Published on March 2, 2014
Making XML Beautiful in Adobe InDesign Print Layouts Dorothy J. Hoskins Author of XML and InDesign (O’Reilly, 2013) Solution Architect, Atypon Systems, Inc. © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
Dorothy Hoskins My personal motto is “all XML, all the time”; I work mainly with XML workflows involving XSLT development. I’ve been working recently with the NLM/JATS XML standards, previously with DITA for Publishers and a number of custom DTDs. My background includes a BFA in studio art, an MFA in Illustration, continued studies in interactive multimedia development; decades of work in graphic design and printing; XML development since 1999; teaching at the collegiate level; and consulting, writing books and presentations on XML. © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
First up: can we please not talk about FrameMaker? InDesign is not FrameMaker’s pretty sister. Give it a rest, there are reasons to want better-looking XML. © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
XML and InDesign Scenarios Different publishing tasks can use XML content in different workflows; there isn’t a single workflow. 1. XML content imported into InDesign as structure (with example screenshots) 2. XML content that generates unstructured InDesign content (IDML and ICML) (with example screenshots) 3. The elusive round-trip of XML into and out of InDesign (problem definition) Bonus section: tagging XML in InDesign and exporting XML (with example screenshots) © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
XML content can look like any other InDesign content, including autonumbered lists and skewed text boxes (structure at left, presentation at right) Scenario 1 Import XML Structure into InDesign (with example screenshots) © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
What can you do yourself? Use the InDesign placeholder template technique for importing and formatting XML With XSLT, make XML more “InDesign friendly” to import Use InDesign features (drop caps, type effects, gradient fills, anchored graphics, varied numbers of columns) and hand-craft the pages until they look as you wish them to. Combine non-XML and XML content in layouts © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
InDesign can beautify your XML Apply effects to text frames like bevel, glow and shadow. Thread text frames of different sizes and position as you like Import XML and it flows through the threaded text frames Apply effects to the text frames (doesn’t alter the text of XML) © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
Use built-in design features *Images require special mapping with XSLT Drop caps can be applied as a part of a paragraph style Inline elements can be mapped to character styles List bullets and numbering can be defined and applied Images can be placed in flow* Table and cell styles can be defined and applied Object styles can save groups of design settings © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
Adobe InDesign process Basics: Create XML in other applications (best for data-like or relatively flat structured content). Set up InDesign templates with styles mapped to XML content. Import and flow, applying XSLT and/or internal styling features (automatically match tags to styles). Create offset-printable files. Export PDF, ePub or XML; transform on export with XSLT. Refinements: Utilize “ai” namespace to force formatting on import Create scripts to automate layout and copyfitting Video resources: Gabriel Powell’s Creating a Basic XML-ready Template Jim Maivald’s XML workflow videos on Lynda.com © Copyright 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Dorothy J. Hoskins
Setting up an InDesign XML template Model each XML element that you want to style. Create and apply the InDesign style definitions. Save as an InDesign template file. © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
XML placeholders For each element, there is a style applied to sample text in the template. The same element can have different styles in different contexts (preface title, chapter title, section title and glossary title). © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
Import XML into template There are numerous settings which impact how the XML file is imported. Notice that the CALS table model is supported for generating InDesign tables. No new XML features were added in CS6 or Creative Cloud. The import dialog is the same as in CS5.5 © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
Imported XML is styled Most of the XML will be styled but the results aren’t always perfect (highlighted italic text should not be italicized). Making a complete template for a complex content model would be extremely timeconsuming. © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
Invoke InDesign XML commands Import XML and place and size images, format text, control breaks, position page elements Enriched XMLDocument XMLDocument Preparation for InDesign XSLT-Process Import into InDesign Template Processed InDesign document with embedded XML structure Indesign Template Open it InDesign © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins myFabulousAgent has "layout memory", which "remembers" the graphic positions in the XML. In this way, it is easy to reproduce earlier versions of the document when required.
