LT2E06N-04-2007

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Sports

Published on January 14, 2009

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LT2E06NSports Management : 1 LT2E06NSports Management Lecture 4 Management Approaches The Sports Manager’s brief : 2 The Sports Manager’s brief There are numerous aspects to sports management, some of them generic and others facility or sports-specific Generic aspects of sports management include: Financial management Human resource management Marketing Health and Safety Management Public Relations Administration Sport-specific aspects of Sports Management : 3 Sport-specific aspects of Sports Management Will include: Facility management and operation Facility / activity programming Facility-related aspects of Health and Safety Sports Marketing Sports Development Skills of sports management : 4 Skills of sports management A sports manager needs to have both generic and specific management skills Background knowledge of the general processes of management, combined with a knowledge of sport and the people involved in it Overall, a feeling for the business of sport – commercial orientation The nature of management : 5 The nature of management Management is a formal process that occurs within organisations to direct and organise resources to meet stated objectives Mullins (1996) regards it as: Taking place within a structured organisational setting with prescribed roles Directed towards the achievement of aims and objectives Achieved through the efforts of other people Using systems and procedures The aims of management(after Torkildsen, 1992) : 6 The aims of management(after Torkildsen, 1992) In general terms, the aims of management are to ensure the best utilisation of resources, including people (human resources), money (financial resources) and information, to achieve short-term objectives and long-term goals of the organisation Policy-makers and managers need to: Be clear about principles and objectives Know the resources and their value Understand the performance that is expected Facets of sports managementWhat is being managed? (Watt, 2003) : 7 Facets of sports managementWhat is being managed? (Watt, 2003) the workplace the people day-to-day operations the facilities the activities the development process partnership working Management qualities (after Watt, 2003)The potential manager should have: : 8 Management qualities (after Watt, 2003)The potential manager should have: Technical knowledge and credibility Integrity Honesty Inspiration Commitment Enthusiasm Resilience Determination Willingness to work hard Love of sport Administrative ability People skills Sense of awareness Sense of humour Three crucial management skills(Torkildsen, 1992) : 9 Three crucial management skills(Torkildsen, 1992) Leadership Effective decision-making and Communication are required in order to: Heighten innovation Manage change Encourage entrepreneurship Make sporting organisations more effective and more efficient Management skills – a typology(Gilgeous, 1997) : 10 Management skills – a typology(Gilgeous, 1997) Suggests four main categories: General management skills (such as communication, decision making, and conflict management) Personal characteristics (such as leadership, enthusiasm, flexibility and fairness) Functional management skills (such as marketing or finance) Industry-specific skills (such as coaching, sports marketing, or plant operation) Skills of particular relevance to the sports situation (Adair, 1988) : 11 Skills of particular relevance to the sports situation (Adair, 1988) Defining the task Having the ability to identify exactly what is required to be done Planning – making the necessary plans for the task to be carried out Briefing – telling everyone what their involvement is (through shared discussion) Controlling – monitoring the work to ensure that everything is proceeding according to a plan Skills of particular relevance to the sports situation (Adair, 1988) : 12 Skills of particular relevance to the sports situation (Adair, 1988) Evaluating – having a realistic assessment of what is happening in the process, and how close the successful completion of the task is Motivating – keeping everyone involved, enthusiastic, and committed to completing the task Organising – ensuring that everyone is working in a planned, coordinated way towards the end goal Setting an example – showing commitment and enthusiasm General management approaches(Watt, 2003) : 13 General management approaches(Watt, 2003) It is generally recognised that there are five broad approaches to management: The classical approach The behavioural approach The management science approach The systems approach The contingency approach The classical approach(Taylor, 1972; Fayol, 1967) : 14 The classical approach(Taylor, 1972; Fayol, 1967) The classical approach deals with the content, suggesting that there is core knowledge that each manager should possess This includes the functions of planning, organising and controlling The behavioural approach(Follet, 1924; Mayo, 1933) : 15 The behavioural approach(Follet, 1924; Mayo, 1933) The behavioural approach considers the role of the individual within the management process It identifies that each individual has needs, wants and desires It considers that individuals are different, and need to be appropriately treated The management science approach(Taylor, c.1920) : 16 The management science approach(Taylor, c.1920) The management science approach sets out to use mathematical or ‘scientific’ approaches in management, to obtain greater efficiency It relates to operational problems and methods of solving these The systems approach(Katz and Kahn, 1966) : 17 The systems approach(Katz and Kahn, 1966) The systems approach takes a holistic overview of management processes It is based on designing a precise system of management made up of a variety of parts, which must be brought together to function as a whole to meet the organisation’s objectives The contingency approach(Burns and Stalker, 1961; Fiedler, 1967; Lawrence and Lorsh, 1967) : 18 The contingency approach(Burns and Stalker, 1961; Fiedler, 1967; Lawrence and Lorsh, 1967) The contingency approach works on the assumption that there is no single best way in which to manage The manager must be able to manage in different situations and recognise that organisations can vary in a number of ways The contingency approach in practice : 19 The contingency approach in practice The contingency approach is arguably the most appropriate for sport and leisure services (Robinson 2004) Managers need to be able to adapt their styles of management to allow them to deal appropriately with: Elected members and council officials