Major 50 Fires & Explosions

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Information about Major 50 Fires & Explosions

Published on June 15, 2008

Author: guest81e1c7

Source: slideshare.net

Major 50 Fires & Explosions 1983 to 2003 Pillai Sreejith [email_address]

Abbreviations used: VCE -Vapour Cloud Explosion BLEVE: Boiling Liquid Evaporating Vapour explosion DNA - Details Not Available FLR- Floating Roof Tank Pr - Pressure Fr-Fixed Roof tank Exp - Explosion NA- Not Applicable GL - Ground Level NK- Not Known ff -Fire Fighting

VCE -Vapour Cloud Explosion

BLEVE: Boiling Liquid Evaporating Vapour explosion

DNA - Details Not Available

FLR- Floating Roof Tank

Pr - Pressure

Fr-Fixed Roof tank

Exp - Explosion

NA- Not Applicable

GL - Ground Level

NK- Not Known

ff -Fire Fighting

Major Fire / Explosion 1 Date: 7.1.1983 Location: New York port, NJ, USA Chemical involved: Gasoline Type of tank: FLR Event: VCE Cause of Fire: NK Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 1d/0i/0e Property loss: 40.3 Million USD

Date: 7.1.1983

Location: New York port, NJ, USA

Chemical involved: Gasoline

Type of tank: FLR

Event: VCE

Cause of Fire: NK

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 1d/0i/0e

Property loss: 40.3 Million USD

Major Fire / Explosion 2 Date: 30.08.1983 Location: Milford Haven, Refinery, U.K. Chemical involved: Crude Oil Type of tank: FLR Event: Fire / Boil Over Cause of Fire: Crack in the roof allowed vapours to get ignited by carbon particles from flare Time taken to fight fire: 15 h Problems faced in ff: Insufficient foam Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/2i/0e Property loss: 17.3 Million USD

Date: 30.08.1983

Location: Milford Haven, Refinery, U.K.

Chemical involved: Crude Oil

Type of tank: FLR

Event: Fire / Boil Over

Cause of Fire: Crack in the roof allowed vapours to get ignited by carbon particles from flare

Time taken to fight fire: 15 h

Problems faced in ff: Insufficient foam

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/2i/0e

Property loss: 17.3 Million USD

Major Fire / Explosion 3 Date: 19.11.1984 Location: LPG Depot, San Juanico, Mexico Chemical involved: LPG Type of tank: Pr. Vessel Event: VCE /BLEVE /Fire Cause of Fire: Leak from 12” pipeline ignited by GL flare Time taken to fight fire: 8 h Problems faced in ff: Nil Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 650d/20000i/200000e Property loss: 22.5 Million USD

Date: 19.11.1984

Location: LPG Depot, San Juanico, Mexico

Chemical involved: LPG

Type of tank: Pr. Vessel

Event: VCE /BLEVE /Fire

Cause of Fire: Leak from 12” pipeline ignited by GL flare

Time taken to fight fire: 8 h

Problems faced in ff: Nil

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 650d/20000i/200000e

Property loss: 22.5 Million USD

Major Fire / Explosion 4 Date: 24.2.1986 Location: Oil terminal, Thessalonilca, Greece Chemical involved: Crude Oil Type of tank: FLR Event: VCE /Exp/Boil Over Cause of Fire: Hot work in bund area ignited oil spillage Time taken to fight fire: 168h Problems faced in ff: Burn back of flame in area extinguished by foam Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: DNA

Date: 24.2.1986

Location: Oil terminal, Thessalonilca, Greece

Chemical involved: Crude Oil

Type of tank: FLR

Event: VCE /Exp/Boil Over

Cause of Fire: Hot work in bund area ignited oil spillage

Time taken to fight fire: 168h

Problems faced in ff: Burn back of flame in area extinguished by foam

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 5 Date: April 1986 Location: Storage Terminal, Usan, South Korea Chemical involved: Oil Type of tank: FR Event: Exp. Cause of Fire: DNA Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: Nil Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 14d/12i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: April 1986

Location: Storage Terminal, Usan, South Korea

Chemical involved: Oil

Type of tank: FR

Event: Exp.

