of business to business interactions would affect customer – supplier relationships .

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