Published on March 15, 2008
LT2E06NSports Management: LT2E06N Sports Management Lecture 3 Sports Facilities Management 2 LT2E06NSports Management: LT2E06N Sports Management Operational Considerations Sports Facility Management and Operation: Sports Facility Management and Operation In this lecture we will spend some time looking at some of the more specific design, planning, operational and management aspects of particular facility types Of necessity this can only be an overview of some of the key considerations – many are of a very specialised nature In each case there are references given should you wish to follow them up in greater detail THIS LECTURE RELATES CLOSELY TO ASSESSMENT ONE (FACILITY CASE-STUDY) Related lectures: Related lectures Other lectures will deal in greater detail with related topics such as: Facility programming and user requirements (Week 5) Meeting specific needs (including Health and Safety aspects) (Week 6) Sports Management and Sports Development (Week 8) Typology of Sports Facilities: Typology of Sports Facilities Outdoor RecreationNatural facility-based: Outdoor Recreation Natural facility-based Divided broadly into two main categories, natural-facility based and outdoor built environment Natural facility-based outdoor recreation may be subdivided into: Land-based recreation: hill-walking; mountain climbing; abseiling: orienteering; countryside recreation Water-based recreation – canoeing; sailing; windsurfing; water-skiing (inland and marine) Air-based recreation – gliding; parachuting; hang-gliding Generally require minimal infrastructure (huts, shelters, jetties) But still can have significant environmental impact These, and other aspects, need to be skilfully managed Outdoor RecreationBuilt facility-based: Outdoor Recreation Built facility-based Covers man-made recreational facilities erected in a variety of outdoor environments Golf courses, sports pitches, artificial ski slopes, ski centres Some can have substantial environmental impact, both physical and visual – e.g. ski slopes, ski runs, chairlifts Large facilities draw people from a wide catchment area, which increases impact – cars, people, noise, litter etc. Needs to be carefully managed Outdoor RecreationMain management challenges: Outdoor Recreation Main management challenges Outdoor safety – important in all cases, but particularly acute in potentially hazardous areas such as mountaineering, winter sports, water-based recreation and air-based sports Environmental impact – a major concern Suggested reading: Pigram, J J and Jenkins, J M (1999) Outdoor Recreation Management. London: Routledge McCormack, F (1994) Water Based Recreation. Managing Water Resources for Leisure. Huntingdon: Elm Publications Indoor Recreation: Indoor Recreation The present era of sports building provision started in 1960, the year of publication of the second Wolfenden Report, Sport and the Community It stated (par.80) “Much of the serious shortage is of facilities for the multitude of games and sports which, of their nature and in our climate, can best be played indoors” Prior to that local authorities had assumed that all sport was played out of doors, so that there was no need for indoor facilities (apart from swimming pools) The modern sports hall is therefore a relatively recent phenomenon Indoor Recreation: Indoor Recreation In 1949 the CCPR acquired Lilleshall Hall in Shropshire as a second National Recreation Centre for the north of England to complement Bisham Abbey in the south (Buckinghamshire, 1947) The first indoor sports hall in the UK was built at Lilleshall in 1955 (King George VI Sports Hall) The first community sports hall in the UK opened at Harlow, Essex in 1964 Thereafter a substantial UK-wide indoor sports facility building programme was embarked upon, spearheaded by the Sports Council Indoor Recreation: Indoor Recreation The Sports Council (Provision for Sport, Vol.1, 1972) forecast a need for 842 indoor sports centres by 1981 At that time (1972) there were 30 municipal sports centres and less than 500 indoor swimming pools in Britain By 1978 there were 350 sports centres and more than 850 pools – a remarkable achievement over only six years Economic recession in 1979 put a halt to this programme and meant that these targets were not met In 1984 the Sports Council introduced the Standardised Approach to Sports Halls (SASH) programme Intended to ensure that sports would be accessible to all in smaller communities (c. 25,000) and that these halls would be easily managed and would represent value for money Indoor Recreation – ‘Dryside’ provision: Indoor Recreation – ‘Dryside’ provision A distinction has long been made in indoor recreation management between ‘wetside’ (i.e., swimming pool management) and ‘dryside’ (sports hall management) Both often