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Major Muscles

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Information about Major Muscles
Science-Technology

Published on November 2, 2008

Author: aSGuest2374

Source: authorstream.com

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Major muscles of the human body : Major muscles of the human body Dr. Carmen E. Rexach Anatomy 35 Mt San Antonio College Muscles of the head : Muscles of the head Frontalis Occipitalis Orbicularis oculi Orbicularis oris Zygomaticus minor and major Masseter Buccinator Risorius Temporalis Slide 3: risorius 1 2 1= Zygomaticus minor 2= Zygomaticus major Muscles of head : Muscles of head Frontalis Origin Skin of forehead Insertion Apneurosis (Galea aponeurotica) Action Elevate eyebrows and forehead Muscles of head : Muscles of head Orbicularis oculi Origin Medial orbital margin Medial palpebral ligament Lacrimal bone Insertion Skin around margin of orbit Action Closes eyelids Muscles of head : Muscles of head Orbicularis oris Origin Maxilla and mandible Fibers from deep surface of skin Insertion Mucous membrane of lips Action Closes and protrudes lips (whistling, sucking)…pucker up! Muscles of head : Muscles of head Buccinator Origin Maxilla and mandible Insertion Orbicularis oris, angle of mouth Action Draws in cheeks Muscles of head : Muscles of head Temporalis Origin Temporal bone Insertion mandible Action Elevates mandible Muscles of head : Muscles of head Risorius Origin Deep fascia of face Parotid gland Insertion Modiolus Skin at angle of mouth Action Retract angle of mouth…smile! Modiolus = where group of facial muscles come together at corners of mouth Muscles of neck : Muscles of neck Platysma Sternocleidomastoid Digastric Stylohyoid Mylohyoid Geniohyoid Sternohyoid Sternothyroid Muscles of neck : Muscles of neck Platysma Origin Superficial fascia of deltoid and pectoral regions Insertion mandible and skin of neck & orbicularis oris Origin elevates mandible Muscles of neck : Muscles of neck Sternocleidomastoid Origin Sternal head = anterior surface of manubrium Clavicular head = medial third of clavicle Insertion Mastoid process Lateral half of superior nuchal line Action Lateral flexion and rotation of head Flex neck Tilt head to one side Muscles of neck : Muscles of neck Digastric Origin Anterior belly = digastric fossa of mandible Posterior belly = mastoid notch Insertion Intermediate tendon to hyoid Action Depresses mandible Raises hyoid bone (steadies bone during speech and swallowing) Muscles of neck : Muscles of neck Stylohyoid Origin styloid process of temporal bone Insertion body of hyoid Action elevates and retracts hyoid bone Muscles of neck : Muscles of neck Mylohyoid Origin Myloid line of mandible Insertion Raphe and body of hyoid bone Action Elevates hyoid & tongue during speaking and swallowing Muscles of neck : Muscles of neck Geniohyoid Origin Mandible Insertion hyoid Action Elevates hyoid Draws tongue anteriorly Muscles of neck : Muscles of neck Sternohyoid Origin Manubrium of sternum Clavicle, medial end Insertion Body of hyoid Action Depresses hyoid after swallowing Muscles of neck : Muscles of neck Sternothyroid Origin Posterior surface of manubrium Insertion Thyroid cartilage (oblique line) Action Depresses larynx (thyroid cartilage) after swallowing Muscles of the trunk (anterior) : Muscles of the trunk (anterior) External and internal intercostals External and internal abdominal obliques Transversus abdominis Rectus abdominus Muscles of the trunk (anterior) : Muscles of the trunk (anterior) External intercostals Origin Inferior border, upper ribs Insertion Superior border, lower ribs Action Elevates ribs during inspiration Internal intercostals Origin Superior border, lower ribs Insertion Inferior border, upper ribs Action Draws