My Fabulous Agent from Acolada.de Runs within InDesign seamlessly connecting InDesign to XML authoring systems like Acolada’s Sirius CMS. Make use of all functions that InDesign makes available via the program interface. At the same time, the documents can still be individually changed and adapted. myFabulousAgent retains the structure of XML data (any XML DTD) and thus ensures efficient, consistent processes – up until the final proof-reading period: changes in InDesign are applied directly in the authoring system. • ac:textcheckoverset – check whether a frame has overset or not and create a new linked frame if needed • ac:pmaster – apply a master page • ac:imagewidth – apply the width of an image © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
An innovative example: wiki to XML to InDesign to EPUB Andrej Balaz’s ongoing publishing workflow for Mobile Developer’s Guide to the Galaxy starts with wiki posts. The XML imported into InDesign is quite flat. The formatting is done with mapping tags to styles. The output of InDesign is PDF and EPUB (free downloads). http://www.amazon.de/Mobile-Developers-Guide-The-Galaxy-ebook/dp/B00BS6RIKU/ © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins Enough Software (www.enough.de) is the project initiator and Andrej Balaz (www.balaz.de) is the designer and illustrator of the book.
Scenario 2 Use XML to Generate IDML/ICML (with example screenshots) © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
IDML and ICML Underlying XML formats of the entire InDesign document (IDML) and for individual stories (ICML)can be generated. In InDesign, a Story (text flow) in a layout can be assigned to a writer and worked on outside of InDesign in the InCopy application. It is possible to generate ICML files from XML directly, then place these stories into layouts. More advanced programming permits making the entire InDesign file as IDML (master pages, styles, spreads, swatches, and running header/footers, as well as text flows). See Heath Lynn’s video on IDML (came out in 2008, but still useful for the toolchain and process description) © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
Major use case: catalogs Heath Lynn’s video on IDML shows a number of different techniques for using conditional text to show/hide content in layout, use XML to generate content blocks with related images and headings, adjust oversets and other tasks. These methods are very suitable from any repetitious content, and can be driven directly from a database to the InDesign server. After pages are generated, they can be adjusted. The style definitions can be changed to create a complete new color theme and typography for the http://tv.adobe.com/watch/max same data in the next year’s catalog. © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins -2008-develop/assembledisassemble-indesign-cs4-idserver-pages-wxml/
XML to InCopy with XSLT Make each “story” a separate InCopy flow. Import the ICML files into an InDesign template and refine the layout. Semi-automated: Giuseppe Bonelli’s workflow often starts with a Word doc which has specific styles applied to the text. His XSLT transformations make .docx into InCopy (ICML) which he flows into the design – including images and boxed text. Here he has placed InCopy flows on a design spread – with different typography and column layouts per story - that he works on further with InDesign layout tools to adjust image size and placement and column breaks as needed. The process achieves 100 pages per minute in rough layout and 40 pages per minute in final layout. © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
DITA for Publishers to InCopy Eliot Kimber has produced a set of transforms for making DITA for Publishers XML into InCopy files. It can start from a Word template and be transformed from .docx into D4P XML and then into InCopy (ICML) for placing in InDesign. The intermediate form of the XML is DITA for Publishers with “tracers” that point to the Word .docx source. This file is transformed into the ICML file which is placed into InDesign and then further refined in layout. © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
XML to full InDesign layouts With the use of standardized elements and style names, XML content can generate entire InDesign documents. For scholarly publishers, there is a workflow jointly developed by Inera, Inc. and Typefi Systems, Inc. which uses a templated Word to XML to IDML workflow. Each partner company provides consulting and customization services for their parts of the workflow. Another workflow by Gerrit Imsieke of le-tex publishing services GmbH is free and open-source for those who have the technical expertise to use it. He provides consulting and customization services for the entire process. See also “A Publisher’s InDesign to BITS and EPUB Infrastructure: Conventions, Configuration, Conversion, Checks” (JATS Con 2103) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK159733 © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