Cause of Fire: DNA

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: Nil

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 14d/12i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 6 Date: April 1986 Location: Refinery, Singapore Chemical involved: Oil Type of tank: FR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: DNA Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: DNA

Date: April 1986

Location: Refinery, Singapore

Chemical involved: Oil

Type of tank: FR

Event: Fire

Cause of Fire: DNA

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 7 Date: May 1986 Location: Storage Terminal, Saraland, USA Chemical involved: Oil Type of tank: FR Event: Fire /Exp. Cause of Fire: DNA Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 2d/3i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: May 1986

Location: Storage Terminal, Saraland, USA

Chemical involved: Oil

Type of tank: FR

Event: Fire /Exp.

Cause of Fire: DNA

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 2d/3i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 8 Date: May 1986 Location: Refinery, Sardinia, Italy Chemical involved: Gasoline Type of tank: Gas Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Soldering iron ignited during maintenance Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/3i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: May 1986

Location: Refinery, Sardinia, Italy

Chemical involved: Gasoline

Type of tank: Gas

Event: Fire

Cause of Fire: Soldering iron ignited during maintenance

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/3i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 9 Date: May 1986 Location: Refinery, Mexico Chemical involved: Gas Oil Type of tank: DNA Event: Exp. Cause of Fire: Lightning Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/3000e Property loss: DNA

Date: May 1986

Location: Refinery, Mexico

Chemical involved: Gas Oil

Type of tank: DNA

Event: Exp.

Cause of Fire: Lightning

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/3000e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 10 Date: May 1987 Location: Storage Terminal, Kuwait Chemical involved: LPG Type of tank: DNA Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Sabotage Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: DNA

Date: May 1987

Location: Storage Terminal, Kuwait

Chemical involved: LPG

Type of tank: DNA

Event: Fire

Cause of Fire: Sabotage

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 11 Date: May 1987 Location: Tokyo, Japan Chemical involved: Fuel Oil Type of tank: DNA Event: Exp. Cause of Fire: Unsafe maintenance act Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 3d/6i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: May 1987

Location: Tokyo, Japan

Chemical involved: Fuel Oil

Type of tank: DNA

Event: Exp.

Cause of Fire: Unsafe maintenance act

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 3d/6i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 12 Date: June1987 Location: Storage Depot., Lyon, France Chemical involved: Gasoilne Type of tank: FLR Event: Exp./Fire Cause of Fire: DNA Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 2d/16i/00e Property loss: 12 Million Franc

Date: June1987

Location: Storage Depot., Lyon, France

Chemical involved: Gasoilne

Type of tank: FLR

Event: Exp./Fire

Cause of Fire: DNA

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 2d/16i/00e

Property loss: 12 Million Franc

Major Fire / Explosion 13 Date: 2.6.1987 Location: Shell Depot, Port Edoward, Herriot, France Chemical involved: Flammable Liquid Type of tank: FR Event: Fire /Exp./Boil Over Cause of Fire: Welding Machine ignited flammable spray Time taken to fight fire: 32 h Problems faced in ff: Inadequate foam / lack of heavy duty equipment Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 2d/8i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: 2.6.1987

Location: Shell Depot, Port Edoward, Herriot, France

Chemical involved: Flammable Liquid

Type of tank: FR

Event: Fire /Exp./Boil Over

Cause of Fire: Welding Machine ignited flammable spray

Time taken to fight fire: 32 h

Problems faced in ff: Inadequate foam / lack of heavy duty equipment

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 2d/8i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 14 Date: 11.6.1987 Location: Refinery, Dalmeny, Grangemouth Chemical involved: Flammable Liquids Type of tank: DNA Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Sludge with flash point less than 1 C ignited by a cigarette Time taken to fight fire: 32 h Problems faced in ff: Inadequate foam / lack of heavy duty equipment Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 2d/8i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: 11.6.1987