co-exist in multi-purpose sport and leisure centres, but they have very different management requirements ‘Dryside’ facilities include sports halls, multi-purpose halls, gymnasia, fitness centres, weights rooms, squash courts, projectile halls, dojos, and other specialised ‘dry’ facilities Indoor Recreation – Sports HallsDesign and Management: Indoor Recreation – Sports Halls Design and Management As with any facility, design has major implications for both subsequent usage and management Most sports halls are multi-purpose – they therefore have to accommodate a variety of sports, and some degree of compromise is inevitable in most cases Key issues are: Floor surface characteristics Walls and ceilings Lighting Changing facilities Equipment storage and changeover Indoor Recreation – Sports HallsSize and usage – modular approach: Indoor Recreation – Sports Halls Size and usage – modular approach A typical “standard” size small sports hall is approximately 33m (long) x 18m (wide) x 7.6m (height) and can accommodate four badminton courts in parallel Larger sports halls are multiples of this, up to 12-court size Badminton courts traditionally have been used as a modular yardstick, because badminton: is the UK’s most popular indoor sport has the most demanding requirements in terms of several functional elements: lighting, roof structure and height, background wall and roof colours (shuttle visibility), and air velocity Indoor Recreation – Sports HallsSize and usage – alternative approaches: Indoor Recreation – Sports Halls Size and usage – alternative approaches The “court-based modular approach” can be overruled when other requirements are needed, such as: sports that need a larger pitch (handball, hockey, korfball) dedicated extra space (e.g., a sprint chute for indoor athletics) additional spectator seating capacity where a large hall serves as a regional sports arena where county or national standard play takes place in one or more sports where non-sports events are put on (multi-purpose halls) that require increased space suspended track netting can be used to subdivide larger halls Sports hall usage patterns(Sport England, 1999): Sports hall usage patterns (Sport England, 1999) Sports hall usage patterns(Sport England, 1999): Sports hall usage patterns (Sport England, 1999) Sports Halls – floor surface properties: Sports Halls – floor surface properties For multi-purpose use, the floor has to combine a number of properties ‘Person-surface interaction’: reasonable resilience, some ‘give’, relatively slip-resistant, and with appropriate deceleration, and shock-absorbent properties ‘Ball-surface interaction’ – floor must have appropriate rebound resistance, which varies with the sport (e.g., soccer, 25% to 50%, but basketball 50% to 70%) Sports Halls – floor surface properties: Sports Halls – floor surface properties Durability – must resist abrasion (wheels, blades), fatigue (no signs of cracking or tearing), impact resistance, spike resistance (artificial turf), and resistance to indentation Materials of choice: Hardwood timber (beech, maple) – strips, blocks Timber / resin composition (e.g., ‘Granwood’) Sheet (vinyl, linoleum, rubber, composite) In-situ polymeric, wet-poured Textile (woven fabric, felt, carpet - gymnastics, aerobics, indoor bowls) Specialist surfaces (synthetic track materials, synthetic pitches, usually outdoor) Sports Halls – management implications: Sports Halls – management implications Floor surface should be chosen with majority user groups in mind (consider range of usage) Should minimise risk of injury while maximising opportunities for sports development Ease of maintenance, both long-term and regular Environmentally stable – not affected by changes in heat or humidity Visually attractive (colour, reflectance) Safety and practicality: hygienic, free from dust and vapour, non-toxic, easy to clean and maintain Resistant to spillage and accidental damage Sports Halls – other considerations: Sports Halls – other considerations Walls and ceilings Colour chosen should be neutral, restful – but should also maximise aerial visibility – e.g., of shuttlecocks Lighting Luminaires should be impact resistance, tamper-proof, and positioned to minimise dazzle or eye-strain Sufficient level of light intensity In new halls, much thought currently being given to maximising use of natural daylight whenever possible In major facilities, provision made for additional lighting for televised events Sports Halls – other considerations related to ease of management: Sports Halls – other considerations related to ease of management Ventilation Sufficient air changes made to ensure an adequate level of ventilation Air-handling units should be silent They should not produce evident air currents that would affect movement of projectiles Storage