ribs together during expiration Muscles of the trunk (anterior) : Muscles of the trunk (anterior) External abdominal obliques Origin ribs Insertion Ilium Linea alba Action Compresses abdomen Internal abdominal obliques Origin Ilium Insertion Lower ribs Action Compresses abdomen Muscles of the trunk (anterior) : Transversus abdominis Origin Ilium Lower ribs Insertion Xiphoid process Linea alba Action Compresses abdomen Rectus abdominis Origin pubis Insertion Lower ribs Xiphoid process Action Flex vertebral column Muscles of the trunk (anterior) Muscles of the trunk (posterior) : Muscles of the trunk (posterior) Serratus anterior Levator scapulae Rhomboideus major Rhomboideus minor Trapezius Muscles of the trunk (posterior) : Muscles of the trunk (posterior) Serratus anterior Origin Outer surface, ribs 1-8 Insertion Scapula, vertebral border Action Protraction, upward rotation Pulls scapula forward and down Muscles of the trunk (posterior) : Muscles of the trunk (posterior) Levator scapulae Origin Cervical vertebrae Insertion Scapula Action Elevates scapula Muscles of the trunk (posterior) : Muscles of the trunk (posterior) Rhomboideus major & minor Origin Thoracic vertebrae Insertion Scapula Action Adducts scapula Muscles of the trunk (posterior) : Muscles of the trunk (posterior) Trapezius = large triangular superficial muscle of upper back Origin Occipital bone All cervical vertebrae All thoracic vertebrae Insertion Clavicle Scapula Action Adducts and elevates scapula Muscles of shoulder : Muscles of shoulder Pectoralis major Pectoralis minor Deltoid Latissimus dorsi Teres major Teres minor Muscles of shoulder : Muscles of shoulder Pectoralis major Origin Manubrium Ribs 1-6 Clavicle Insertion Intertubercular groove of humerus Action Primary flexor and adductor Medial rotation Muscles of shoulder : Muscles of shoulder Pectoralis minor Origin Ribs 2-5, sternal end Insertion Coracoid process Action Pulls scapula anteriorly Muscles of shoulder : Muscles of shoulder Deltoid Origin Clavicle Scapular spine Acromion process Insertion Humerus, deltoid tuberosity Action Abducts arm Flexion Extension Muscles of shoulder : Muscles of shoulder Latissimus dorsi Origin Lower thoracic vertebrae ilium Insertion Intertubercular groove of humerus Action Extends, adducts, & rotates arm Muscles of shoulder : Muscles of shoulder Teres major (5) Origin Scapula, lateral border Insertion Humerus, intertubercular groove Action Extends, adducts, rotates arm Teres minor (6) Origin Scapula, lateral border Action Humerus, great tubercle Insertion Rotates arm Muscles of the rotator cuff : Muscles of the rotator cuff Musculotendinous cuff Supraspinatus Superior border Infraspinatus Upper posterior border Subscapularis Anterior border Teres minor Lower posterior border Muscles of the rotator cuff : Muscles of the rotator cuff Subscapularis Origin Subscapular fossa Insertion Lesser tubercle, humerus Action Primary internal and medial rotator Muscles of the rotator cuff : Muscles of the rotator cuff Supraspinatus Origin Scapular fossa Insertion Greater tubercle, humerus Action Assistant abductor Infraspinatus Origin Scapular fossa Insertion Greater tubercle, humerus Action External and lateral rotator Muscles of upper arm : Muscles of upper arm Coracobrachialis Biceps brachii Brachialis Brachioradialis Triceps brachii Pronator teres Muscles of the Anterior Arm: Flexors : Muscles of the Anterior Arm: Flexors Coracobrachialis Origin Coracoid process of the humerus and short head of biceps Insertion Humerus, medial side Action Flexion of shoulder Braces shoulder in abduction Muscles of Anterior Arm: Flexors : Muscles of Anterior Arm: Flexors Biceps brachii Origin Long head: supraglenoid tubercle on scapula just above glenoid fossa Short head: coracoid process Insertion Radial tuberosity Action