Lymphatics And Respiratory System

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Information about Lymphatics And Respiratory System

Published on April 28, 2008

Author: pinoynurze

Source: slideshare.net

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nursing licensure exam review lectures

The Lymphatic System Includes the lymph, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, lymphoid organs (tonsils, spleen and thymus) Primary Functions: 1. Maintains fluid homeostasis 2. Absorbs lipids from the GIT 3. Filters blood (spleen) 4. Contains lymphocytes participating in immunity

Includes the lymph, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, lymphoid organs (tonsils, spleen and thymus)

Primary Functions:

1. Maintains fluid homeostasis

2. Absorbs lipids from the GIT

3. Filters blood (spleen)

4. Contains lymphocytes participating in immunity

 

 

The Lymph Fluid similar to composition as plasma Without RBC and less proteins Special Lymph from the GIT is loaded with fats and is called CHYLE

Fluid similar to composition as plasma

Without RBC and less proteins

Special Lymph from the GIT is loaded with fats and is called CHYLE

 

Fig. 14.2

The Lymph vessels Carry fluid away from tissues into the venous circulation These are NOT present in the central nervous system, Bone marrow, epidermis and cartilage They resemble vein because they have valves

Carry fluid away from tissues into the venous circulation

These are NOT present in the central nervous system, Bone marrow, epidermis and cartilage

They resemble vein because they have valves

3 mechanisms of edema formation 1. Decrease oncotic pressure  cirrhosis and kwashiorkor 2. Increased hydrostatic pressure  CHF and prolonged standing 3. Lymphatic obstruction or destruction  filiariasis, lymph node dissection

1. Decrease oncotic pressure  cirrhosis and kwashiorkor

2. Increased hydrostatic pressure  CHF and prolonged standing

3. Lymphatic obstruction or destruction  filiariasis, lymph node dissection

Lymphatic duct 1. Right lymphatic duct- drains the right side of the head and the upper right side of the thorax and the right extremities 2. Thoracic duct- drains the rest of the body

1. Right lymphatic duct- drains the right side of the head and the upper right side of the thorax and the right extremities

2. Thoracic duct- drains the rest of the body

 

The Lymphatic organs 1. Tonsils A. palatine B. pharyngeal C. lingual D. tubal

1. Tonsils

A. palatine

B. pharyngeal

C. lingual

D. tubal

The lymphatic organs 2. Lymph nodes Small round structures of lymphoid tissue Major lymph nodes are the axillary, inguinal and cervical Filters lymph Activates the immune system Removes microorganisms from the blood

2. Lymph nodes

Small round structures of lymphoid tissue

Major lymph nodes are the axillary,

inguinal and cervical

Filters lymph

Activates the immune system

Removes microorganisms from the blood

The lymphoid organs 3. The spleen Reddish, flat organ lying next to the 9 th and 10 th rib in the left upper quadrant Functions: Repository of old RBC Activates the immune system Storage of Blood Sequesters bacteria MOST COMMONLY INJURED in BLUNT abdominal trauma

3. The spleen

Reddish, flat organ lying next to the 9 th and 10 th rib in the left upper quadrant

Functions:

Repository of old RBC

Activates the immune system

Storage of Blood

Sequesters bacteria

MOST COMMONLY INJURED

in BLUNT abdominal trauma

The lymphoid organs 4. Thymus Bilobed organ in the superior mediastinum Lymphocytes from the bone marrow mature and grow as T-lymphocytes Positive selection= T-cells that react to foreign antigen are selected Negative selection= T-cells that do not react to the self-antigen are selected

4. Thymus

Bilobed organ in the superior mediastinum

Lymphocytes from the bone marrow mature and grow as T-lymphocytes

Positive selection= T-cells that react to foreign antigen are selected

Negative selection= T-cells that do not react to the self-antigen are selected

 

IMMUNITY Innate or Non-specific 1. Mechanical- skin, mucus, saliva, urine 2. Chemical- enzymes, lysozymes 3. Vascular Blood cells- Neutrophils and macrophages 4. Inflammation Specific Immunity 1. Cellular Immunity- T-cell system 2. Humoral Immunity- B-cell system

