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Published on May 2, 2008

Author: Paola


FINAL RESULT: A Scientific Publication:  FINAL RESULT: A Scientific Publication Dr. AARNE MÄMMELÄ Research Professor (VTT), Docent (HUT) Oulu, Finland 20.11.2001 VTT ELECTRONICS Kaitoväylä 1, P.O. Box 1100, FIN-90571 Oulu, Finland Email:, http://www. Tel. 5512111, 5512482 (direct), 040-5762963 (GSM), Fax 5512320 CONTENTS:  CONTENTS 1 Introduction 2 Make plans for writing 3 Different parts of a paper 4 Referee (peer review) process guarantees quality 5 Conclusions References Appendices 1 Introduction:  1 Introduction motivation for writing scientific papers: knowledge distribution (to the whole mankind) outlining and writing is a research method, which improves the quality of research journal papers are our “Olympic Games” (maturation as a researcher) improve organization, use clear definitions, accurate terminology measure of scientific merit for the researcher and for the employer Phases of research :  Phases of research Examples :  Examples Example problems and hypotheses recursive version of the optimal receiver (problem), implementation with the Viterbi algorithm (hypothesis), Forney (1972) best combined coding and modulation (problem), trellis-coded modulation (hypothesis), Ungerboeck (1976, 1982) best possible codes approaching the Shannon limit (problem), parallel concatenated convolutional codes or turbo codes (hypothesis), Berrou (1993, 1996) review paper or book (problem), organization of the review paper or book (hypothesis), for example Qureshi (1982, 1985), Sklar (1983, 1988, 1997, 2001) Definitions :  Definitions Seminar: Any meeting for exhanging information and holding discussions; a group of advanced students undertaking original research under the guidance of a faculty member and meeting regularly. Timing of research :  Timing of research Timing of a doctoral thesis :  Timing of a doctoral thesis Timing of a doctoral thesis :  Timing of a doctoral thesis 1. Proposal - tentative table of contents - publishing plan 2. Post-graduate courses (40-45 credits) 3. Literature review 4. Experiments - plan for the experiments - testing of prototype - final experiments 5. Progress reports (initially every half a year) Timing of a doctoral thesis :  Timing of a doctoral thesis 6. Papers - conference papers - journal papers 7. Thesis manuscript - outlining of table of contents - writing of chapters (comments from the advisor and supervisor) - review of the thesis (done by two external examiners) - corrections suggested by examiners 8. Public defence - report from the defence (one or two opponents) - acceptance (faculty meeting) Is there life after Ph.D. :  Is there life after Ph.D. advisor of a doctoral student, a seminar leader, instructor of a postgraduate course reviewer of a paper or opponent of a doctoral thesis review organizer, session chairman international project preparation and management postdoc stay abroad IEEE/ACM journal papers, review papers, books leading scientist, docent or adjunct professor, or research professor IEEE/ACM Senior Member or IEEE/ACM Fellow 2 Make plans for writing :  2 Make plans for writing 1. Make a decision that you will write a paper before you start your project reserve time for literature reviews and publications in the project plan (do not write only reports) write the paper during the course of the project 2. Select the main author and the co-authors select those who can give contribution (i.e., solve engineering problems) 3. Select the journal and acquire its writing instructions the right journal is found through literature reviews conference paper is a good starting point if you have no previous experience use also general writing instructions, dictionaries, grammar books and manuals of style 2 Make plans for writing :  2 Make plans for writing 4. Collect the related relevant literature and write the list of references literature review for the introduction is needed 5. Write an outline of the manuscript include the list of references in the outline outline figures and tables, make a page budget write sections based on the outline make last checking and submit the paper wait for comments from the editor and reviewers 6. Make a revised version according to the comments after acceptance check the page proof 7. Enjoy seeing your own paper published priority is yours forever! 2 Make plans for writing :  2 Make plans for writing Information for writing :  Information for writing writing instructions see list of references IEEE Transactions, Journals and Letters, http// information.htm (click “Information for Authors”) IEEE Magazines, http// submit.htm (click “Information for Magazine Authors”) see also the writing instructions of the journal dictionaries and vocabularies, grammar books, manuals of style Information for writing :  Information for writing best journals are found through literature search impact factor and cited half-life measure the quality of journals referee practice is required start from national conference papers, work towards journal papers through top international conferences select your favourite scientific society (e.g., IEEE Communications Society) and its best conferences and journals how