Facilities Sufficient to house equipment used by different groups Suspended storage at a suitable safe level Changing Rooms Capacity, ease of access, security, showering facilities, wet/dry separation Suggested Reading: Suggested Reading Sport England (2000) Sports Halls: Sizes and Layouts Design Guidance Notes Sport England (1999) Floors for Indoor Sports Design Guidance Notes Torkildsen, G. (1999) Leisure and Recreation Management London: Spon & Spon. 4thedn. Indoor Recreation – Squash Courts: Indoor Recreation – Squash Courts The commonest specialised form of provision that a dryside manager is likely to meet Maple or beech floors, hardened plaster walls (should never be painted!), back wall may be glass, overhead viewing / marker gallery Low ambient temperature required – ideally 45°F or less in view of the vigorous nature of the game Also to avoid condensation on walls and floor – danger of slippage Air-handling units should ideally make 4-6 complete air changes per hour Indoor Recreation – Squash CourtsManagement issues: Indoor Recreation – Squash Courts Management issues User management – insistence on customers wearing non-marking soles, and half-sleeved shirts (to avoid body fat deposition on walls) Routine maintenance – daily dry-mopping to remove dust; cleaning of glass-backed wall; checks on luminaires Once weekly damp-mopping Longer term maintenance: floor-markings; plaster finish; wood flooring. These are usually all contracted out to specialist firms Indoor Recreation – Weights Rooms: Indoor Recreation – Weights Rooms Four broad categories of user Weightlifters (specialising in the two Olympic lifts – snatch, clean and jerk) Powerlifters (the other category of competitive lifter – squats, bench press and dead lift) Both require heavy free weights and appropriate space Weight mats Reinforced floors Not usually compatible with: Bodybuilders Weight trainers They can use traditional fitness rooms Weights Rooms – Management Issues: Weights Rooms – Management Issues Segregation of weight trainers from weightlifters, powerlifters and possibly some bodybuilders is usually desirable Appropriate facility supervision – greater risk attendance on the use of heavy free weights Guard against physical abuse of equipment Theft of small weights CCTV sometimes used Health and Safety implications substantial Indoor Recreation – Fitness Centres: Indoor Recreation – Fitness Centres Generally based on three types of equipment Weight stack machines (pulley based, cam-based, electronic resistance machines) Cardiovascular machines (exercise bicycles, rowing machines, treadmills, steppers – aerobic fitness) Light free weights (in some fitness centres) Attract a broader user spectrum Mainly weight trainers (aimed at improving fitness) Some bodybuilders (aimed at improving appearance) Some combine ‘dryside’ and ‘wetside’ – e.g., “health suites” Fitness Centres – management issues: Fitness Centres – management issues Growth area, but a highly competitive market Emphasis placed on personal service to customer Visible staff presence Customer induction – customised user programme Regular supervision – leads to regular attendance, and to progression One-to-one personal training Cleaning – upholstery, floors, mirrors, litter-bins Equipment – seats, cables, chains &c - safety Recommended Reading: Recommended Reading Evans-Platt, C (1992) Health and Fitness Centres: A Guide to their Management and Operation. Harlow: Longman Institute of Baths and Recreation Management (1990) Practical Leisure Centre Management Vol.1. Melton Mowbray: IBRM Indoor Recreation – Projectile Halls: Indoor Recreation – Projectile Halls Some larger sports centres have ‘projectile halls’ – designed specifically for “projectile sports” Cricket practice, archery, golf, rifle and pistol shooting Typically 30m long x 12m wide x 5m high Breeze-block or brick walls, concrete or wooden floors with carpet finish Strict safety rules for archery and rifle sports Rifle sports need to be licensed, with bullet catchers to prevent ricochets, and high security provided for weapon storage This, plus lead vaporisation (requiring extraction equipment to remove this hazard) has greatly restricted their use Alternative usages include bowls, fencing and martial arts Indoor Recreation – ‘Wetside’ provision: Indoor Recreation – ‘Wetside’ provision “Wetside” refers to the provision of: Traditional swimming pools Leisure pools Saunas Jacuzzis and hot tubs Steam rooms Turkish baths Flumes and rapids Water parks and ‘wild water’ features, with many combinations of the above (cf. leisure architects) Popularity of swimming: Popularity of swimming Numerous surveys have shown that swimming is the most popular of all physical recreation activities that require purpose-designed facilities Equally popular with both