Published on February 27, 2014
March 2014 LTE Advanced—Evolving and expanding in to new frontiers 1
LTE Advanced: Evolving & expanding into new frontiers 1 Brings carrier aggregation and its evolution – led by Qualcomm 2 Enables hyper-dense HetNets; Further gains with enhanced receivers 3 Extends benefits of LTE to unlicensed spectrum 4 Expands LTE in to new frontiers – device-to-device, Broadcast TV, higher bands & more 1000x mobile data challenge enabler 2
LTE Advanced brings different dimensions of improvements Leverage wider bandwidth Carrier aggregation across multiple carriers, multiple bands, and across licensed and unlicensed spectrum F1 LTE Carrier #1 LTE Carrier #2 LTE Carrier #3 LTE Carrier #4 Carrier aggregation Up to 100 MHz Higher data rates (bps) LTE Carrier #5 Leverage more antennas MIMO Downlink MIMO up to 8x8, enhanced Multi User MIMO and uplink MIMO up to 4x4 Higher spectral efficiency (bps/Hz) Leverage HetNets Higher spectral efficiency per coverage area With advanced interference management (FeICIC/IC) (bps/Hz/km2) Small Cell Range Expansion 3
Carrier Aggregation rapidly expanding and evolving—led by Qualcomm 4 Qualcomm Snapdragon is a product of Qualcomm Technologies Inc.
Carrier Aggregation—fatter pipe to enhance user experience Up to 20 MHz LTE Carrier #1 Up to 20 MHz LTE Carrier #2 Up to 20 MHz LTE Carrier #3 Up to 20 MHz LTE Carrier #4 Up to 20 MHz LTE Carrier #5 Higher peak data rates 1The Aggregated Data Pipe Higher user data rates and lower latencies for all users Up to 100 MHz More capacity for typical ‘bursty’ usage1 Leverages all spectrum assets typical bursty nature of usage, such as web browsing, means that aggregated carriers can support more users at the same response (user experience) compared to two individual carriers, given that the for carriers are partially loaded which is typical in real networks. The gain depends on the load and can exceed 100% for fewer users (less loaded carrier) but less for many users. For completely loaded carrier, there is limited capacity gain between individal carriers and aggregated carriers, 5
Carrier aggregation increases capacity for typical network load Typical bursty smartphone applications Carrier aggregation capacity gain Burst Rate (normalized) 6 2 10MHz Single Carriers 10MHz + 10MHz Carrier Aggregation User experience 5 Data bursts 4 3 2 Partially loaded carriers 1 Capacity gain can exceed 2x (for same user experience)1 0 Idle time 0 3 6 6 12 9 18 12 24 15 30 Load (Mbps) 1Carrier aggregation doubles burst rate for all users in the cell, which reduces over-the-air latency ~50%, but if the user experience is kept the same (same burst rate), multicarrier can instead support more users for partially loaded carriers. The gain depends on the load and can exceed 100% for fewer users (less loaded carrier) but less for many users (starting to resemble full buffer with limited gain). Source: Qualcomm simulations, 3GPP simulation framework, FTP traffic model with 1MB file size, 57 macro cells wrap-around, 500m ISD (D1), 2x2 MIMO, TU3, NLOS, 15 degree downtilt 2GHz spectrum., 6
Carrier aggregation gaining momentum – Led by Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. 8974 LTE Advanced 9x35 9x25 LTE Advanced (Cat4) World’s 1st LTE Advanced carrier aggregation (Launched Jun 2013) 150 Mbps peak data rate (cat 4) 10 + 10 MHz in downlink QTI’s 3rd generation Qualcomm® Gobi ™ LTE modem HSPA+ 3 carriers DL & 2 carrier UL aggregation Qualcomm Snapdragon and Gobi are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. LTE Advanced (Cat6) LTE Advanced Cat 6 (300 Mbps) (Announced Nov 2013) 300 Mbps peak data rate (cat 6) 20 + 20 MHz in downlink QTI’s 4th generation Qualcomm® Gobi ™ LTE modem HSPA+ 3 carriers DL & 2 carrier UL aggregation 7
Taking carrier aggregation global - 4Th Gen Gobi LTE New Gobi modem paired with new RF solution 4th Generation LTE modem 40 MHz Support in downlink (20 MHz+ 20MHz) One chip, all carrier aggregation combinations Supports next gen LTE Advanced wideband CA 4th generation LTE transceiver 300 Mbps Peak data rate (LTE Cat6) 1st 28nm RF FDD/TDD Support 1st 20nm modem ~3x* more CA band combinations HSPA+ 3 carrier downlink & 2 carrier uplink aggregation Common platform for LTE Advanced & HSPA+ carrier aggregation Note: *Compared to previous generation QCT solutions; Qualcomm Gobi is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. ; Qualcomm WTR 3925 is a product of Qualcomm Atheros, Inc. 8