Location: Refinery, Dalmeny, Grangemouth

Chemical involved: Flammable Liquids

Type of tank: DNA

Event: Fire

Cause of Fire: Sludge with flash point less than 1 C ignited by a cigarette

Time taken to fight fire: 32 h

Problems faced in ff: Inadequate foam / lack of heavy duty equipment

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 2d/8i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 15 Date: Aug 1987 Location: Philadelphia, USA Chemical involved: Gasoline Type of tank: FLR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Lightning Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: DNA Property loss: 24000 barrels burnt

Date: Aug 1987

Location: Philadelphia, USA

Chemical involved: Gasoline

Type of tank: FLR

Event: Fire

Cause of Fire: Lightning

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: DNA

Property loss: 24000 barrels burnt

Major Fire / Explosion 16 Date: Oct 1987 Location: Plastic plant, Tray Ohio, USA Chemical involved: Molten Polymer Type of tank: FR Event: Fire /Exp. Cause of Fire: DNA Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 1d/10i/00e Property loss: DNA

Date: Oct 1987

Location: Plastic plant, Tray Ohio, USA

Chemical involved: Molten Polymer

Type of tank: FR

Event: Fire /Exp.

Cause of Fire: DNA

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 1d/10i/00e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 17 Date: Dec. 1987 Location: Refinery, Mumbai Chemical involved: Crude Oil Type of tank: FLR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: DNA Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: DNA

Date: Dec. 1987

Location: Refinery, Mumbai

Chemical involved: Crude Oil

Type of tank: FLR

Event: Fire

Cause of Fire: DNA

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 18 Date: Dec.1987 Location: Chemical Plant, Basle, Switzerland Chemical involved: Ethylene Oxide Type of tank: DNA Event: Fire / Exp. Cause of Fire: Material Fire Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/6i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: Dec.1987

Location: Chemical Plant, Basle, Switzerland

Chemical involved: Ethylene Oxide

Type of tank: DNA

Event: Fire / Exp.

Cause of Fire: Material Fire

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/6i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 19 Date: 02.01.1988 Location: Floreffe, Pensylvania Chemical involved: Oil Type of tank: FR Event: Tank shifted 100’ away & spillage went to river Cause of Fire: Rupture of tank due to low temp embitterment & ignited by welding equipment Time taken to fight fire: NA Problems faced in ff: NA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: nil Property loss: DNA

Date: 02.01.1988

Location: Floreffe, Pensylvania

Chemical involved: Oil

Type of tank: FR

Event: Tank shifted 100’ away & spillage went to river

Cause of Fire: Rupture of tank due to low temp embitterment & ignited by welding equipment

Time taken to fight fire: NA

Problems faced in ff: NA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: nil

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 20 Date: April 1988 Location: Petrochemical Plant, Jubail, Saudi Arabia Chemical involved: Ethylene Type of tank: DNA Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Missile Attack Time taken to fight fire: 1 week Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: April 1988

Location: Petrochemical Plant, Jubail, Saudi Arabia

Chemical involved: Ethylene

Type of tank: DNA

Event: Fire

Cause of Fire: Missile Attack

Time taken to fight fire: 1 week

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 21 Date: May 1988 Location: Storage Terminal, Chihuahua City, Mexico Chemical involved: Gasoline Type of tank: DNA Event: Exp. Cause of Fire: Electrical Short Circuit Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/150000e Property loss: USD 0.5 Million

Date: May 1988

Location: Storage Terminal, Chihuahua City, Mexico

Chemical involved: Gasoline

Type of tank: DNA

Event: Exp.