sexes Wide participation age range, from young children to elderly people Very appropriate exercise for overweight or physically disabled, due to water buoyancy supporting the body, relieving strain on joints Use in physiotherapy, hydrotherapy, cardiac rehabilitation programmes Compulsory subject in school sports curricula Traditional swimming pools: Traditional swimming pools The oldest former of indoor leisure provision Stems from the turn of last century – 1846 Baths and Wash Houses Act Concerned primarily with health and public hygiene (private baths, slipper baths) and with communal laundries, later with swimming These substantial complexes had a large central boiler room which provided hot water for personal washing, laundry, bathing, swimming, and often Turkish Baths Some extant swimming pools date from the 1920s but most have now been replaced Many recreation managers entered the profession through being “baths managers” Traditional swimming pools – management tradition: Traditional swimming pools – management tradition One of the earliest professional sports management bodies was the Association of Baths Superintendents (1921), which in turn became: National Association of Baths Superintendents Institute of Baths Management (1961) Institute of Baths and Recreation Management (IBRM) (1979) Institute of Sport and Recreation Management (ISRM) (1993) IBRM (1993-78) and ISRM (from 1993) offered training courses and certification to managers at a practical / technical level mainly focussed on pools / water facilities, briefly on ice, and now also on dryside provision Long tradition – decided to remain independent of ILAM when it was formed in 1983 Traditional swimming pool provision: Traditional swimming pool provision Rectangular tanks, initially Imperial sizes (feet), but now metric – 25 metres, 33m, and 50m Variable width – 4-lane, 6-lane, 8-lane are typical Inner lanes 2m wide, outermost lanes 2.5m (to reduce wash from poolside), so a 4-lane pool would be 25m x 9m overall Effects of wash can be reduced by the use of anti-wave lanes Water temperature typically maintained at 84°F (29°C) Air temperature kept 1-2° higher (to retain heat in water, reduce subjective feelings of bather chill, prevent roof truss condensation and corrosion) Disinfected by chlorine (now rarely), sodium or calcium hypochlorite (majority), ozone, or ozone + hypochlorite Ancillary facilities: Ancillary facilities In addition to the pool itself, additional facilities to be provided and managed will generally include: Changing and pre-cleansing areas (need to be kept scrupulously clean, especially floors) – removal of grime, soap residues and body fats Footbaths and showers Internal laundry (towels) Lifeguarding facilities and equipment Management and staff accommodation Spectator facilities and refreshment Storage – pool chemicals (secure, dry); pool equipment Key management issues: Key management issues Customer safety – a prime consideration Potential hazards: drowning, choking, slippage on tiled surfaces, falls, diving accidents Quality of lifeguarding – pool alarm systems – emergency plans Infection – in changing rooms (verrucae), and in pool itself (water-borne infection – e.g., coliform bacteria) Sterilisation – usually now by automatic dosage – regulation of pH, free Cl¯, dissolved solids, bacterial levels; and ‘backwashing’ Need to take account of ‘bather load’ (swimmer throughput relative to water volume) Monitoring and adjustment of water and air temperatures Pool water quality: Pool water quality A primary management and customer concern, but practical maintenance is often subcontracted to an operating company Pool management have a legal responsibility nonethless to oversee, test and monitor, and to keep regular records Public health officer will make regular bacteriological checks Useful sources: Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group (PWTAG) (based at Cranfield University) PWTAG (1990) “Pool Monitor”. Diss, Norfolk: Greenhouse Publishing PWTAG (1999) “Swimming Pool Water – Treatment and Quality Standards” Diss, Norfolk: Greenhouse Publishing Leisure pools: Leisure pools ‘Freeform’ pools, irregular shape, tropical plantings, intended to simulate an exotic environment Novelty features – flumes, water chutes, maelstroms, water-cannon, wave-machines, “beach” areas Poolside parties Attract a greater proportion of children, poor swimmers, and non-swimmers Some parents are very lax in supervising their children Large areas of shallow water, sometimes with variable depth levels “Deck level” pools mean that water depths can be unclear to the swimmer who may suddenly find themselves unintentionally in deep water, and may panic Leisure pools: Leisure pools Large areas of water make ‘reaching’ rescues more difficult or impossible – lifeguard