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lung_cancer

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Information about lung_cancer
Education

Published on August 12, 2012

Author: sarathy4

Source: authorstream.com

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INTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION What Why How PowerPoint Presentation: WHAT IS LUNG CANCER Genetic damage DEATH ( Bronchogenic ) Cancer Or Carcinoma PowerPoint Presentation: AT MOLECULAR LEVEL Genetic changes include mutation of key regulatory genes, changes in protein products, and changes in gene expression. As changes accumulate, cells become more abnormal and cancer progresses There are over 100 genes known to be associated with the development of lung cancer. Ras Myc Rb r etino b lastoma gene ( Rb ) T P53 Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR ) , erbB1, HER1 PowerPoint Presentation: HOW COMMON IS LUNG CANCER? reports OVER 1.1 million people die of lung cancer each year. WHO RISK FACTORS: RISK FACTORS Carcinogens Smokers 60 Lung cancer 6 Non smoker 1 85% S moking 300,000 deaths each year RISK FACTORS: RISK FACTORS Smoking Ten years after quitting, lung cancer risk drops to a level that is only 20-50 % of the risk experienced by those who continue to smoke. RISK FACTORS: RISK FACTORS Second-Hand Smoke The lungs of anyone who breathes in air that contains tobacco smoke are exposed to its carcinogens . EXPOSED RISK OF LUNG CANCER side-stream smoke, environmental tobacco smoke, passive smoke. Children PowerPoint Presentation: RISK FACTORS Environmental Carcinogens Asbestos Radon Radon is a naturally occurring, radioactive gas. It is odourless and tasteless. F ormed from the radioactive decay of uranium. Underground miners. Arsenic (naturally) : Ars e nic ( naturally ) inorganic organic ( carcinogen ) Insecticides, weed killers, rat poison, Fungicides, wood preservatives, Paints, leather industry. Chromium Natural element, odourless and tasteless. C hromium (VI) or hexavalent chromium is carcinogenic. Chrome plating, Stainless steel welding Nickel : Nickel Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ( PAHs) A group of over 100 different chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal , oil , gas, garbage. Diesel fuel exhaust is a prevalent source of PAHs. Some PAHs are used to make medicines, dyes, plastics, and pesticides. PowerPoint Presentation: Other Environmental Lung Carcinogens bis ( chloromethyl )ether, chloromethyl methyl ether, ionizing radiation (x-rays), gamma radiation, mustard gas, soots , tars, mineral oils, vinyl chloride. Suspected lung carcinogens include acrylonitrile , cadmium , beryllium , lead, ferric oxide dust. PowerPoint Presentation: Age Genetic Factors Among men, black men were diagnosed with lung cancer most often, followed by white, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic men LUNG CANCER GROWTH : LUNG CANCER GROWTH In Average, it takes 8-15 years to grow 1 centimetre in diameter. But, they have the ability to spread or metastasize to other parts of the body early in their growth. This process is called early micrometastasis , metastasis that is not detectable by ordinary means . Very Slow LUNG CANCER SPREAD : LUNG CANCER SPREAD Spread of the tumour can occur by the lymphatic vessels to lymph nodes located within the lung, mediastinum and thorax. Most cancer cells that enter the bloodstream die . If spread by the blood stream, it can lead to deposits of tumour in the liver, opposite lung, bone and brain . The process of determining whether lung cancer has spread beyond the original tumour is called staging . TYPES OF LUNG CANCER: TYPES OF LUNG CANCER Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC ) 80% 20% L arge cell carcinoma Adeno carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma SCLC and NSCLC have different patterns of growth and spread . They are also treated differently. A cancer arising in the epithelial tissue of the skin or of the lining of the internal organs . Small Cell Lung Cancer: Small Cell Lung Cancer oat cell carcinoma Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma Abnormally small Grows faster Spread faster SCLC tumours are often located near the centre of the lung . Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Similar growth patterns and are treated similarly. Each has variants or subtypes Adenocarcinoma Have a glandular appearance. Most of these tumours produce a thick fluid called mucin . Variants are acinar adenocarcinoma , papillary adenocarcinoma , bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinoma , and other mixed subtypes . Tumours are most often in the outer regions of the lungs. M ostly associated with scarring of the lung tissue. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Squamous Cell Carcinoma ( Epidermoid carcinoma) Squamous cells are large and flat. These tumours often produce a substance called keratin . Variants of SCC include Papillary SCC , clear cell SCC , small cell SCC , and basaloid SCC . Central area of the lung. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Large Cell Carcinoma ( LCC ) largest The cells are generally highly undifferentiated or immature in appearance. Variants are including clear cell LCC , basaloid LCC , lymphoepithelioma -like carcinoma , and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma . Any part of the lung. unrecognizable The prognosis for large cell carcinoma is generally less favourable than for other forms of NSCLC. Carcinoid Tumours : Carcinoid Tumours Arise from neuroendocrine cells. ( specialized nerve cells that produce hormones ) Although it is uncommon , they secrete high levels of hormones which can lead to symptoms such as bouts of diarrhoea . TYPICAL( a ) and ATYPICAL( b ) variants . Carcinoids account for 1-5% of all lung tumours. They do not metastasize. Tumours can often be cured by surgical removal. Atypical carcinoid tumours are more aggressive with a greater tendency for distant metastasis and recurrence than typical carcinoid tumours. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM): Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma ( MPM ) 75 % occur in the pleura of the lungs . MPM is a rare form of primary cancer . Asbestos is the predominant cause of MPM. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for localized MPM. Epithelioid type Sarcomatoid Mixed/biphasic mesotheliomas. THREE TYPES STAGES: STAGES 3 factors determine stage: The size and characteristics of the original or primary tumour . Spread of the cancer to regional lymph nodes . The presence or absence of distant metastases . Stages of non-small cell lung cancer Stage 1 Caner is only in lungs not in lymph glands. Stage 2 2A Cancer is small but it spreads to lymph glands. 2B Cancer is slightly larger and it spreads to lymph glands. Stage 3 3A Caner cells have spread to the lymph glands furthest away from the affected lung. 3B One more tumor in the lung or other area in chest such as heart ( or ) Cancer cells are present in fluid around the lungs. Stage 4 Cancer spread to various parts of body such as liver or bone. Stages of Small cell lung cancer Limited Cancer cells are present only in one lung. Extensive Cancer cells are spread to other parts of the body. PowerPoint Presentation: SYMPTOMS PowerPoint Presentation: DIAGNOSIS A chest X-ray is one of the most useful examination tools. CT (computerized tomography) MRI PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scans can be used to look at lung cancers Cells must be examined under a microscope . Cells may come from sputum samples, pleural fluid (fluid on the lungs), brushings or washings of the bronchi Bronchoscopy. A needle biopsy may also be used for diagnosis. M ediastinoscopy and mediastinotomy Thoracotomy PowerPoint Presentation: TREATMENT Standard treatments for lung cancer may include Surgery Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) Chemotherapy . Early lung cancers may be treated with a laser therapy . Most patients have more than one type of treatment (combination of therapies). Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) PDT is the use of drugs that are sensitive to light (photo-sensitizing drugs). Photo chemotherapy or photo radiation therapy PowerPoint Presentation: CONCLUSION PowerPoint Presentation: Thanks to All

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