Cause of Fire: Electrical Short Circuit

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/150000e

Property loss: USD 0.5 Million

Major Fire / Explosion 22 Date: June 1988 Location: Storage Terminal, Sines, Portugal Chemical involved: Fuel Oil Type of tank: FR Event: Exp./Fire / Roof Blowing Cause of Fire: NK Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: Flying roof fell on firemen Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 02d/03i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: June 1988

Location: Storage Terminal, Sines, Portugal

Chemical involved: Fuel Oil

Type of tank: FR

Event: Exp./Fire / Roof Blowing

Cause of Fire: NK

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: Flying roof fell on firemen

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 02d/03i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 23 Date: 15.06.1988 Location: Fertilizer Plant, Genoa, Italy Chemical involved: Hydrogen Type of tank: Pr. Vessel Event: Exp. Cause of Fire: NK Time taken to fight fire: NK Problems faced in ff: NA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 02d/02i/15000e Property loss: DNA

Date: 15.06.1988

Location: Fertilizer Plant, Genoa, Italy

Chemical involved: Hydrogen

Type of tank: Pr. Vessel

Event: Exp.

Cause of Fire: NK

Time taken to fight fire: NK

Problems faced in ff: NA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 02d/02i/15000e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 24 Date: 23.06.1988 Location: Storage Terminal, Mexico Chemical involved: Gasoline Type of tank: FR Event: Exp. Cause of Fire: Sparks of soldering iron ignited overfilled contents through corroded roof Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 04d/14i/10000e Property loss: USD 3 Million

Date: 23.06.1988

Location: Storage Terminal, Mexico

Chemical involved: Gasoline

Type of tank: FR

Event: Exp.

Cause of Fire: Sparks of soldering iron ignited overfilled contents through corroded roof

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 04d/14i/10000e

Property loss: USD 3 Million

Major Fire / Explosion 25 Date: 16.07.1988 Location: Refinery, California Chemical involved: Hydrogen Peroxide Type of tank: DNA Event: Exp. /Spillage of 600 BBL Cause of Fire: Sparks welding torch Time taken to fight fire: NA Problems faced in ff: Crew built dykes for containment Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 01d/05i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: 16.07.1988

Location: Refinery, California

Chemical involved: Hydrogen Peroxide

Type of tank: DNA

Event: Exp. /Spillage of 600 BBL

Cause of Fire: Sparks welding torch

Time taken to fight fire: NA

Problems faced in ff: Crew built dykes for containment

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 01d/05i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 26 Date: 23.10.1988 Location: Electronics Industry, Sunnywale, California, USA Chemical involved: Silane Gas Type of tank: DNA Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Auto Ignition Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: Fire continued till product is consumed Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/04i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: 23.10.1988

Location: Electronics Industry, Sunnywale, California, USA

Chemical involved: Silane Gas

Type of tank: DNA

Event: Fire

Cause of Fire: Auto Ignition

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: Fire continued till product is consumed

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/04i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 27 Date: 25.10.1988 Location: Refinery, Singapore Chemical involved: Naphtha Type of tank: FLR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: NK Time taken to fight fire: 5 days Problems faced in ff: Mutual Aid sought from govt. & industries Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: USD 8 Million

Date: 25.10.1988

Location: Refinery, Singapore

Chemical involved: Naphtha

Type of tank: FLR

Event: Fire

Cause of Fire: NK

Time taken to fight fire: 5 days

Problems faced in ff: Mutual Aid sought from govt. & industries

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil

Property loss: USD 8 Million

Major Fire / Explosion 28 Date: 09.01.1988 Location: Refinery, Mahul, Mumbai Chemical involved: Naphtha Type of tank: FLR Event: Exp/fire/roof blowing Cause of Fire: Pipeline burst Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 12d/40i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: 09.01.1988

Location: Refinery, Mahul, Mumbai

Chemical involved: Naphtha

Type of tank: FLR

Event: Exp/fire/roof blowing

Cause of Fire: Pipeline burst

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 12d/40i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 29 Date: 17.01.1989 Location: Fertlizer Plant, Bhatinda, Punjab Chemical involved: Ammonia Type of tank: DNA Event: Gas leak & Fire Cause of Fire: Not Known Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/500i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: 17.01.1989

