Machine Guarding

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Information about Machine Guarding
Education

Published on January 7, 2008

Author: Goldye

Source: authorstream.com

Machine Guarding:  MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Machine Guarding Department for Administrative and Information Services Workplace Services Contents:  Contents Hazard Identification Risk Assessment Types of Guards Guard Designs Other Controls MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Machinery is a major hazard at work..:  Machinery is a major hazard at work.. 8 out of 10 workplace fatalities and 1 in 4 workplace injuries involve mechanical equipment. MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide4:  Where there is a risk of exposure to dangerous parts during: operation examination lubrication adjustment maintenance, that risk must be eliminated, or, where it cannot be eliminated, minimised. MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS HAZARD IDENTIFICATION:  HAZARD IDENTIFICATION MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Hazard Identification:  Hazard Identification a Hazard is something which could cause injury a Risk is the likelihood of the hazard causing an injury, and the likely severity of an injury what parts of a machine do you look at to find the Danger Areas? MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide7:  MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS spot the hazards Danger Areas:  Danger Areas Typically, the following 2 areas on machinery are dangerous, and can be a risk to anyone near the machine: 1. Parts which move or transmit power 2. Parts that do the work MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide9:  belts & pulleys flywheels & gear wheels shafts & spindles slides & cams chain & sprocket gears Danger Areas 1. Parts which move or transmit power MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Danger Areas:  tools & dies blades cutters saws drills and chucks rollers Danger Areas 2. Parts that do the work MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS To identify dangerous machine parts look for::  To identify dangerous machine parts look for: shear points drawing-in points impact and crushing areas entanglement areas stabbing points cutting areas abrasion areas flying particles protrusions MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide12:  MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS spot the hazards Machine hazards controlled by guarding include::  contact or entanglement with machinery trapping between machine and material or a fixed structure contact with material in motion being struck by material ejected from a machine release of potential energy MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Machine hazards controlled by guarding include: RISK ASSESSMENT:  RISK ASSESSMENT MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Assess the Risks:  Assess the Risks Once you have identified the danger areas (hazards), you should assess the risk (how likely it is to cause injury, and how severe the injury could be) ...and control these risks by guarding or in some other effective way Complete the following chart to determine the level of risk for each hazard identified MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS The Risk Priority Chart:  The Risk Priority Chart If you score a 1 or 2, do something NOW. If you score a 3 or 4, plan to do something soon. If you score a 5 or 6, plan to review the risk in the future. Control the Risk:  1. Elimination 2. Substitution 3. Engineering Controls 4. Administrative controls 5. Personal protective equipment Control the Risk Select Risk Control measures from the highest possible level of the following Hierarchy: MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide18:  Make sure machine guards are in place!! all guards should be correctly and securely fitted BEFORE operating a machine machine guarding is vital to every workplace using machinery guards need not be complicated nor interfere with productivity MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS TYPES OF GUARDS:  TYPES OF GUARDS MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Selecting a Guard:  Selecting a Guard There are a number of different types of guards, all suited to particular purposes. You must consider which type of guard is best suited for your needs. MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Fixed Guards:  Fixed Guards no moving parts protect only when fixed in position should be easy to remove and replace are only opened or removed with a tool simple, low maintenance, often the cheapest form of guarding may interfere with production/maintenance MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide22:  Pedestal Grinder with Fixed and Adjustable Guards MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Interlock Guards:  Interlock Guards have moveable parts that are interconnected with the control system usually electrical, mechanical, hydraulic or pneumatic interconnections machinery will not operate unless guard is closed less likely to slow production generally more expensive and require more checking and maintenance MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide24:  Interlocked Guard on Dough Divider MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Automatic Guards:  Automatic Guards automatically moves into position as the machine, or cycle, is started guard movement/velocity may create a hazard only suitable for slower machine cycles push away guards self-adjusting guards, etc MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide26:  Self Adjusting Guard - Radial Arm Saw MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide27:  MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Push Away Guard Distance Guards:  permanent simple Distance Guards A fixed guard that prevents access to a dangerous area through a barrier or fence MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide29:  MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Fixed and Interlocked Barrier Fence Guard Presence-sensing Devices:  Presence-sensing Devices Detect the presence of a person, or part of a person, in a defined area and prevents the dangerous parts of machinery moving while they are in that area photo-electric light curtains infra-red scanners pressure mats MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide31:  Presence Sensing Laser Scanner MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide32:  Combination of Guards - Manual Loading Robots MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS GUARD DESIGN:  GUARD DESIGN MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Guard Design:  Guard Design the primary function of a guard is to provide a physical barrier which prevents access to dangerous parts of a machine poorly designed or inappropriate guarding has often contributed to machinery injuries MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Guard Design:  design for easy removal and replacement - makes tasks such as cleaning, machine adjustment or belt changes easier - particularly if this needs to be done regularly guards can only be removed with the aid of a tool hinged guards must be interlocked guard material must be of a good quality good design will aid dust and noise reduction Guard Design MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Guard Ergonomics:  Guard Ergonomics Arm reach 850mm - under arm to fingertip Elbow reach 550mm - inside elbow to finger tip Wrist reach 230mm - wrist to tip of middle finger Vertical reach 2500mm - floor to danger point Finger reach 130mm Reach Measurements - design and position guards to restrict access to danger