Global demand for LTE Carrier Aggregation QTI chipsets designed to support all CA band combinations currently in deployment or in planning ~50 band combinations being defined by 3GPP Japan China Europe North America B4 + B17 B4 + B13 B4 + B12 B5 + B12 B2 + B17 B4 + B5 B5 + B17 B4 + B7 B2 + B5 B2 + B29 B4 + B29 B2 + B4 B2 + B13 B23 + B29 B2 + B12 Contiguous B41 Non Contiguous 41 Non Contiguous B4 Non Contiguous B25 B3 + B7 B3 + B20 B7 + B20 B8 + B20 B39 + B41 B1 + B7 Contiguous B38 Contiguous B7 Contiguous B3 Contiguous 40 Non Contiguous 41 Contiguous B39 B11 + B18 B3 + B28 B1 + B8 B1 + B18 B1 + B19 B1 + B21 B1 + B26 B3 + B19 B19 + B21 Contiguous B1 Requirements: 700-2700 MHz Inter-Band CA Intra-Band CA Wider Bandwidth TDD CA FDD CA South Korea South America Contiguous B41 Non Contiguous B7 Australia B3 + B8 B3 + B28 B3 + B8 B1 + B5 B3 + B5 B3 + B26 B8 + B26 Non Contiguous B3 RFFE + Modem Source: 3GPP, the combinations in blue are completed as of September 2013, remaining represent work items in progress; 3GPP continually defines band combinations 9
Advanced multiple antenna techniques for more capacity 10
More antennas—large gain from receive diversity Downlink 1.8x 4x4 MIMO 4 Way Receive Diversity (+ 2 x 2 MIMO) 1.7x Diversity, MIMO 1x NodeB Device 2 x 2 MIMO LARGE GAIN, NO STANDARDS OR NETWORK IMPACT MAINSTREAM COMMERCIAL Relative spectral efficiency Note: LTE Advanced R10 and beyond adds up to 8x8 Downlink MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output), enhanced Multi User MIMO and uplink MIMO up to 4x4. Simulations: 3GPP framework, 21 macro cells wrap-around, 500m ISD (D1), 10MHz FDD, carrier freq 2GHz, 25 UEs per cell, TU 3km/h, full-buffer traffic, no imbalance or correlation among antennas. 2x4 MIMO used for receive diversity gain of 1.7x compared to 2x2 MIMO, similarly 2x3 diversity provides a 1.3x gain over 2x2 MIMO 11
Leverage fiber backhaul installations Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) for more capacity and better user experience Coordinated scheduling Remote Radio Head (RRH) Coordinated beamforming Macro Same or different cell identity across macro and RRH Remote Radio Head (RRH) Central processing/scheduling (requires low latency fiber) 12 Note: CoMP enabled by TM10 transmission modes in the device and network. Picture focuses on downlink CoMP techniques, CoMP can also apply to the uplink
It’s not just about adding small cells — LTE Advanced brings even more capacity and enables hyper-dense HetNets1 Small Cell Range Expansion (FeICIC/IC) Macro Only Macro+ 4 Picos with Range Expansion LTE R8 1X LTE R8 1.4X LTE Advanced 2.8X Macro+ 4 Picos Data rate improvement2 Higher capacity, network load balancing, enhanced user experience, user fairness 1By applying advanced interference management to HetNets. 2Median downlink data rate. Assumptions: 4 Picos added per macro and 33% of users dropped in clusters closer to picos (hotspots) : 10 MHz FDD, 2x2 MIMO, 25 users and 500m ISD. Advanced interference management: enhanced timedomain adaptive resource partitioning, advanced receiver devices with enhanced RRM and RLM1Similar gain for the uplink 13
Capacity scales with small cells deployed - thanks to advanced interference management (FeICIC/IC) ~37X SMALL CELL SMALL CELL ~21XSMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL ~11X SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL ~6X SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL +4 Small Cells +8 Small Cells +16 Small Cells +32 Small Cells SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL Capacity scales with small cells added1 LTE Advanced with 2x Spectrum added 1 Assumptions: Pico type of small cell, 10MHz@2GHz + 10MHz@3.6GHz,D1 scenario macro 500m ISD, uniform user distribution scenario. Gain is median throughput improvement, from baseline with macro only on 10MHz@2GH, part of gain is addition of 10MHz spectrum. Users uniformly distributed—a hotspot scenario could provide higher gains. Macro and outdoor small cells sharing spectrum (co-channel) 14