to publish confidential results request a release date plan to publish, regardless omit motivation or applications omit critical data Definitions :  Definitions Impact factor: The average number of times recent articles in a specific journal were cited in one year (usually averaged over two preceding years). (Example: Nature 29.491 times in 1999.) Cited half-life: The number of journal publication years going back from the current year which account for 50% of the total citations received by the cited journal in the current year. (Example: Nature 6.7 years in 1999.) Impact factors and cited half-lifes (JCR, 1999) :  Impact factors and cited half-lifes (JCR, 1999) Engineering, Electrical & Electronic 1 Prog Quant Electron 5.357 5.7 2 P IEEE 3.424 >10.0 3 IEEE Electr Device L 3.018 5.5 4 IEEE T Med Imaging 2.984 5.6 5 IEEE T Image Process 2.695 4.1 6 IEEE J Sel Top Quant 2.507 3.1 7 J Microelectromech S 2.500 3.4 8 IEEE J Quantum Elect 2.281 8.7 9 IEEE Signal Proc Mag 2.256 3.1 10 IEEE J Sel Area Comm 2.221 5.6 Impact factors and cited half-lifes (JCR, 1999) :  Impact factors and cited half-lifes (JCR, 1999) Engineering, Electrical & Electronic (continued) 11 IEEE T Inform Theory 2.009 9.7 12 IEEE ACM T Network 1.959 4.4 --- 14 IEEE Commun Mag 1.815 3.6 40 Electron Lett 1.164 4.9 46 IEEE T Commun 1.058 9.5 62 IEE P-Optoelectron 0.826 5.4 (96) Eur T Telecommun 0.500 4.5 101 AEU-Int J Electron C 0.488 5.3 133 IEICE T Commun 0.325 4.5 148 IEE-P Commun 0.229 6.5 3 Different parts of a paper :  3 Different parts of a paper general aim is the reproducibility of experiments general “IMRAD” structure of a scientific paper Introduction What question or problem was studied? Methods How was the problem studied? Results What were the findings? Discussion What do these findings mean? Structure of an IEEE paper:  Structure of an IEEE paper Title and list of authors Abstract Glossary of symbols (only in some reviews) I. Introduction ---Body of the text--- V. Conclusions VI. Acknowledgments Appendices References Photograph and biography usually the number of pages, figures and tables is limited different rules apply for full papers and letters Structure of an IEEE paper:  Structure of an IEEE paper Title and authors of the paper:  Title and authors of the paper title not too general brief, clear and descriptive less than ten words list of authors at most four or five names recommended include those who had scientific contribution (those who solved engineering problems) the order of the names reflect the significance of the contribution (first name most important) financial support is mentioned in the acknowledgments Abstract:  Abstract contents of the abstract 1. What the author has done. 2. How it was done (if it is important). 3. Principal results (numerically, when possible). 4. Significance of the results. length usually limited to 50-200 words plus a few key words must be understandable independently: no references to the paper, no obscure abbreviations, include only information mentioned in other parts of the paper the first sentence establishes the context and scope of the paper identify important ideas: informative, not merely a list of topics author’s own contribution must be emphasized Introduction:  Introduction contents of the introduction 1. Nature of the problem. 2. Background of previous work. 3. Purpose and significance of the paper. 4. Method by which the problem is approached. 5. Organization of the paper. show new contribution with a brief literature review own results are not presented in detail in the introduction Body of the text:  Body of the text organization make an outline first, treat each topic in one place only, minimize cross-references to other parts study the material and use key words for outlining (a mind map may also be useful) define carefully the scope of the text, not too wide nor too narrow try to make the organization clear, unified and well balanced, no gaps between sections Body of the text:  Body of the text organization (continued) use of terms, symbols and abbreviations must be unified during outlining, do not use synonymous terms, define all symbols, abbreviations and new terms make a list of figures and tables, use them sparingly define your system model, no silent assumptions allowed continue outlining until all the topics are covered and well organized based on the outline, write a table of contents (make a clear copy!) Body of the text:  Body of the text write all sections of the paper try to write as final text as possible make it brief and well organized write only about what you understand write a stand-alone document writing style all experiments must be reproducible without oral explanations use analytical approach text must be objective, accurate, argumentative and logical make it correct, concise and crystal clear no contradictory claims, no gaps, no repetitions good grammar, check spelling and punctuation Body of the text:  Body of the text writing style (continued) avoid long sentences, very short and very long paragraphs or sections write consistent paragraphs with a link between sentences do not use italicized, underlined or boldface words do not use short comments in parentheses, use footnotes sparingly do not