Location: Fertlizer Plant, Bhatinda, Punjab

Chemical involved: Ammonia

Type of tank: DNA

Event: Gas leak & Fire

Cause of Fire: Not Known

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/500i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 30 Date: 20.03.1989 Location: Fertilizer Plant, Janova, Lithuania Chemical involved: Ammonia Type of tank: Refrigerated storage Event: Fire / Toxic release Cause of Fire: NH3 vapour pressure increased and tank burst due to NH3 compressor failure Time taken to fight fire: 12 h for tank fire & 72 h for fertilizer plant Problems faced in ff: NA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 07d/57i/3000e Property loss: DNA

Date: 20.03.1989

Location: Fertilizer Plant, Janova, Lithuania

Chemical involved: Ammonia

Type of tank: Refrigerated storage

Event: Fire / Toxic release

Cause of Fire: NH3 vapour pressure increased and tank burst due to NH3 compressor failure

Time taken to fight fire: 12 h for tank fire & 72 h for fertilizer plant

Problems faced in ff: NA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 07d/57i/3000e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 31 Date: 22.03.1989 Location: Storage terminal, Sulfam Voe, U.K. Chemical involved: Crude Oil Type of tank: FLR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Lightning Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: DNA

Date: 22.03.1989

Location: Storage terminal, Sulfam Voe, U.K.

Chemical involved: Crude Oil

Type of tank: FLR

Event: Fire

Cause of Fire: Lightning

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 32 Date: 26.03.1989 Location: Refinery, Porvoo, Finland Chemical involved: Hexane Type of tank: Floating chamber storage tank Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Not Known Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: DNA

Date: 26.03.1989

Location: Refinery, Porvoo, Finland

Chemical involved: Hexane

Type of tank: Floating chamber storage tank

Event: Fire

Cause of Fire: Not Known

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 33 Date: 30.06.1989 Location: Power Station, Puerto Ayacuho, Venezuela Chemical involved: Fuel Oil Type of tank: FR Event: Fire / Boil Over Cause of Fire: DNA Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: DNA

Date: 30.06.1989

Location: Power Station, Puerto Ayacuho, Venezuela

Chemical involved: Fuel Oil

Type of tank: FR

Event: Fire / Boil Over

Cause of Fire: DNA

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 34 Date: 26.08.1989 Location: Refinery,Bahrain Chemical involved: Petroleum Products Type of tank: FR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Improper maintenance work Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/03i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: 26.08.1989

Location: Refinery,Bahrain

Chemical involved: Petroleum Products

Type of tank: FR

Event: Fire

Cause of Fire: Improper maintenance work

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/03i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 35 Date: 17.10.1989 Location: Storage Terminal, Rotterdam Chemical involved: Acrylonitrile Type of tank: FR Event: Explosion Cause of Fire: Improper maintenance work Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: DNA Property loss: DNA

Date: 17.10.1989

Location: Storage Terminal, Rotterdam

Chemical involved: Acrylonitrile

Type of tank: FR

Event: Explosion

Cause of Fire: Improper maintenance work

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: DNA

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 36 Date: 29.05.1991 Location: Refinery, Vishakapatinam Chemical involved: Naphtha Type of tank: FLR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Lightning strike Time taken to fight fire: 1 hour Problems faced in ff: though Halon acted, foam and portable fire extinguishers also were used Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 08d/0i/0e Property loss: approx. 55 lakhs

Date: 29.05.1991

Location: Refinery, Vishakapatinam

Chemical involved: Naphtha

Type of tank: FLR

Event: Fire

Cause of Fire: Lightning strike

Time taken to fight fire: 1 hour

Problems faced in ff: though Halon acted, foam and portable fire extinguishers also were used

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 08d/0i/0e

Property loss: approx. 55 lakhs

Major Fire / Explosion 37 Date: 11.07.1991 Location: ONGC, Mehsana, Gujarat Chemical involved: Crude Oil Type of tank: FR Event: Fire / Roof & shell were blown out Cause of Fire: lightning strike (tank not earthed) Time taken to fight fire: 2 ½ h Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 01d/0i/0e Property loss: Rs. 1 crore