LTE Advanced - Evolving and expanding into new frontiers Further improving LTE Advanced Aggregated Data Pipe Evolving carrier aggregation Further Enhanced HetNets More advanced antenna features and 256 QAM Higher capacity for Machine-to-machine and Smartphone signaling Enhanced Receivers for superior performance Rel. 12 & beyond New Frontiers Device Interference cancellation 700MHz to 3.8GHz LTE Advanced in unlicensed spectrum ~3.5 GHz / ASA LTE Broadcast going beyond mobile LTE Direct for device to device Higher bands & new licensing models (Authorized Shared Access) 15
Carrier aggregation evolution, Enhanced Hetnets 16
LTE Advanced carrier aggregation continues to evolve Leveraging all spectrum assets Across cells (Multiflow) (Supported in Rel. 12) FDD/TDD Aggregation Across licensed/ unlicensed (Supported in Rel. 12) (Specific band combinations to be defined) Paired Traditional Licensed Unpaired ASA/LSA Licensed Unlicensed (LTE) Anchor 3GPP continually defines band combinations Aggregated Data Pipe 17
MultiFlow – Dual-cell connectivity across small cells and across macros and small cells Small cell “Booster” Macro “Anchor” Macro Improved offload to small cells Higher cell-edge data rates Robust mobility 18
Further enhancing HetNets performance User deployed 3G/4G Operator deployed 3G/4G Typically indoor small cells Indoor/outdoor small cells1 4G Relays & Wireless Backhaul ENTERPRISE RESIDENTIAL METRO Multiflow—Improve offload to small cells LTE in unlicensed spectrum LTE/Wi-Fi tight interworking Dual-cell connectivity across cells 1 Enhanced device receiver Data channel interference cancellation for even more gain Better utilize 5GHz spectrum with unified LTE network & small cells Converged small cells with LTE & Wi-Fi Such as relay and Pico/Metro/RRH small cells for hotspots. RRH= Remote Radio Heads, in addition Distributed Antenna Systems are used in HetNets 19
Enhanced receivers for superior LTE Advanced performance 20
Enhanced receivers offer better user experience & more capacity Interference Cancellation Interference Cancellation Rel. 10/11 Re. 12 Sync ref. signal Common ref. signal Primary broadcast channel Data channel Better user experience Higher data rates especially at cell-edges Higher network capacity Higher users data rate increases overall network capacity Enhanced performance for HetNets Even more beneficial in managing interference in small cell deployments 21
Enhanced receivers further improve HetNet performance Live demonstration at MWC 2014, utilizing our LTE Advanced test network in San Diego Higher network capacity 140 Macro 1 Throughout 120 100 80 Rel. 10/11 Receiver Enhanced Receiver 60 40 Pico 2 Pico 3 Pico 4 20 Pico 5 0 Increased cell-edge data rates Throughout 30 Enhanced Receiver 25 20 15 10 Rel. 10/11 Receiver 5 0 22
Extending the benefits of LTE Advanced to unlicensed spectrum 23
Extending the benefits of LTE Advanced to unlicensed spectrum Better network performance Enhanced user experience Longer range and increased capacity Thanks to LTE Advanced anchor in licensed spectrum with robust mobility LTE in Licensed spectrum 700MHz to 3.8GHz Ideal for small cells Carrier aggregation LTE in Unlicensed spectrum 5 GHz Unified LTE Network Coexists with Wi-Fi Common LTE network with common authentication, security and management. Features to protect Wi-Fi neighbors 24
Leverages existing LTE standards, ecosystem and scale LTE transmitted according to unlicensed spectrum regulations, such as power levels Large scale, global 1 LTE deployments in unlicensed spectrum 2 LTEUSA, Korea and China for 268+ network launches in 100+ countries1 LTE Advanced 3GPP R10 LTE Advanced 3GPP R10 launched June 2013 Wi-Fi and LTE co-existence features2 Targets 5 GHz unlicensed bands 3 LTE in unlicensed spectrum everywhere Extend deployment to regions with ‘Listen Before Talk’ (LBT) regulations Optimized waveform enabling LBT, carrier discovery and expanded uplink coverage Candidate for 3GPP R13 standard Common core network with common mobility, security, authentication and more. R10 Ideal for small cells Converged 3G/4G small cells with LTE for licensed and unlicensed spectrum as well as Wi-Fi Unified network for licensed and unlicensed spectrum 1Per GSA as of as of Feb 5th 2014. 2 With Carrier Sensing and Adaptive Transmission (CSAT) in the time domain. 25