Innate or Non-specific

1. Mechanical- skin, mucus, saliva, urine

2. Chemical- enzymes, lysozymes

3. Vascular Blood cells- Neutrophils and macrophages

4. Inflammation

Specific Immunity

1. Cellular Immunity- T-cell system

2. Humoral Immunity- B-cell system

Non-specific Immunity Inflammatory response Reaction of the vacularized living tissues to injury Classic signs: 1. Rubor- redness 2. Calor- heat 3. Tumor- swelling 4. Dolor- pain 5. Functio laesa- loss of function

Inflammatory response

Reaction of the vacularized living tissues to injury

Classic signs:

1. Rubor- redness

2. Calor- heat

3. Tumor- swelling

4. Dolor- pain

5. Functio laesa- loss of function

Inflammation Initial reaction  Vasoconstriction! VC  VD  VP (due to HISTAMINE) VD  Redness and Heat VP  Swelling Bradykinin, Prostaglandin, compression of tissues  pain

Initial reaction  Vasoconstriction!

VC  VD  VP (due to HISTAMINE)

VD  Redness and Heat

VP  Swelling

Bradykinin, Prostaglandin, compression of tissues  pain

Specific Immunity: T cell T-cells originate in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus 4 types of T-cells 1. Cytotoxic T cells- kill infected cells, cancer cells and transplanted cells 2. Helper T cells- help the humoral immunity 3. Suppressor T cells- suppress that actions of cytotoxic and Helper cells 4. Memory T cells- for recall and specificity

T-cells originate in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus

4 types of T-cells

1. Cytotoxic T cells- kill infected cells, cancer cells and transplanted cells

2. Helper T cells- help the humoral immunity

3. Suppressor T cells- suppress that actions of cytotoxic and Helper cells

4. Memory T cells- for recall and specificity

Specific Immunity: B cells B cells are produced and mature in the bone marrow B cells  helped by Helper cells  turn into Plasma cells  secrete ANTIBODIES

B cells are produced and mature in the bone marrow

B cells  helped by Helper cells  turn into Plasma cells  secrete ANTIBODIES

ANTIBODIES Are proteins that can combine with antigens and function for: 1. Opsonization 2. Neutralization 3. Activation of complement system

Are proteins that can combine with antigens and function for:

1. Opsonization

2. Neutralization

3. Activation of complement system

ANTIBODIES types Five classes 1. Ig M- priMary response, pentaMer 2. Ig G- secondary response, most abundant, can cross placenta 3. Ig A- secreted by the body (sIgA) 4. Ig D- receptor for B cells 5. Ig E- allergic and parasitic reactions

Five classes

1. Ig M- priMary response, pentaMer

2. Ig G- secondary response, most abundant, can cross placenta

3. Ig A- secreted by the body (sIgA)

4. Ig D- receptor for B cells

5. Ig E- allergic and parasitic reactions

TYPES OF IMMUNITY 1. Natural Immunity Active natural Passive natural 2. Artificial Immunity Active artificial Passive artificial

1. Natural Immunity

Active natural

Passive natural

2. Artificial Immunity

Active artificial

Passive artificial

Fig. 14.18

End of Immune System

End of Immune System

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

The Respiratory System Composed of the air conducting system and the respiratory unit (lungs) Major function is RESPIRATION Commonly divided into UPPER RESPIRATORY tract and LOWER RESPIRATORY tract

Composed of the air conducting system and the respiratory unit (lungs)

Major function is RESPIRATION

Commonly divided into UPPER RESPIRATORY tract and LOWER RESPIRATORY tract

Ventilation and Respiration VENTILATION- movement of air from the atmosphere into the lungs and out of the lungs EXTERNAL RESPIRATION- exchange of gases between the alveoli and the blood INTERNAL RESPIRATION- exchange of gases between the blood and the tissues

VENTILATION- movement of air from the atmosphere into the lungs and out of the lungs

EXTERNAL RESPIRATION- exchange of gases between the alveoli and the blood

INTERNAL RESPIRATION- exchange of gases between the blood and the tissues

The Respiratory System Commonly divided into UPPER RESPIRATORY tract and LOWER RESPIRATORY tract