Weak flexor of shoulder Powerful supinator of forearm Flexor of elbow joint Muscles of Anterior Arm: Flexors : Muscles of Anterior Arm: Flexors Brachialis Origin Anterior surface of humerus Insertion Coronoid process of ulna Action Strong flexor of elbow Muscles of Anterior Arm : Muscles of Anterior Arm Brachioradialis Origin Humerus Insertion Radius Action Flexes forearm at elbow Muscles of Posterior Arm: Extensors : Muscles of Posterior Arm: Extensors Triceps brachii Origin Long head: infraglenoid tubercle below glenoid fossa of scapula Lateral heads: humerus Medial head: posterior humerus Insertion Upper olecranon Action Extension of elbow joint Muscles of Anterior Arm: Flexors : Muscles of Anterior Arm: Flexors Pronator teres Origin Medial epicondyle of humerus Coronoid process of ulna Insertion Lateral surface of radius Action Pronates forearm Flexes elbow Muscles of Forearm : Muscles of Forearm Flexor carpi radialis Flexor carpi ulnaris Palmaris longus Extensor carpi radialis longus Extensor carpi ulnaris Extensor digitorum Muscles of Forearm : Muscles of Forearm Flexor carpi radialis Origin Medial epicondyle of humerus Insertion Base of second metacarpal Action Flexes hand at wrist Abducts hand Muscles of Forearm : Muscles of Forearm Flexor carpi ulnaris Origin Humeral head: medial epicondyle of humerus Ulnar head: olecranon & posterior border of ulna Insertion Pisiform bone Hook of hamate Fifth metacarpal Action Flexes had at risk Adducts it Muscles of Forearm : Muscles of Forearm Palmaris longus Origin Medial epicondyle of humerus Insertion Flexor retinaculum Palmar aponeurosis Action Flexes hand at wrist Tightens palmar aponeurosis Muscles of Forearm : Muscles of Forearm Extensor carpi radialis longus Origin humerus Insertion Metacarpal 2 Action Extends and abducts hand at wrist Muscles of Forearm : Muscles of Forearm Extensor carpi ulnaris Origin Lateral epicondyle of humerus Posterior border of ulna Insertion Metacarpal 5 Action Extends and adducts hand at wrist Slide 51: Extensor digitorum Origin Lateral epicondyle of humerus Insertion Extensor expansions of medial 4 digits Action Extends digits Extends hand at wrist joint Muscles of the hip : Muscles of the hip Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius Gluteus minimus Tensor fasciae latae Adductor longus Adductor brevis Adductor magnus Muscles of the hip : Muscles of the hip Gluteus maximus Origin Ilium Dorsal surface of sacrum & coccyx Insertion Iliotibial tract to lateral condyle of tibia Gluteal tuberosity of femur Action Extend thigh at hip Assist in lateral rotation Muscles of the hip : Muscles of the hip Gluteus medius Origin Ilium Insertion Lateral surface of greater trochanter of femur Action Abducts & medially rotates thigh at hip Muscles of the hip : Muscles of the hip Gluteus minimus Origin Ilium Insertion Anterior surface of greater trochanter of femur Action Abduct & medially rotate thigh at hip Muscles of the hip : Muscles of the hip Tensor fasciae latae Origin Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior iliac crest Insertion Lateral condyle of the tibia via the iliotibial tract Action Abducts, medially rotates, and flexes thigh at hip Tensor fasciae latae Muscles of the hip : Muscles of the hip Adductor longus Origin Body of pubis inferior to pubic crest Insertion Linea aspera of femur Action Adducts thigh at hip Muscles of the hip : Muscles of the hip Adductor brevis Origin Body and inferior ramus of pubis Insertion Pectineal line Linea aspera of femur Action Adduct thigh at hip Muscles of the hip : Muscles of the hip Adductor magnus Origin Inferior ramus of pubis Ischial tuberosity Insertion Gluteal tuberosity Femur Linea aspera Medial supracondylar line Adductor tubercle Action Adducts thigh at hip Flexes thigh at hip Muscles of the thigh : Muscles