Standardization is always key to reliable results in automation Inera's eXtyles produces high-quality XML to import into Typéfi, a software solution that fully automates page layout according to a customized template. The process takes minutes and can be repeated through correction cycles, with the layout completed when the content has been finalized. The content of the final XML and PDF files is identical, and ePub and other e-book formats can be exported directly from Typéfi. The Typéfi processes can be cloud-based and produce journals in minutes. firstname.lastname@example.org © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
Batch processing technologies by le-tex publishing services http://www.le-tex.de/en/transpect.html#transpect-contact Run the process yourself in minutes. © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
To Serve – or Not? InDesign Server for volume production. Cost > $ 35K USD (maybe more now) plus development costs Template-based publishing is the strong suit for server-based publishing. Templates can be customized to “brand” output. Most server-based InDesign processes are not used directly for roundtripping content back to XML from InDesign. They only produce lots of volume very quickly (ideal for catalogs). A caveat regarding design tweaks in InDesign: after importing or converting XML, content edits are often done inside the InDesign layout. If you re-import the XML or regenerate InDesign (IDML or ICML), you risk losing any local adjustments or overrides you made. © Copyright 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Dorothy J. Hoskins
InDesign Server automation with Adobe Digital Publishing Suite • • • • • XML to InDesign to print PDF, mobile and tablet-ready production from Silicon Publishing Particularly well-suited to database catalogs, greeting cards, marketing content Companion product Silicon Connector for HTTP-based asset linking in cloud Publish iPad apps to the Apple App Store Distribute mobile apps within or across organizations Deliver content to Android or iOS, tablet or smartphone Embed rich media while continuing to support traditional print Connect your DAM, CMS, ECM, or online repository to your desktop - every asset acts like a local asset © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
Enterprise publishing with Typéfi Integrate InDesign with enterprise workflows Combine with short run, POD publishing capabilities Manage branding across marketing, corporate communications like financials, output publications (books, magazines, journals, catalogs, tech documents) © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
The “Holy Grail”: Roundtripping Import XML Edit XML Export XML What can go wrong? © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
The elusive round-trip process 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. Many publishers would like to have this workflow: Create valid XML Import into InDesign Layout and adjust as desired Edit the content Export valid XML with edits It’s not impossible, but difficult, and typically requires: Validating XML editing application and content model XSLT to make InDesign-friendly XML XSLT to make valid XML export Schematron to enforce business rules © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
All the 80/20 rules apply You may need to simplify or adjust the incoming XML with XSLT either as a preprocess or during the import, or both. You will have to make decisions about how much you want to accomplish with XML tag to style mapping, and how much you want to “tweak” after import. The more you “tweak”, the more difficult it becomes to reimport the XML without redoing layout. It requires care to maintain valid XML inside InDesign. You may have to export and then fix XML validation problems. If you want to export and restore original tagging that you changed during import, you need another XSLT process. © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
Round-trip at last? Media Entities claims (not evaluated): “XML “Anytime” Workflows Write-to-fit in Word, export and import XML seamlessly to any InDesign layout. Edit InDesign and export XML to any DTD. Manage complex layouts and content metadata. “One Engine - Multiple Channels – XML Anytime A single highly-developed xml publishing engine drives xml import and export for print (Word, InDesign, Quark), and digital-media (ePub, and tablet Apps). This means that XML is available at anytime in the workflow, or at multiple times in the workflow. And you can start with anything: An XML file; an XML editor; Microsoft Word; InDesign document. You can edit or create and then transform the content and flow to another application at any time.. “Unlock Legacy Content …Our export engine can unlock that content and convert it to any format of XML you need. We can create archive format XML for later reuse, convert it to XML for a learning management system, XHTML, drive a digital ePUB or app.” © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
Thank YOU! If you are interested in Literatum, Atypon Systems’ XML publishing platform, please send email to email@example.com Dorothy Hoskins’ LinkedIn group is XML Content/InDesign Publishing http://www.linkedin.com/groups/XML-Content-InDesign-Publishing2996628/about Please join the group and read the threads, suggest new topics, make comments. For general process questions or to find out more about examples used in this presentation, email firstname.lastname@example.org. This is an account set up just for XML and InDesign-related correspondence with Dorothy.