Date: 11.07.1991

Location: ONGC, Mehsana, Gujarat

Chemical involved: Crude Oil

Type of tank: FR

Event: Fire / Roof & shell were blown out

Cause of Fire: lightning strike (tank not earthed)

Time taken to fight fire: 2 ½ h

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 01d/0i/0e

Property loss: Rs. 1 crore

Major Fire / Explosion 38 Date: 21.08.1991 Location: Tank terminal, Coodee Island, Australia Chemical involved: Acrylonitrile Type of tank: FR Event: Lifting of tanks from base & bund, pool fires, tank explosion Cause of Fire: NK Time taken to fight fire: NK Problems faced in ff: NK Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e Property loss: USD 24 million

Date: 21.08.1991

Location: Tank terminal, Coodee Island, Australia

Chemical involved: Acrylonitrile

Type of tank: FR

Event: Lifting of tanks from base & bund, pool fires, tank explosion

Cause of Fire: NK

Time taken to fight fire: NK

Problems faced in ff: NK

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e

Property loss: USD 24 million

Major Fire / Explosion 39 Date: 02.11.1994 Location: Tank Depot, Dronka, Egypt Chemical involved: Aviation / Diesel Type of tank: FR Event: Blazing liquid flowed into village Cause of Fire: Lightning Time taken to fight fire: NK Problems faced in ff: NK Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: NK Property loss: NK

Date: 02.11.1994

Location: Tank Depot, Dronka, Egypt

Chemical involved: Aviation / Diesel

Type of tank: FR

Event: Blazing liquid flowed into village

Cause of Fire: Lightning

Time taken to fight fire: NK

Problems faced in ff: NK

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: NK

Property loss: NK

Major Fire / Explosion 40 Date: 08.04.1995 Location: Barouch Chemical involved: Impure Methanol Type of tank: FR Event: Fire & Explosion Cause of Fire: Pyrophoric iron Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: 08.04.1995

Location: Barouch

Chemical involved: Impure Methanol

Type of tank: FR

Event: Fire & Explosion

Cause of Fire: Pyrophoric iron

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 41 Date: 04.08.1995 Location: Refinery, Baroda Chemical involved: Motor Spirit / Petrol Type of tank: FLR Event: Fire / Fire Ball Cause of Fire: Ineffective spark arrestor provided Time taken to fight fire: 27 h Problems faced in ff: Intense fire did not allow people to go near the dyke Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: NK

Date: 04.08.1995

Location: Refinery, Baroda

Chemical involved: Motor Spirit / Petrol

Type of tank: FLR

Event: Fire / Fire Ball

Cause of Fire: Ineffective spark arrestor provided

Time taken to fight fire: 27 h

Problems faced in ff: Intense fire did not allow people to go near the dyke

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil

Property loss: NK

Major Fire / Explosion 42 Date: 31.12.1995 Location: Pharmaceutical factory, Mohali, Chandigarh Chemical involved: Toulene / HCL Type of tank: FR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Static Electricity Time taken to fight fire: 3 ½ h Problems faced in ff: Nil Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: Rs. 3.25 crores

Date: 31.12.1995

Location: Pharmaceutical factory, Mohali, Chandigarh

Chemical involved: Toulene / HCL

Type of tank: FR

Event: Fire

Cause of Fire: Static Electricity

Time taken to fight fire: 3 ½ h

Problems faced in ff: Nil

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil

Property loss: Rs. 3.25 crores

Major Fire / Explosion 43 Date: 05.01.1996 Location: Petroleum Company, Manesar, India Chemical involved: Acid Type of tank: FR Event: Explosion Cause of Fire: Clogging of filter Time taken to fight fire: NA Problems faced in ff: NA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/3i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: 05.01.1996

Location: Petroleum Company, Manesar, India

Chemical involved: Acid

Type of tank: FR

Event: Explosion

Cause of Fire: Clogging of filter

Time taken to fight fire: NA

Problems faced in ff: NA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/3i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 44 Date: 10.02.1996 Location: Thane Chemical involved: Furnace Oil Type of tank: FR Event: Fire & Explosion Cause of Fire: Overheating of coils due to low oil level Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: 10.02.1996

