Lyon Diet Heart Study

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Information about Lyon Diet Heart Study
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Published on March 5, 2008

Author: Gavril

Source: authorstream.com

Lyon Diet Heart Study :  Lyon Diet Heart Study  Presented by Jeannie Harrison April 26th 2007 He that takes medicine and neglects diet, wastes the skill of the physician. - Chinese Proverb Overview Fats:  Overview Fats Classified by their "saturation" = amount of hydrogen atoms attached to the molecules of fat Saturated fats: Completely saturated; “villain” of fats High fat dairy products, meats, chocolate, butter, coconut oil Raises blood cholesterol Trans fats: produced when liquid oil is made into a solid fat through hydrogenation Act like saturated fats Found in processed foods (crackers, chips), baked goods (cookies, muffins), margarine A balanced diet is a cookie in each hand.  ~Author Unknown Overview Fat :  Overview Fat Unsaturated Fats Monounsaturated fat Olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil Polyunsaturated fat safflower oil, sunflower oil, fish oil My doctor told me to stop having intimate dinners for four. Unless there are three other people. –Orson Welles Essential Fatty Acids:  Essential Fatty Acids Necessary fats humans cannot synthesize Must be obtained through diet Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linolenic, linoleic, and oleic acids There are three families of EFAs: Omega-3, Omega-6, and Omega-9 EFAs support the cardiovascular, reproductive, immune, and nervous systems Omega 3 vs. Omega 6 Fatty Acids :  Omega 3 vs. Omega 6 Fatty Acids Omega-3 Fatty Acids: EPA (eiocosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) Found primarily in fatty fish: fresh tuna, salmon, mackerel ALA (alpha-linolenic acid) Green leafy vegetables, flaxseed, some vegetable oils (canola) Body can convert ALA to DHA or EPA Very beneficial for protecting against heart and blood vessel disease, lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels Reduce inflammation Increased in Mediterranean Diet study Omega-6 Fatty Acids: Linoleic Acid Corn oil, eggs, seeds, legumes Promotes inflammation The cardiologist's diet:  If it tastes good, spit it out.  ~Author Unknown Finding an Appropriate Balance:  Finding an Appropriate Balance Importance of balancing ratio Omega-3: Omega-6 fatty acids Most people on traditional Western diet consume LOTS Omega-6 fatty acids Inappropriate balance contributes to development of disease Healthy diet = 2-4 times more Omega-6 than Omega-3 Typical American consumes 11-30 times more Omega-6 I am a nutritional overachiever.  ~Author Unknown Health Benefits Omega-3 Fatty Acids:  Health Benefits Omega-3 Fatty Acids Stroke Diabetes Depression Other Mental Illness Weight loss Arthritis Osteoporosis Cancer Alzheimer’s Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Heart Health:  Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Heart Health Replace foods high in saturated/trans fats with those high unsaturated fats, especially PUFAs Reduce cholesterol and blood pressure Less likely to suffer fatal heart attack Inhibit development of plaques and blood clots What is a “Mediterranean diet?”:  What is a “Mediterranean diet?” Nutritional model inspired by traditional dietary patterns of the countries of the Mediterranean basin, particularly Italy, Greece, and Spain Encompasses fresh harvested vegetables, fruits, beans, legumes, grains, nuts, pasta, fish and lean meats and uses heart healthy olive oil as its main source of fat. The Study’s “Mediterranean” Diet:  The Study’s “Mediterranean” Diet More bread, root vegetables and green vegetables More fish Less beef, lamb and pork (replaced with poultry) No day without fruit Butter and cream were replaced with margarine high in alpha-linolenic acid Wine consumed in low to moderate amounts Don't dig your grave with your own knife and fork.  ~English Proverb Hey…isn’t this a Mediterranean diet? What about the olive oil?:  Hey…isn’t this a Mediterranean diet? What about the olive oil? Patients would not accept olive oil as only fat Rapeseed (canola) oil-based margarine supplied to participants Similar in composition to olive oil Recommended oils for salads and food preparation: rapeseed and olive oils exclusively What Were Problems with the de Lorgeril Study?:  What Were Problems with the de Lorgeril Study? Baseline diet only assessed in experimental group at start of study; Control group’s diet only assessed at conclusion of study Note: Done to avoid influencing dietary behavior of participants Dietary data at the final visit are reported for only 83 out of 303 subjects (30 %) in the control group and 144 out of 302 (less than 50 %) in the experimental group. The diet of the other subjects who completed the study is unknown. This raises questions about the role of diet in explaining the results reported for recurrent coronary events. Double-blind design not feasible; single-blind Physician bias Patients were mostly male I feel about airplanes the way I feel about diets. It seems to me that they are wonderful things for other people to go on.  ~Jean Kerr American Heart Association Circulation :  American Heart Association Circulation An intermediate analysis was performed after a minimum follow-up of one year for each patient. The study was stopped at that point because of significant beneficial effects noted in the original group. The group was then studied for a total of four years…the final results were presented in the AHA’s journal ScienceDaily:  ScienceDaily Very good overall summary Interview of Michel de Lorgeril, M.D., and Robert Eckel, M.D Discussed problems with study Accurate information Discusses editorial accompanying the journal article which summarizes study well “one main message of the Lyon study is that the polyunsaturated oils contained in the Lyon diet may be helpful in preventing second heart attacks I'm on a seafood diet.  I see food and I eat it.  ~Author Unknown New York Times:  New York Times “Participants were men known to have heart disease.” Not all participants were male, although mainly male Should have specified previous heart attack instead of general term “heart disease” Undetailed account Probably acceptable for a quick skim read In the News:  In the News Both Mediterranean and American Heart Association Diet prevent second heart attack Omega-3 fatty acids versus low fat Older people had trouble adjusting to the Mediterranean Diet Unaccustomed to eating so much fish Hard to switch to olive oil instead of margarine or butter Nice to know people have a choice I recently had my annual physical examination, which I get once every seven years, and when the nurse weighed me, I was shocked to discover how much stronger the Earth's gravitational pull has become since 1990—Dave Berry Omega-3 Fatty Acids are EVERYWHERE today…:  Omega-3 Fatty Acids are EVERYWHERE today… Questions?:  Questions? The doctor of the future will give no medication, but will interest his patients in the care of the human frame, diet and in the cause and prevention of disease. - Thomas A Edison

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