Published on March 14, 2008
LT1001NThe Leisure and Tourism Environment: LT1001N The Leisure and Tourism Environment Lecture 3 The Historical Development of Tourism Lecture Content: Lecture Content The defining features of tourism Tracing the history of tourism The growth of mass tourism The tourist gaze Tourism sectors and their development Concepts of Tourism: Concepts of Tourism A complex phenomenon A human experience A worldwide industry Both have global impacts Characteristics of tourism: Characteristics of tourism Time Distance Travel Away from home Reason / purpose Business / leisure Components of the tourism industry: Components of the tourism industry Transport Accommodation / resorts Tourist attractions : natural, built, created Travel agents Tour operators Travel-related services Government bodies – national and international IMPACTS ? ? ? Tourism as consumption : Tourism as consumption Tourism, like leisure, can also be thought of in terms of CONSUMPTION ! (Commodification) The tourist ‘product’ – e.g., a package holiday Commercial sector Postmodern thinking - Rojek, Urry John Urry (1990) “The Tourist Gaze” John Urry (1995) “Consuming Places” Tourism and Leisure: Tourism and Leisure Tourism can be considered to be a form of leisure The history of tourism shares many influences with that of leisure Tourism, however, has developed as a commercial activity Is now a major earner, makes major contribution to the economy Development of tourism: Development of tourism Can trace its progressive development: from INDIVIDUAL TRAVEL through groups and expeditions to MASS TOURISM Developmental factors: Developmental factors Tourism requires people with: ABILITY (money and time) MOBILITY (transport) and MOTIVATION (desire, determination) to travel A history of tourism is a history of the development of these three factors Tourism in Ancient Societies(Egypt and Greece): Tourism in Ancient Societies (Egypt and Greece) Empires grew, and ‘business travel’ increased (administration of the regions) Evidence also of pleasure trips - festivals, and Olympic Games Pyramids, tombs and temples were the wonders of the ancient world Prompted travel to see them – ‘gazed upon’ Tourism in the Roman Empire: Tourism in the Roman Empire Travel flourished Trade and military activity encouraged excellent roads (some still in existence) Common language and currency (Latin) Romans sought to escape the cities in summer heat Moved to seaside and hillside villas UK Tourism in the Middle Ages: UK Tourism in the Middle Ages 500 AD - Fall of the Roman Empire - roads fell into disrepair Travel became dangerous and difficult Undertaken largely on foot Undertaken for purposes of trade or religion only - e.g., pilgrimages (Chaucer’s ‘Canterbury Tales’) Endured rather than enjoyed - “travail”! Most ordinary people would spend their lives in one fixed locality 16th – 17th Centuries: 16th – 17th Centuries Establishment of “The Grand Tour” - an Elizabethan concept “Taking a year out” Aristocratic young men in the presence of their tutors Cultural and political education on a prescribed route France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands Befitting men for life in politics at court 17th – 18th CenturiesMain focus : Development of Health Tourism: 17th – 18th Centuries Main focus : Development of Health Tourism Health resorts evolved across Europe Based on the supposed health-giving properties of the sea and mineral waters Led to the growth of seaside and spa resorts still popular to-day Spa towns - primarily for invalids e.g., Bath, Leamington, Buxton Became fashionable resorts for those with leisure, money and transport 17th – 18th CenturiesHealth Tourism: 17th – 18th Centuries Health Tourism Seaside resorts catered for people seeking a ‘health cure’, rather than entertainment Sea and spa water believed to be “good for the system”! Drunk, or used for immersion - or both – “taking the waters” Medicinal Some resorts in 1800s enjoyed Royal patronage, became fashionable Brighton - Prince Regent, Royal Pavilion 18th – 19th CenturiesPeriod of Industrialisation: 18th – 19th Centuries Period of Industrialisation We have already noted: Major effect of industry on leisure and tourism Prior to this period, only the upper classes had ability, mobility and motivation to travel (horses and carriages) INDUSTRIALISATION created : Working class with income Desire to escape from the city Steam transport for travel (trains, boats) 18th – 19th CenturiesMass Seaside Tourism: 18th – 19th Centuries Mass Seaside Tourism Began due to: Development of steam boats and trains (1832) linking urban and coastal areas First for freight, later, passengers Introduction of holidays (intended to improve productivity) Bank Holiday Act 1871 Four public holidays - when whole communities would travel en masse to the coast Mass Seaside Tourism: Mass Seaside Tourism Development of a tourism infrastructure Small fishing villages developed into resorts Blackpool, Bognor Regis Seaside piers Promenades Accommodation Mass Seaside TourismPackage Trips: Mass Seaside Tourism Package Trips Development of ‘package trips’ 1841 - Thomas Cook’s first package trip From Leicester and Loughborough Day trip Combined transport and entertainment Mass Seaside TourismSocial differentiation: Mass Seaside Tourism Social differentiation Parallels with leisure Social