Location: Thane

Chemical involved: Furnace Oil

Type of tank: FR

Event: Fire & Explosion

Cause of Fire: Overheating of coils due to low oil level

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 45 Date: 09.09.1996 Location: Refinery, Digboi Chemical involved: Crude Oil Type of tank: FR Event: Flash fire through storm water drain Cause of Fire: Spark from nearby hutment Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: 09.09.1996

Location: Refinery, Digboi

Chemical involved: Crude Oil

Type of tank: FR

Event: Flash fire through storm water drain

Cause of Fire: Spark from nearby hutment

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 46 Date: 24.09.1996 Location: Fertilizer Plant, Rourkela Chemical involved: Naphtha Type of tank: FLR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: DNA Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 1d/2i/0e Property loss: DNA

Date: 24.09.1996

Location: Fertilizer Plant, Rourkela

Chemical involved: Naphtha

Type of tank: FLR

Event: Fire

Cause of Fire: DNA

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 1d/2i/0e

Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 47 Date: 20.07.1997 Location: Refinery, Haldia Chemical involved: Crude Type of tank: FLR Event: Tank rim fire Cause of Fire: Lightning Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e Property loss: Approximately Rs. 5 lakhs

Date: 20.07.1997

Location: Refinery, Haldia

Chemical involved: Crude

Type of tank: FLR

Event: Tank rim fire

Cause of Fire: Lightning

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: DNA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e

Property loss: Approximately Rs. 5 lakhs

Major Fire / Explosion 48 Date: 07.10.1997 Location: Refinery, Gujarat Chemical involved: Naphtha Type of tank: FLR Event: Smoke / Fire from the tank roof Cause of Fire: Pyrophoric iron Time taken to fight fire: DNA Problems faced in ff: Foam used, mutual aid assistance from neighboring industries called in for help Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e Property loss: Approximately Rs. 5 lakhs

Date: 07.10.1997

Location: Refinery, Gujarat

Chemical involved: Naphtha

Type of tank: FLR

Event: Smoke / Fire from the tank roof

Cause of Fire: Pyrophoric iron

Time taken to fight fire: DNA

Problems faced in ff: Foam used, mutual aid assistance from neighboring industries called in for help

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e

Property loss: Approximately Rs. 5 lakhs

Major Fire / Explosion 49 Date: 07.03.2003 Location: Refinery, Digboi, Assam Chemical involved: Motor Spirit / Petrol Type of tank: FLR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Terrorism Time taken to fight fire: 60 h Problems faced in ff: Fire fighting hampered due to collapse of floating roof and partial tank shell Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: Rs. 11.25 crores

Date: 07.03.2003

Location: Refinery, Digboi, Assam

Chemical involved: Motor Spirit / Petrol

Type of tank: FLR

Event: Fire

Cause of Fire: Terrorism

Time taken to fight fire: 60 h

Problems faced in ff: Fire fighting hampered due to collapse of floating roof and partial tank shell

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil

Property loss: Rs. 11.25 crores

Major Fire / Explosion 50 Date: 09.04.2003 Location: Fertilizer Plant, Paradep,Orissa Chemical involved: Phosphoric Acid Type of tank: FR Event: Explosion Cause of Fire: Pressurization of tank due to generation of Hydrogen due to reaction between Phosphoric acid and steel Time taken to fight fire: NA Problems faced in ff: NA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: Rs. 4 crores

Date: 09.04.2003

Location: Fertilizer Plant, Paradep,Orissa

Chemical involved: Phosphoric Acid

Type of tank: FR

Event: Explosion

Cause of Fire: Pressurization of tank due to generation of Hydrogen due to reaction between Phosphoric acid and steel

Time taken to fight fire: NA

Problems faced in ff: NA

Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil

Property loss: Rs. 4 crores

Thank you!! [email_address]

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