Commonly divided into

UPPER RESPIRATORY tract and

LOWER RESPIRATORY tract

The UPPER Respiratory tract The nose, pharynx and larynx

The nose, pharynx and larynx

The LOWER respiratory tract Composed of The trachea down to the Lungs

Composed of The trachea down to the Lungs

The NOSE Made up of nasal bones and cartilages The NASAL cavity is made up of bones, cartilages and turbinates or conchae The nostril is the external opening The choanae is the internal opening

Made up of nasal bones and cartilages

The NASAL cavity is made up of bones, cartilages and turbinates or conchae

The nostril is the external opening

The choanae is the internal opening

Functions of the nose 1 . Hairs or vibrissae filter large particles 2. Blood vessels warm the air 3. Mucus serves to humidify the air 4. Phonation

1 . Hairs or vibrissae filter large particles

2. Blood vessels warm the air

3. Mucus serves to humidify the air

4. Phonation

The Pharynx Musculo-membranous tube from behind the nasal cavity to the level of the cricoid cartilage (C6)

Musculo-membranous tube from behind the nasal cavity to the level of the cricoid cartilage (C6)

The Pharynx 3 component parts 1. Nasopharynx 2. Oropharynx 3. Laryngopharynx

3 component parts

1. Nasopharynx

2. Oropharynx

3. Laryngopharynx

The Larynx Upper expanded portion of the trachea Made up of cartilages 3 Unpaired- Cricoid, Thyroid and Epiglottis ( cUte) 6 Paired- Cuneiform, Corniculate and Arytenoid (pACC) Function: air passageway and phonation

Upper expanded portion of the trachea

Made up of cartilages

3 Unpaired- Cricoid, Thyroid and Epiglottis ( cUte)

6 Paired- Cuneiform, Corniculate and Arytenoid (pACC)

Function: air passageway and phonation

 

The vocal cords 1. False vocal cords 2. True vocal cords 3. Glottis- the space between the true vocal cords and is the narrowest portion of the adult airway

1. False vocal cords

2. True vocal cords

3. Glottis- the space between the true vocal cords and is the narrowest portion of the adult airway

Fig. 15.4

Lower airway: Trachea Called windpipe Made up of 15-20 C-shaped cartilage 10-11 inches Lined with pseudostratified ciliated epithelium

Called windpipe

Made up of 15-20 C-shaped cartilage

10-11 inches

Lined with pseudostratified

ciliated epithelium

Bronchus RIGHT Bronchus Wider Shorter More vertical Left bronchus Narrower Longer More horizontal

RIGHT Bronchus

Wider

Shorter

More vertical

Left bronchus

Narrower

Longer

More horizontal

Bronchioles Primary bronchus  secondary bronchus  tertiary bronchus  terminal bronchioles Respiratory bronchioles belong to the respiratory unit

Primary bronchus  secondary bronchus  tertiary bronchus  terminal bronchioles

Respiratory bronchioles belong to the respiratory unit

Respiratory unit Respiratory bronchioles Alveolar ducts Alveolar sacs alveolus

Respiratory bronchioles

Alveolar ducts

Alveolar sacs

alveolus

The Pleura Surrounds the lungs and provide protection 1. Parietal pleura- in the chest wall 2. Visceral pleura- intimately attached to the lungs 3. Pleural space- in between the two

Surrounds the lungs and provide protection

1. Parietal pleura- in the chest wall

2. Visceral pleura- intimately attached to the lungs

3. Pleural space- in between the two

 

Diaphragm

Respiratory Physiology 1. Ventilation and gas exchange 2. Mechanics of breathing 3. Gas transport 4. Pulmonary volumes and capacities 5. Respiratory control

1. Ventilation and gas exchange

2. Mechanics of breathing

3. Gas transport

4. Pulmonary volumes and capacities

5. Respiratory control

Ventilation Ventilation is the movement of air into the lungs Air (oxygen) moves by the process of diffusion from the higher concentration in the alveoli to the pulmonary capillaries

Ventilation is the movement of air into the lungs

Air (oxygen) moves by the process of diffusion from the higher concentration in the alveoli to the pulmonary capillaries