Making LTE broadcast dynamic and extending to terrestrial TV 26
LTE broadcast is commercial – Powered by Snapdragon 800 LTE Advanced st 1 World’s 1st LTE Broadcast solution Gobi LTE Modem integrated into Snapdragon 800 KT Corp launches world’s first commercial LTE Broadcast service By Nick Wood, Total Telecom Monday 27, January 2014 South Korean operator to use eMBMS technology to deliver mobile TV service to Samsung Galaxy Note 3 smartphones. KT Corp on Monday launched the world’s first commercial LTE Broadcast service, delivering mobile TV content to Samsung Galaxy Note 3 users. Called ‘Olleh LTE Play’, the service is based on eMBMs (evolved multimedia broadcast multicast services) solutions developed in … Qualcomm Snapdragon and Gobi are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. Source: http://www.totaltele.com/view.aspx?ID=485128 27
LTE broadcast – Higher capacity even with fewer users Leveraging LTE infrastructure and spectrum 7X Unicast LTE Broadcast 3X 1.7X X 1 user/ cell X 2 users/cell X 5 users /cell Network capacity/throughput Source: Qualcomm Research; Simulation assumptions - 2GHz carrier frequency, 5MHz spectrum, 500m site-to-site distance, cluster eMBMS with 19 sites MBSFN deployment (100% of carrier usage), comparison with unicast (based on average throughput) 28 based is on the same amount of resource allocation.
Dynamic switching to broadcast offers even more flexibility Event or demand driven Pre-scheduled (e.g. at stadium only during games) Users accessing same content on unicast Users moved to broadcast Based on demand (e.g. breaking news) Seamless transition Make-before–break connection Fully transparent to user Part of Rel. 121 Dynamically switch between unicast and broadcast (based on operator configured triggers) 1This feature is called Mood (Multicast operation on Demand) in Rel 12 29
Terrestrial TV service using LTE Broadcast Enabling broadcasters to reach mobile devices LTE Broadcast Single Frequency Network (SFN) for the whole coverage area - LTE (Unicast) Enhanced user experience in the “Assisted Mode” (e.g. On-demand content, interactivity ) Assisted Mode Using LTE sites/infrastructure LTE Broadcast on a dedicated spectrum Broadcast TV Stand-alone Mode Devices in “Stand-alone” or “Assisted” mode ~2x Higher capacity than today’s broadcast (DVB-T/ATSC) - Opportunity to free-up spectrum for mobile broadband Current broadcast technology operates in Multi Frequency Network (MFN) mode with a frequency reuse of at least 4 with a spectrum efficiency of up to 4 bps/Hz inside each cell. This corresponds to an overall spectrum efficiency of approx. 1bps/Hz. Whereas LTE-B operates in SFN over the entire coverage area with a spectrum efficiency of up to 2bps/Hz. 30
LTE Direct – Operator-owned global platform for continuous proximity awareness 31
Designed for autonomous “Always-ON” discovery Licensed spectrum utilized for continuous proximity awareness DISCOVERY LTE Up to 500m range LTE 20s Discover 1000s of services in milliseconds 64ms Privacy sensitive Device based, connectionless discovery – without location tracking Negligible LTE capacity impact <1% of uplink resources for thousands of services Source: Qualcomm simulations; Assumes 10MHz system 32
Operator platform that enables new mobile services Mobile Proximity and Discovery services at scale Operator owned LTE Direct platform Common discovery network Managed, owned, monetized by mobile operator Enables discovery horizontally across apps, OS, operators Expected to be in every Rel 12 device Part of 3GPP Release 12 standard 33
Utilizing higher bands & new licensing models (Authorized Shared Access) 34