use trade names, company names, proprietary terms do not jump tenses use present tense when you refer to previously published work use past tense when you refer to your present results exceptions: “Smith [9] showed---”, “Table 4 shows that---” use active voice instead of passive voice whenever possible for example, write “the results indicate” instead of “it was indicated by the results”) Body of the text:  Body of the text Expressions preferred “like” > “as, for example” tai “as, for instance” tai “such as” or “as” (kuten) “so” > “thus”, “consequently”, “then” or “therefore” (siten) “different than” > “different from” (erilainen kuin) “too” > “also” or “as well as” (myös) “hopefully” (toiveikkaasti) > “I hope” or “we hope” (toivottavasti) “s/he” > “he or she” (or use a plural form) avoid “kind of” and “sort of” avoid redundant expressions, verbosity, rhetorical questions, clusters of nouns avoid colloquial expressions such as “isn’t” Body of the text:  Body of the text Equations in-text equations (no numbering) and displayed equations (numbers in parentheses near the left margin) refer to equations by using numbers, for example “--in (1)--”, in the beginning of sentence “Equation (3)--- ” equations must be a natural part of a sentence with appropriate punctuation and spacing prefer generally accepted symbols superscripts and subscripts two points smaller than ordinary text (for example 12 points vs. 10 points) use only one-letter symbols for scalars, vectors and matrices one-letter symbols for scalars, functions and operators are italicized in the text, equations, figures and tables, for example Q(x) and E(X) text, numbers, parentheses, signs, other functions and operators up-right, for example 1 - cos2(x) = sin2(x) or Var(X) or Xav Body of the text:  Body of the text Equations (continued) vectors and matrices in up-right bold letters use column vectors with small letters, e.g. y use capital letters for matrices, e.g. H use letters i, j, k, l, m, n for integers (use of capital letters: for example m = 0, 1, ..., M - 1) Greek letters often used for angles use similar letters for similar things, for example Fourier transform of x(t) is X(f) all symbols must be defined first time they occur, for example: “It is easy to show that v = (1/2) a t 2 (2) where v is the velocity, a is the acceleration and t is the time.” Body of the text:  Body of the text Abbreviations explain all abbreviations first time they occur, for example “signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)”, explain them separately in the abstract Figures, tables and appendices refer to figures and tables with numbers, e.g. Fig. 1, Table I, Appendix I figure captions below the figure, table captions above the table (in a manuscript a separate list provided) captions should be self-explanatory, not merely labels Body of the text:  Body of the text use of commas (“,”) in English a pause inside a sentence shown separate items in a list separate nonrestrictive or inessential words or phrases independent main clauses are separated by commas no comma is used if a subordinate clause follows a main clause for a restrictive or essential relative clause no comma is used clause starting with “that” is always restrictive clause starting with “who” or “which” can be restrictive (preferred) or nonrestrictive if a main clause follows a subordinate clause, a comma is used Body of the text:  Body of the text A space between a quantity and unit of measure usually a space is needed 12 V, 35 mm, 7 h, 26 mm x 45 mm exceptions 23%, 9', 3", 30°, 36°30' N, $325, £123 special cases DM 45 and 30 °C or 30°C Conclusions and acknowledgments :  Conclusions and acknowledgments Contents of conclusions 1. What is shown by this work and its significance. 2. Limitations and advantages. 3. Applications of the results. 4. Recommendations for further work. Acknowledgments financial support (contracts, grants) should be mentioned mention people who had some contribution, but not enough to make them co-authors References :  References numbered, usually in the order of appearance (alphabetical order if the list is long) refer to references by using numbers in square brackets, for example “in [1]” original landmark journal papers preferred (textbooks and review papers can also be used) the reader must know what was cited and what is author’s own contribution give enough information so that the references can be easily located references should be scientific (refereed), do not refer to unpublished reports, personal communication or www addresses use the same format in all references (order of information, punctuation, use of capital letters), do not use your own abbreviations Photograph and biography :  Photograph and biography only in full papers typically 100-150 words give date and place of birth, degrees attained, important educational visits, earlier employers, present position, memberships of scientific societies, main research interests “tutkija” is research scientist or research engineer “diplomi-insinööri” is Master of Science in Engineering, M.Sc. (Eng) “tekniikan lisensiaatti” is Licentiate in Technology, Lic.Tech., but this degree is unknown in most other countries “tekniikan tohtori” is Doctor of Philosophy, Ph.D. Last