of the thigh Rectus femoris Vastus medialis Vastus lateralis Vastus intermedius Biceps femoris Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Gracilis Sartorius Quadriceps femoris hamstrings Muscles of the thigh : Muscles of the thigh Rectus femoris Origin Anterior inferior iliac spine Ilium superior to acetabulum Insertion Patella and patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity Action Extends leg at knee Stabilizes hip Muscles of the thigh : Muscles of the thigh Vastus medialis Origin Intertrochanteric line Linea aspera of femur Insertion Base of patella Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament Action Extends leg at knee joint Muscles of the thigh : Muscles of the thigh Vastus lateralis Origin Greater trochanter Linea aspera of femur Insertion Base of patella Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament Action Extends leg at knee joint Muscles of the thigh : Muscles of the thigh Vastus intermedius Origin Femur Insertion Base of patella Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament Action Extends leg at knee joint Muscles of the thigh : Muscles of the thigh Biceps femoris Origin Long head: ischial tuberosity Short head: linea aspera & lateral supracondylar line of femur Insertion Head of fibula Action Flexes leg at knee Rotates leg laterally Extends thigh at hip Muscles of the thigh : Muscles of the thigh Semimembranosus Origin Ischial tuberosity Insertion Medial condyle of tibia Action Extends thigh at hip Flexes leg at knee Rotates leg medially Muscles of the thigh : Muscles of the thigh Semitendinosus Origin Ischial tuberosity Insertion tibia Action Extends thigh at hip Flexes leg at knee Rotates leg medially Muscles of the thigh : Muscles of the thigh Gracilis Origin Body and inferior ramus of pubis Insertion Medial surface of tibia Action Adducts thigh at hip Flexes leg at knee Aids in medial rotation Muscles of the thigh : Muscles of the thigh Sartorius Origin Anterior superior iliac spine Insertion Medial surface of tibia Action Flexes, abducts, laterally rotates thigh at hip joint Flexes knee joint Muscles of the leg : Muscles of the leg Gastrocnemius Soleus Peroneus longus Peroneus brevis Tibialis anterior Flexor digitorum longus Extensor digitorum longus Muscles of the leg : Muscles of the leg Gastrocnemius Origin Lateral head: lateral condyle of femur Medial head: popliteal surface of femur Insertion Calcaneus via calcaneal tendon Action Plantar flexes foot at ankle Raises heel during walking Flexes leg at knee joint Muscles of the leg : Muscles of the leg Soleus Origin Head of fibula Medial border of tibia Insertion Calcaneus via calcaneal tendon Action Plantar flexes foot at ankle Stabilizes leg on foot Muscles of the leg : Muscles of the leg Peroneus longus (fibularis longus) Origin Head and lateral surface of fibula Insertion Metatarsal #1 Medial cuneiform Action Everts foot Weakly plantar-flexes foot at ankle Peroneus brevis (fibularis brevis) Origin Lateral surface of fibula Insertion Metatarsal #5, lateral side Action Evert foot Weakly plantar-flexes foot at ankle Muscles of the leg : Muscles of the leg Tibialis anterior Origin Lateral condyle Upper lateral surface of tibia Insertion Medial cuneiform Metatarsal #1 Action Dorsiflexes foot at ankle Inverts foot Muscles of the leg : Muscles of the leg Flexor digitorum longus Origin tibia Insertion Distal phalanges of lateral four digits Action Flexes lateral four digits Plantar flexes foot at ankle Supports longitudinal arches of foot Muscles of the leg : Muscles of the leg Extensor digitorum longus Origin Lateral condyle of tibia Interosseus membrane fibula Insertion Middle and distal phalanges of lateral four digits Action Extends lateral four digits Dorsiflexes foot at ankle

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