Funding bodies Different categories of staff Customers A range of service issues (e.g., external contractors, suppliers, and maintenance personnel) Contingency theories - Handy’s ‘Best Fit’ Approach(Handy, 1993) : 20 Contingency theories - Handy’s ‘Best Fit’ Approach(Handy, 1993) Handy suggests that managers need to consider four ‘influencing factors’ that will determine the overall effectiveness of their management. These are: Their operating style as a manager The preferred style of their staff The nature of the task The management environment Contingency theories - Handy’s ‘Best Fit’ Approach(Handy, 1993) : 21 Contingency theories - Handy’s ‘Best Fit’ Approach(Handy, 1993) OPERATING STYLE AS A MANAGER Most managers will have a preferred style of managing This means that they will have a natural way of reacting when under stress or pressure Managers need to be aware of the strengths and limitations of their particular style PREFERRED STYLE OF THEIR STAFF Staff are likely to have a preferred way of being managed New and younger staff may prefer strong guidance Senior of experienced staff prefer some autonomy, delegation, and participation in decision-making To gain loyalty and respect, managers need to consider the style preferred by their staff Contingency theories - Handy’s ‘Best Fit’ Approach(Handy, 1993) : 22 Contingency theories - Handy’s ‘Best Fit’ Approach(Handy, 1993) THE NATURE OF THE TASK The task itself will dictate how the manager should act Simple tasks require little discussion or explanation Manager should tell staff what needs to be done, or delegate Complex tasks have greater impact on staff deployment They need to be managed through consultation and discussion THE MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENT The organisation itself, and specific situations within it, will suggest the most appropriate management style In some situations a consultative style will be appropriate In others, such as dealing with emergencies, where decisions need to be made instantaneously, a more directive style may be called for Managerial roles (Mintzberg, 1979)Ten key roles, in three main sets : 23 Managerial roles (Mintzberg, 1979)Ten key roles, in three main sets INTERPERSONAL ROLES Figurehead Leader Liaison INFORMATIONAL ROLES Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson DECISIONAL ROLES Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Managerial roles (Mintzberg, 1979)INTERPERSONAL ROLES : 24 Managerial roles (Mintzberg, 1979)INTERPERSONAL ROLES FIGUREHEAD The manager acts as the representative of the organisation Attends key external meetings Gives out staff achievement awards Handles public relations, key publicity items and media issues LEADER The manager is concerned with the relationships between staff, what motivates them, and what needs they may have LIAISON The manager networks with others outside the organisation or department Managerial roles (Mintzberg, 1979)INFORMATIONAL ROLES : 25 Managerial roles (Mintzberg, 1979)INFORMATIONAL ROLES MONITOR Managers must monitor the internal and external environment in order to stay up to date with changes DISSEMINATOR The manager has the responsibility to pass on information within the organisation Has a duty to keep all staff accurately informed SPOKESPERSON The manager gives information about the organisation to others outside of the organisation Managerial roles (Mintzberg, 1979)DECISIONAL ROLES : 26 Managerial roles (Mintzberg, 1979)DECISIONAL ROLES ENTREPRENEUR This role requires managers to be innovative To be able to introduce and manage change DISTURBANCE HANDLER The manager has to be able to resolve problems and handle conflict RESOURCE ALLOCATOR All managers have to control and distribute resources Human resources (people), financial resources (money) and material resources (equipment) and information NEGOTIATOR All managers will have to negotiate and debate issues, in order to successfully allocate resources and meet objectives Successful managementHow best defined? : 27 Successful managementHow best defined? Traditionally, by economic efficiency (Drucker, 1955) Providers must supply services that the public wants, at a price that the consumer is prepared to pay But in sports and leisure management, profit needs to be defined in rather broader terms (Torkildsen, 1992) It is impossible to place an absolute financial value on recreational participation, but it is possible to conduct a broad cost-benefit analysis ‘Economic equivalency index’ (Wilder, 1977) Some criteria for successful sports management at community level (Torkildsen, 1992) : 28 Some criteria for successful sports management at community level (Torkildsen, 1992) Financial viability (but at an appropriate level) Participation levels Range of users attracted Social inclusion - meeting of levels for defined target groups Physical benefits Psychological benefits Social benefits We will explore these criteria, and a number of others, later in the module, when we consider the topic of Performance Management Management systems : 29 Management systems Much management practice is based on these five approaches But a number of management systems have also been introduced to facilitate the management process Some are based in part on behavioural science research Some offer a philosophy of management Others a method to be followed MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Management by Objectives (MBO) Planning-Programming-Budgeting Systems (PPBS) Programme Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) Critical Path Method (CPM) Total Quality Management (TQM) Management by Objectives : 30 Management by Objectives ‘A process whereby the superior and subordinate managers of an organisation jointly identify its common goals, define each individual’s major areas of responsibility in terms of the results expected of him, and use these measures as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its members’. (Odiorne, 1965) Two key features: The setting of objectives The participation by managers from all levels in the organisation Objective Setting and Delegation : 31 Objective Setting and Delegation Objective setting is a feature of most management systems, as is: The delegation of areas of specific responsibility e.g., in Sports Management, some managers, in addition to core management duties, will have delegated responsibilities for specific areas such as purchasing, marketing, operations, administration, or financial control Recommended Reading : 32 Recommended Reading Watt, D.C. (2003) ‘Sports Management and Administration’ London: Routledge. 2nd edn. Chap.5, “Leadership” Chap.8, “Organisational Management”

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