points as follows: * distances include an allowance for clearance from danger points Reach Minimum Distance Assumed MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Guard Placement:  Guard Placement - 15mm - 120mm - 200mm - 1000mm * distance from underside of guard to the floor shall not exceed 250mm Size of mesh or other opening in guard less than 9mm 9 to 25mm 25 to 40 mm greater than 40mm Minimum distance between guard and danger point MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide38:  Use of Mesh for Guards MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS GUARDS FOR COMMON MACHINE TYPES:  GUARDS FOR COMMON MACHINE TYPES MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Exposed Rotational Cutting :  cut-off saws milling machines friction cutting boring equipment Exposed Rotational Cutting Fixed and moving guards should be fitted where appropriate MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide41:  Bridge Guard - Wood Planer MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide42:  Top Guard - Rip Saw MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Rotating Shafts and Rollers:  Rotating Shafts and Rollers Fixed guards are preferred for rotating shafts and rollers, such as: * must protect against loose clothing and long hair becoming caught in rotating shafts couplings spindles fan-shafts ironing rollers MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide44:  MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide45:  Rollers Slide46:  Roller Hazard Slide47:  Roller Guarding Conveyors (Bulk Handling):  Conveyors (Bulk Handling) Main Types belt conveyors screw conveyors bucket conveyors …all require guarding, usually with fixed guards MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide49:  On belt conveyors the most important danger points are the nip points. MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide50:  MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Power Presses:  Power Presses Two Categories: power stamping presses brake presses * guards should prevent access to the trapping area at all times when the press is stroking MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Power Stamping Press:  Power Stamping Press fixed guard interlocked presence sensing devices two-handed controls usually a combination of these is appropriate Guard type will depend upon the job and the associated hazard * it is mandatory that regular operational checks and maintenance is conducted and recorded MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide53:  Power Stamping Press Guarding MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Brake Press:  Brake Press generally presence sensing devices (eg light curtains) are appropriate “dead man” type foot pedal actuator for each operator guard front and rear MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Brake Press Guarding System OTHER CONTROLS:  OTHER CONTROLS MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Other Safeguards:  Other Safeguards physical guarding is not the only safety aspect of Machine Guarding other safeguards are required to maintain a safe system of work MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Isolation Procedures:  all machinery should be fitted with a means of isolation from all energy sources (except those required for safety systems) isolators should be clearly identified and be capable of being locked if reconnection could place persons at risk (during maintenance, repairs, etc) Isolation Procedures MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide58:  Lock Out / Tag Out Isolation System An appropriate isolation method is a lock-out/ tag-out system, in which one or more padlocks are fitted to the isolation switch, as well as danger tags with the exposed persons' names on them. Isolation: Lock-out/ tag-out MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Emergency Stop Controls:  Emergency Stop Controls shall be prominent and readily accessible from all operator positions coloured red suitably marked Emergency Stop Buttons shall be “mushroom head” latch-in or lock-in manual reset type lanyards, trip wires or similar devices are acceptable require a manual reset before restarting not to be used for normal stopping not to be relied upon for isolation NOT an alternative to guarding MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Access Provisions:  Access Provisions machinery design should allow routine adjustment, lubrication and maintenance without removing guards or extensive dismantling of components lubrication and routine maintenance facilities should be incorporated outside the danger area wherever practical MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide61:  Training in safe working procedures, guarding and hazards of the machine they operate training records shall be kept Administration Safe Operating Procedures shut down procedures maintenance schedules and records Personal Protective Equipment used if not possible to completely control the hazard check fit, comfort, maintenance, correct use & training MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Legislative Framework:  Legislative Framework MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Occupational Health, Safety and Welfare Act 1986 describes how to provide health and safety in workplaces and is law that must be followed Occupational Health, Safety & Welfare Regulations 1995 set out the general principles, providing practical steps to be followed in order to prevent injuries and illness at work – and is law Approved Codes of Practice provide practical guidance to meet the legal requirements of the Act and Regulations and must be followed unless an equal or better solutions can be applied Australian Standards provide general information to meet occupational health and safety obligations - some may be listed in the Regulations as Approved Codes of Practice Approved Codes of Practice:  AS: 1219 SAA Safety Code for Metal Working Power Presses AS: 1473 Guarding and Safe Use of Woodworking Machinery AS: 1755 Conveyors AS: 1788 Abrasive Wheels (Parts 1 & 2) AS: 1893 Code of Practice for the Guarding and Safe Use of Metal and Paper Cutting Guillotines AS: 2294 Protective Structure for Earthmoving Machines AS: 3533 Amusement Rides and Devices (Parts 1 & 2) MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Approved Codes of Practice Australian Standards:  AS4024.1 “Safeguarding of machinery – General principles” details general underlying principles for machine guarding and identifying hazards and risks arising from the use of machinery does not provide guidance for safeguarding any particular machine MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Australian Standards Australian Standards:  details requirements for presence sensing systems such as light beams and pressure sensitive devices for use in machine guarding applications it includes the means for determining the separation distance between persons and machinery, as well as detailing the test requirements for the system Australian Standards AS 4024.2 “Safeguarding of machinery – Presence sensing systems” MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Slide66:  AS 4024.3 “Safeguarding of machinery – Manufacturing and testing requirements for electro-sensitive systems - Optoelectronic devices” AS4024.4 “Safe Guarding of Machinery – Instillation and commissioning requirements for electro-sensitive systems – Pressure sensitive devices” AS4024.5 “Safe Guarding of Machinery – Manufacturing and testing requirements for electro-sensitive systems – Pressure sensitive devices” MAJOR WORKPLACE HAZARDS Australian Standards

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