Affidavit A legal document that provides proof (of residency, payment, status as an emancipated minor, etc.). Affidavits must be prepared by an attorney, appropriate agency or counselor, and must be attested to under supplied with a notarization stamp. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE glossary PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN" "http://www.docbook.org/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd"> <glossary> <glossentry> <glossterm>Affidavit</glossterm> <glossdef> <para>A legal document that provides proof (of residency, payment, status as an emancipated minor, etc.). Affidavits must be prepared by an attorney, appropriate agency or counselor, and must be attested to under supplied with a notarization stamp. </para> </glossdef> </glossentry> Bonus Section Making XML from InDesign © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
Starting from InDesign Consistent use of paragraph and character styles is the key to success in getting good-quality XML. Use Windows > Utilities > Tags to open Tags palette. Select a sample of text and create a new tag. Name the tag something meaningful such as “term”. Select whole paragraphs or words, make tags for each level of your content. Select whole blocks of text and make a tag for the content block. You can import a DTD but this is only recommended if the whole DTD is a single file and it is locally available (not PUBLIC location). Use the simplest DTD you can. © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
InDesign XML structure limitations Can only use local, single-file DTD (not .xsd) content model Difficult to create good mapping between deep content structures and InDesign styles Extremely fragile XML editing environment: Easy to make mistakes Hard to find mistakes Validation messages are misleading Expensive to create complete workflows Style and template definitions, requirements for mapping Cross-training for users of XML structure in InDesign Expert developers and new software for coding and QA © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
Use InDesign XML features Can use Find/Change to look for style and apply XML tag name. Do not repeat the same Find/Change. Use “Map Styles to Tags” on Tags palette. If XML is simple and elements and styles have the same name, use “Map by Name”. This mapping is not recommended for © Copyright 2014 complex XML. Dorothy J. Hoskins
Enrich XML content tagging Create higher-level tag names and apply them around lower-level content. Use the Story Editor to help select and tag the content blocks at higher levels. Requires care and might be difficult to achieve a valid XML file when using a DTD. The Story Editor view with “Show Tags” © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
Export XML (and transform it) Use built-in features to remove tabs and extra spaces from the XML, and create CALS tables from InDesign tables if wanted. For images: use the Autotag feature to make images in InDesign into XML. Export original or formatted image files. © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
Using XSLT during export Mostly used to rename, reorganize and add more structure to the XML. For example, transform this simple glossary XML into DocBook glossary content, add the DocBook DTD, and sort the entries alphabetically. Often the initial XML produced by the transform is processed more to enrich it further. Can add an XSLT directly to the XML file if it will always be used, by selecting XSLT > “Use stylesheet from XML”. If not using a stylesheet from XML, you can use multiple XSLT. Export once with XSLT for HTML output, export again with XSLT for DocBook glossary output. © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
XML transformation starts with mapping Exported from InDesign without using XSLT <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?> <glossary> <glossTerm> <term>Affidavit</term> <definition>A legal document that provides proof (of residency, payment, status as an emancipated minor, etc.). Affidavits must be prepared by an attorney, appropriate agency or counselor, and must be attested to under supplied with a notarization stamp. </definition> </glossTerm> </glossary> Desired DocBook XML (needs DTD added) <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE glossary PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN" "http://www.docbook.org/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd"> <glossary> <glossentry> <glossterm>Affidavit</glossterm> <glossdef><para>A legal document that provides proof (of residency, payment, status as an emancipated minor, etc.). Affidavits must be prepared by an attorney, appropriate agency or counselor, and must be attested to under supplied with a notarization stamp. </para></glossdef> </glossentry> </glossary> © Copyright 2014 Dorothy J. Hoskins
XSLT renames, restructures, sorts <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE glossary PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN" "http://www.docbook.org/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd"> Affidavit <glossary> A legal document that provides proof (of residency, <glossentry> payment, status as an emancipated minor, etc.). <glossterm>Affidavit</glossterm> Affidavits must be prepared by an attorney, appropriate <glossdef> <para>A legal document that provides proof (of agency or counselor, and must be attested to under residency, payment, status as an emancipated minor, supplied with a notarization stamp. etc.). Affidavits must be prepared by an attorney, F-1 Visa appropriate agency or counselor, and must be attested An F-1visa is a nonimmigrant visa issued by the USCIS to under supplied with a notarization stamp. </para> (formerly INS) to the alien student who is pursuing </glossdef> studies in the US. The "F" visa is reserved for </glossentry> <glossentry> nonimmigrants wishing to pursue academic studies <glossterm>EDU-PAY</glossterm> and/or language training programs. <glossdef> EDU-PAY <para>A payment plan for students who do not A payment plan for students who do not have the have the resources to pay the bill in full or who may not resources to pay the bill in full or who may not qualify qualify for sufficient financial aid to cover the entire bill for sufficient financial aid to cover the entire bill at the at the college.</para> </glossdef> college. </glossentry> INS documentation <glossentry> Written materials provided by US Citizen and© Copyright 2014 <glossterm>F-1 Visa</glossterm> Immigration Services (formerly Immigration and J. Hoskins Dorothy <glossdef> Naturalization Services) to prove a student's status as <para>An F-1visa is a nonimmigrant visa issued DocBook XML export is sorted ->
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