ASA leverages underutilized spectrum for exclusive use Exclusive Use Used in both macros and small cells Incumbents (i.e., government) may not use spectrum at all times and locations Small cells can be closer to incumbent than macros 3G/4G Macro Base Station Protects spectrum incumbents Binary use – either incumbent or rights holder with protection zones 1No Incumbent user 3G/4G Small Cells Regular Multi-band Device1 Incentive-based cooperation model Allows incumbents to monetize unused spectrum device impact due to ASA, just a regular 3G/4G device supporting global harmonized bands targeted for ASA. Carrier aggregation would be beneficial to aggregate new ASA spectrum with existing spectrum, but is not required. 35
ASA/LSA1 – Implementation underway in Europe and USA POLICY Endorsed by 28 EU member states Nov ’13 Evaluation by NTIA Endorsed by 28 EU member states Nov ’13 1 REGULATORY Defined by CEPT in report published in Feb ’142 for harmonizing 2.3 GHz3 STANDARDS Specified by ETSI Currently working on requirements OPERATOR INTEREST PROOF OF CONCEPT Demonstrated by many infra/device vendors; 2.3 GHz and 3.5 GHz demos at MWC Feb ‘14 Trialed Live in Finland in Sep’13 Proposed by FCC To make 3.5GHz4 band dedicated to licensed shared access for mobile broadband ASA has been named LSA (Licensed Shared Access) in the EU by the Radio Spectrum Policy Group; 23ECC Report 205; 33Draft ECC decision on “harmonized technical and regulatory conditions for the use of the band 2300-2400 MHz for MFCN;” 3GPP Band 40, 2.3-2.4 GHz; 4 Target 3.5 GHz in the US is 3550-3650 MHz 36
LTE Advanced - 1000x data challenge enabler Continue to evolve LTE: -- Multiflow, Hetnets enhancements -- Opportunistic HetNets LTE in unlicensed spectrum LTE Broadcast and LTE Direct Carrier Aggregation (TDD and FDD) Authorized Shared Access (ASA) Higher spectrum bands (esp. TDD) Hetnets with FeICIC/IC Full interference management New deployment models, e.g. neighborhood small cells More Small Cells is Key to 1000x 37
Qualcomm LTE advanced leadership Standards Leadership Industry-first Demos A main contributor to key LTE Advanced features MWC 2012: Live Over-The-Air HetNet Demo with Mobility Instrumental in driving interference cancellation and other Hetnets features MWC 2013: Live OTA opportunistic HetNet Demo with VoIP Mobility. Authorized Shared Access (ASA) demo Pioneering work on LTE Direct and LTE in unlicensed spectrum Industry-first Chipsets from QTI World’s 1st LTE Advanced solution (Jun ’13) First with LTE Broadcast (Jan ‘14) LTE Advanced cat 6 (300 Mbps) solution announced in Nov. ‘13 MWC 2014: Enhanced HetNets with datachannel interference cancellation 800 MDM 9x35 LTE Advanced Qualcomm Snapdragon and Qualcomm Gobi are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. LTE Advanced World’s 1st LTE Advanced solution 300Mpbs (Cat 6) solution 38
LTE Advanced: Evolving & expanding into new frontiers 1 Brings carrier aggregation and its evolution – led by Qualcomm 2 Enables hyper-dense HetNets; Further gains with enhanced receivers 3 Extends benefits of LTE to unlicensed spectrum 4 Expands LTE in to new frontiers – device-to-device, Broadcast TV, higher bands & more 1000x mobile data challenge enabler 39
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A strong LTE evolution path 2013 FDD and TDD support Enhanced voice fallback (CSFB), VoLTE, LTE Broadcast (eMBMS) Rel-9 Rel-8 LTE Mbps1 DL: 73 – 150 UL: 36 – 75 Mbps1 (10 MHz – 20 MHz) 1Peak 2014 2015 Carrier Aggregation, relays, HetNets (eICIC/IC), Adv MIMO Realizes full benefits of HetNets (FeICIC/IC) Rel-10 Rel-11 2016+ LTE Direct, Hetnets enhancements, Multiflow, WiFi interworking, Rel-12 & Beyond LTE Advanced DL: 3 Gbps2 UL: 1.5 Gbps2 ( Up to 100 MHz) rates for 10 MHz or 20 MHz FDD using 2x2 MIMO, standard supports 4x4 MIMO enabling peak rates of 300 Mbps. 2Peak data rate can exceed 1 Gbps using 4x4 MIMO and at least 80 MHz of spectrum (carrier aggregation), or 3GBps with 8x8 MIMO and 100MHz of spectrum. Similarly, the uplink can reach 1.5Gbps with 4x4 MIMO. Commercial Note: Estimated commercial dates. 42 Created 2/13/2014
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