has to enter the water Fenestration problems – architect-designed glass walls reaching to the ground level may cause ‘specular reflection’, making it difficult for lifeguards to see the pool floor Drownings have occurred unnoticed in shallow areas of novelty water features where water surface is constantly disturbed Insect infestation – from tropical plantings All these factors mean that leisure pools are inherently more hazardous, and present considerable management challenges Require higher level of active lifeguarding Jacuzzis and hot tubs: Jacuzzis and hot tubs Popular facilities, but can present health hazard if not kept scrupulously clean Increased risk of bacterial infection due to two factors: Higher operating temperature (98°F - 37°C – blood heat) – so micro-organisms multiply much more rapidly Greatly increased bather load Bromine (more active than chlorine) is used as sterilant Bathers all must shower before use Water should be changed frequently, ‘balance tank’ filters cleaned and sterilant levels kept topped up Saunas, steam rooms and turkish baths: Saunas, steam rooms and turkish baths Higher operating temperatures still – dry sauna 90°C - 120°C (194°F - 248 °F) Turkish Baths have slightly lower temperature in spacious, tiled dry hot rooms Variable temperatures – ‘tepidarium’, ‘calidarium’, ‘thermidarium’ Russian Steam Baths – tiled permanent rooms (traditional), or individual wooden steam cabinets, or heavy-grade plastic rooms (modern equivalent) with integral steam generators All require great attention to cleanliness, scrubbing out, and disinfection at the end of the day’s operation Customers should be encouraged to shower before use, and to sit on towels Management responsibilities: Management responsibilities To ensure bather safety, certain categories of user should not use these facilities at all, or should do so with great caution People with circulatory or heart disease, or diabetes People under the influence of alcohol Saunas should be avoided for 1½ hrs after a heavy meal Migraine sufferers – it may trigger an attack People suffering from excess fluid retention caused by an inability to perspire Customers should be advised, by visible notice, of these points Saunas and steam rooms are not endurance tests All should be fitted with alarm cords in case of emergency Recommended Reading: Recommended Reading Evans-Platt, C (1992) Health and Fitness Centres: A Guide to their Management and Operation. Harlow: Longman Institute of Baths and Recreation Management (1990) Practical Leisure Centre Management Vol.2. Melton Mowbray: IBRM Indoor Recreation – Ice and snow provision: Indoor Recreation – Ice and snow provision Indoor ice and snow provision includes: Traditional ice rinks Leisure ice rinks Non-refrigerated artificial ice surfaces Snowdomes Ice climbing walls Combined snow and ice facilities Traditional Ice Rinks: Traditional Ice Rinks The first artificially refrigerated ice rinks were built, experimentally, in Britain at the turn of last century (e.g.,1876, the “Chelsea Glaciarium” opened, but closed within a year) Similar early experimental rinks operated in Southport (1879), Glasgow (“Real Ice Skating Palace”, 1896), and Brighton (1897) These rinks were essentially a novelty, and did not last for long A small number of ice rinks were later established in larger cities (London, Manchester in the early 20th.C), but large-scale rink building did not get underway in Britain until the mid 1930’s (stimulated by the growth of interest in ice hockey) These were large rectangular ice arenas with considerable spectator capacity (2,500-7,000) and an ice surface of 200ft x 98ft. All were funded by public subscription (shareholders) and were limited companies Local authorities did not get involved in ice provision until 1967 Ice Quality: Ice Quality Just as with swimming pools where there were issues of water quality, so with ice rinks there are issues of ice quality No absolute standards and generally less well understood Ice sheet is periodically resurfaced by an automatic ice-resurfacing machine – ‘Zamboni’ Shaves, removes snow, applies warm water and squeegees in a single operation Ice sheet should be kept thin (about 1.5”) to reduce load on the refrigeration plant (and operational cost) Refrigeration temperature relates to activity and speed of the ice Dehumidification necessary to remove mist / condensation Modern plant is automated (e.g., Star Refrigeration’s “Telstar”) with thermocouple sensors buried in the ice sheet, linked to remote centre monitoring and plant control Ice Rinks – some management considerations: Ice Rinks – some management considerations Ice rinks in general have high operational costs – exacerbated in recent years by the introduction of Uniform Business Rate (large area), high energy costs (electricity), rising staff costs, and the economic situation generally Consequently they are generally most successful when located in large centres of population They need a large catchment and a regular customer base to succeed There needs to be keen awareness in management of the need to be energy efficient Energy efficiency requires modern plant and buildings, appropriate insulation, heat scavenging systems (including swimming pool and ice heat-exchange) Ice Rinks – some management considerations: Ice Rinks – some management considerations Adequate but not excessive spectator capacity and complementary arena use are important considerations While most ice rinks are still run by private enterprise, some are run by local authorities, increasingly in partnership Management needs to be keenly aware of the need to maximise income by undertaking appropriate marketing, programming, promoting dual use, encouraging private hire, attracting major spectator events, and maximising secondary spending Recommended reading: Sports Council (1983) “The Ice Pack. The planning, design and management of facilities for ice sports” Sport England (1995) “Ice Rinks” Leisure Ice Rinks: Leisure Ice Rinks Leisure ice rinks, like leisure pools, are “freeform” –irregular shape (circular, oval, not rectangular) Also comprise other features such as: Split level rinks Joined by refrigerated ramps Ice tunnels and caverns Snow storm effects Leisure ethos prevails Compromise with traditional ice sports, and complete unsuitable for some (e.g. ice hockey) Little or no spectator capacity Leisure Ice Rinks: Leisure Ice Rinks A controversial concept Architect driven (Faulkner Brown, Stephen Limbrick Associates) Initially opposed by Sports Council on grounds of possible collision, increased risk (ramps) Opposed by ice sports governing bodies since unsuitable for traditional ice sports or for competition Seven such facilities have opened in the UK since the early 1990s – and four have already closed, despite one supposedly being “state of the art” Limited in what they can offer, and ultimately not financially viable unless part of a wider ice-rink complex (none exist in the UK so far) Outdoor Refrigerated Ice Rinks: Outdoor Refrigerated Ice Rinks Temporary outdoor ice-rinks using portable refrigeration equipment Currently a growth area in the UK, around Christmas time Some located in prominent tourist venues - Somerset House, Natural History Museum, Eden Project Problematic in the UK at present - mild winters, ice melt-down! Most successful is Broadgate Arena (permanent outdoor rink, operates November - March) Popularity of ice-rinks greatly enhanced by reality celebrity TV programmes - “Dancing on Ice” (ITV) Non-refrigerated ‘artificial ice’ surfaces: Non-refrigerated ‘artificial ice’ surfaces The high cost of providing ice-skating on artificially refrigerated surfaces means that it is impossible to build ice rinks outwith major centres of population This has led to some experimentation with non-refrigerated ‘artificial ice’ surfaces – e.g. “Glice” Made of interlocking polycarbonate tiles, laid on an existing floor, and lubricated with glycerol Much higher coefficient of friction than real ice Tracings cannot be seen Considerable wear on skate blades Doesn’t really simulate real ice Abandoned in most cases Snowdomes: Snowdomes Technology originally devised and patented in Japan To manufacture real snow, and maintain it in an indoor environment Makes possible indoor ski-ing, snowboarding, snowblading, sledging and snowball fights! Four UK facilities are currently in operation – The Snowdome in Tamworth (Staffordshire) X-Scape in Milton Keynes and Castleford (Yorkshire), and Braehead in Glasgow Others are planned - a possible growth area Entrepreneur Pierre Gerbau (ex Millennium Dome) is promoter of X-Scape Ice Climbing Walls: Ice Climbing Walls A very new and exciting development Technology developed in the United States by Entreprise Climbing Walls One facility opened in Britain 2003 at Kinlochleven in Scotland (near Ben Nevis) A second, claimed to be Britain’s largest ice climbing wall, was opened in September 2004 at Castleford Snowdome Others planned Combined ice and snow facilities may be a future “indoor” winter sports development Specialist management areas: Specialist management areas Arena and stadium management Difference here is one of scale Large events require meticulous planning Crowd control, and Health and Safety Management assume much greater significance Automated box offices – for major events Specialist facility management – national stadia, athletics tracks, velodromes – requires knowledge of specialist surfaces and high-level competitive requirements See Shields and Wright (1989), “Arenas”; and John and Sheard (2000), “Stadia” (both Sports Council publications).