checkings before submission :  Last checkings before submission use double-spacing, typ. max. 10-30 pages, ample margins (2.5 cm) give address information fill in the copyright form check spelling and all reference, figure, table and appendix numbers use spelling and find/replace tools use British or American English ask a colleague to read the manuscript critically submit the manuscript to the editor-in-chief keep an electronic and paper copy of the manuscript Revisions and paper proofs :  Revisions and paper proofs the reviewers fill in a paper review form that will be sent to the author with additional comments follow strictly the orders of the reviewers write a letter where you answer each of their comments make also corrections implied by the suggestions of the reviewers (use replace tool) no additions allowed in the page proof only typographical errors corrected a complimentary copy received after acceptance 4 Referee (peer review) process guarantees quality :  4 Referee (peer review) process guarantees quality requirements for a journal paper original contribution significance value to potential audience originality: original results, methods, observations, concepts, synthesis of or new insights into previously reported research final decision concerning publication of the manuscript is made by the editor with the help of reviewers (referees) often the editor makes a majority decision, but not always in conferences editor is replaced by a program committee the referees give grades and the total grade must be larger than a certain minimum Referee process:  Referee process Referee process :  Referee process Instructions to reviewers :  Instructions to reviewers Does the paper represent a technical contribution and, if so, what? Is the paper well written? If not, how can it be improved? Is the paper appropriately organized? If not, how can it be reorganized? Can the paper be shortened without diminishing the quality of the paper or its results? If so, how? Is it necessary that the paper be expanded? If so, where and how? If the paper is not publishable in its current form, can it be modified to make so? How? Does the abstract give a clear summary of the results of the paper? Evaluation :  Evaluation do not identify yourself in the review consider quality, originality, analysis, development, unity and conciseness information which is new and valuable at the present time and sufficient reference value to merit publication material will be made widely and permanently available to practicing engineers and researchers feel free to consult with other Review summary form :  Review summary form PAPER NUMBER: --- TITLE: --- AUTHORS: --- REVIEWER: --- REVIEW DUE DATE: --- (max. 6 weeks) SUMMARY: [ ] Accept as is (my reasons are attached). [ ] Accept with attached suggested changes. [ ] Accept with attached mandatory changes. [ ] Reject (my reasons are attached). CLASSIFY AS: [ ] Transactions Paper. [ ] Transactions Letter. [ ] Paper is Rejected. Do you feel this paper should be considered for an IEEE Award? [ ] Yes [ ] No Reviewing conference papers :  Reviewing conference papers Example paper evaluation sheet (0 = Worst, 5 = Best) 1. Content 2. Relevance 3. Originality 4. Clarity 5. Overall quality Comments to the author Comments to the selection committee a score of 2.5/5 is considered average a total mark of 17.5/25 (3.5/5) or better to be accepted for presentation (Note. Such a high requirement only for best conferences.) 5 Conclusions :  5 Conclusions in research new scientific knowledge is discovered a good researcher is a good author and a good debater (discussions create most research ideas) in addition to researchers, quality of research depends on the research organization and its culture (ideas generated more easily in seminars, etc.) cultural changes are often slow Conclusions :  Conclusions Literature review :  Literature review Literature review and writing:  Literature review and writing Experiments (research methods):  Experiments (research methods) Summary of research trade-offs :  Summary of research trade-offs Big issues guiding our work:  Big issues guiding our work References :  References M. Davis, Scientific papers and presentations. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, 1997. R. A. Day, How to write and publish a scientific paper. 5th ed. Oryx Press, Phoenix, AZ, 1998. H. B. Michaelson, How to write and publish engineering papers and reports. 3rd ed. Oryx Press, Phoenix, AZ, 1990. A. J. Smith, “The task of a referee,” Computer, vol. 23, no. 4, 1990, pp. 65-71. The Chicago Manual of Style. 14th ed. University of Chicago Press, London, 1993. 1999 Journal Citation Reports (JCR), Science Edition. Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2000. References :  References A. Mämmelä, H. Kopola, P. Kuivalainen & M. Mäkäräinen, Ohjeita tieteellisten julkaisujen kirjoittajille [Instructions for authors of scientific publications, in Finnish], VTT Electronics, 1998. 17 pp. A. Mämmelä, How to write journal papers and other publications, VTT Electronics, 1998. 10 pp. For more information at VTT, see Eleinfo - Aakkosellinen hakemisto - Julkaisukurssi (in English)

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