Mechanics of breathing

Gas exchange Respiratory membrane is thin which facilitates gas exchange Rate of diffusion depends on the thickness of the membrane, surface area and partial pressure of gases

Respiratory membrane is thin which facilitates gas exchange

Rate of diffusion depends on the thickness of the membrane, surface area and partial pressure of gases

Gas transport 1. OXYGEN- majority is transported in the blood loosely bound to hemoglobin- oxyhemoglobin 2. CARBON DIOXIDE- majority is transported in the blood in the RBC as BICARBONATE

1. OXYGEN- majority is transported in the blood loosely bound to hemoglobin- oxyhemoglobin

2. CARBON DIOXIDE- majority is transported in the blood in the RBC as BICARBONATE

Fig. 15.8

LUNG VOLUMES 1. Tidal volume – TV 2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume- IRV 3. Expiratory Reserve Volume- ERV 4. Residual volume- RV

1. Tidal volume – TV

2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume- IRV

3. Expiratory Reserve Volume- ERV

4. Residual volume- RV

LUNG CAPACITIES Lung volume + another lung volume 1. Inspiratory Capacity- IC 2. Functional Residual Capacity- FRC 3. Vital capacity- VC 4. Total Lung capacity- TLC

Lung volume + another lung volume

1. Inspiratory Capacity- IC

2. Functional Residual Capacity- FRC

3. Vital capacity- VC

4. Total Lung capacity- TLC

 

 

NOT CLINICALLY measured 1. Residual volume 2. Functional residual volume 3. Total lung capacity

1. Residual volume

2. Functional residual volume

3. Total lung capacity

Control of Respiration: Central Respiratory center in the medulla Controls the rate and depth of respiration Increased CO2 is the most potent stimulus

Respiratory center in the medulla

Controls the rate and depth of respiration

Increased CO2 is the most potent stimulus

Control of Respiration: Peripheral 1. Chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies Sensitive to changes in pH and O2 Decreased O2  increase respiration Decreased pH (acidosis)  increase respiration 2. Herring-Breurer reflex Stretch receptors in the lungs limit the inspiration

1. Chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies

Sensitive to changes in pH and O2

Decreased O2  increase respiration

Decreased pH (acidosis)  increase respiration

2. Herring-Breurer reflex

Stretch receptors in the lungs limit the inspiration

ASSESSMENT Normal Breathing pattern: 12-21 respiratory rate Active inspiration with contraction of diaphragm Passive expiration with relaxation of diaphragm Steady rhythm and regular rate and size I:E ratio is 1:2

Normal Breathing pattern:

12-21 respiratory rate

Active inspiration with contraction of diaphragm

Passive expiration with relaxation of diaphragm

Steady rhythm and regular rate and size

I:E ratio is 1:2

Abnormal breathing pattern 1. Cheyne-Stoke’s 2. Biot’s 3. Kussmaul’s 4. Agoral

1. Cheyne-Stoke’s

2. Biot’s

3. Kussmaul’s

4. Agoral

Breathing rates 1. Eupnea- 12-21 2. Bradypnea- 11 and below 3. Tachypnea- 22 and above 4. Dyspnea- difficulty of breathing

1. Eupnea- 12-21

2. Bradypnea- 11 and below

3. Tachypnea- 22 and above

4. Dyspnea- difficulty of breathing

Breathing Position 1. Platypnea- inability to breath in an upright position 2. Orthopnea- difficulty in breathing in any position except upright

1. Platypnea- inability to breath in an upright position

2. Orthopnea- difficulty in breathing in any position except upright

Breath sounds: Normal 1. Bronchial or Tracheal- in the sternum 2. Bronchovesicular- in the interscapular area 3. Vesicular- lung periphery

1. Bronchial or Tracheal- in the sternum

2. Bronchovesicular- in the interscapular area

3. Vesicular- lung periphery

Adventitious Breath sounds 1. Rales or crackles 2. Stridor 3. Wheeze 4. Rhonchi 5. Friction rub

1. Rales or crackles

2. Stridor

3. Wheeze

4. Rhonchi

5. Friction rub

 

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