differentiation of resorts depended on transport links Resorts linked to the northern industrial base were mainly working-class - Blackpool, Morecambe Southern resorts mainly middle-class - Bournemouth, Torquay Middle classes also discovered Europe - the Alps, the Riviera Early 20th Century: Early 20th Century 1938 Holidays with Pay Act - ensured week-long holidays, stimulated mass tourism Regulated week’s holiday at seaside hotels and ‘boarding houses’ Set meals and times Also, development of ‘holiday camps’ Development of countryside holidays - camping, rambling and YHA Holiday camps: Holiday camps 1936 - first Butlin’s opened in Skegness By 1939, 200 camps in the UK with 30,000 campers a week “A week’s holiday for a week’s pay” Chalet accommodation, ‘Redcoats’ Holiday camp experience was regimented, organised, provided on-site facilities close to the sea Main rival - Pontin’s Post Word War IIFurther growth in Tourism Activity: Post Word War II Further growth in Tourism Activity Social change War experience widened perspectives Stimulated desire to travel Increased leisure time and income Growth in car ownership Spread of five-day week - ‘the weekend’ – new unit of free time Post Word War IIFurther growth in Tourism Activity: Post Word War II Further growth in Tourism Activity Increase in tourism to the UK Festival of Britain, 1951 Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, 1953 Development of hotel chains 1969 - Development of Tourism Act Created tourist boards for domestic and overseas tourism promotion Post Word War IIFurther growth in Tourism Activity: Post Word War II Further growth in Tourism Activity Increased foreign travel 1950s - 1.5 million Britons took holidays abroad 1970s - 5.75 million abroad France and Spain (Costas) made up 1/3 of the market Product - sun, sea and sand Post Word War IIFactors underlying the increase: Post Word War II Factors underlying the increase Growth in civil aviation Post-war aircraft and air crew available New Boeing jets (1958) – much larger, greater capacity Growth of chartered flights - cheap packages Increased car ownership - cross-channel ferries and continental touring Trends in the 1980s and 1990s: Trends in the 1980s and 1990s Move towards more flexible holiday formats Villas, timeshares, self-catering Move away from mass package holidays (sun, sea and sand) Move towards more tailor-made holidays Specialised areas Personalised packages Trends in the 1980s and 1990s: Trends in the 1980s and 1990s Technological improvements in aircraft Wider bodied (jumbo-jets), greater fuel capacity, fewer stopovers Long-haul destinations for mass package holidays (e.g., Florida) Eco-tourism - environmentally aware tourism Growth in cultural and activity tourism Growth in short-break tourism - demise of the two-week summer holiday - postmodern lifestyles Late 90’s and 21st Century: Late 90’s and 21st Century Novelty and specialist tourism New destinations, ‘man-made’ resorts Greater segmentation of the market ABILITY has increased - many have more free time, greater disposable income MOBILITY has increased - improved and cheaper travel technology MOTIVATION has increased Late 90’s and 21st CenturyTourist Motivation: Late 90’s and 21st Century Tourist Motivation MOTIVATION to participate in tourism has increased due to : Substantial media exposure - has greatly raised consumer awareness Perceived ‘need’ to escape the stress of ‘postmodern’ urban lifestyles Recognition of frequent holidays as a necessity, rather than a luxury The tourist gaze: The tourist gaze Tourist landscapes are ‘consumed’ by the tourist who ‘gazes’ upon them Concept originates from Bentham, Foucault (‘the Panopticon’) – enables seeing without being seen - voyeurism Applied to tourism by Urry – ‘The Tourist Gaze’ The tourist gaze: The tourist gaze The ‘gaze’ is defined in terms of difference Perceived strangeness (but only to tourist) Exotic, pleasurable Distinguished by semiotics - ‘signifiers’ and symbolic icons – e.g., Eiffel Tower, the Pyramids, Taj Mahal Endlessly reproduced for tourist consumption (photographs, films, picture postcards) Authenticity: Authenticity The gaze is a construct How authentic are the images consumed ? Tourism as pilgrimage – a quest for the authentic (MacCannell) Authenticity versus ‘staged authenticity’ Staged authenticity protects hosts from intrusion, yet allows commercial benefits of tourism Some tourism forms are totally inauthentic Tourism sectors and their development(See Swarbrook & Horner): Tourism sectors and their development (See Swarbrook & Horner) Cultural tourism Business tourism Ecotourism Sports Tourism Adventure tourism Hedonistic tourism Special interest tourism Recommended reading: Recommended reading Rojek, C. (1993) Ways of escape : modern transformations in leisure and travel Basingstoke: Macmillan Urry, J. (1990) The tourist gaze London: Sage Urry, J. (1995) Consuming places London: Routledge LT1001N - Keeping ahead!WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE DONE BY NOW (Week 3): LT1001N - Keeping ahead! WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE DONE BY NOW (Week 3) Downloaded Lectures 1, 2 and 3 from the website Revised Lecture 2 and made your own supplementary notes Prepared Readings Two (Swarbrooke & Horner / Urry papers) for this week’s seminar Completed and written up your Portfolio Section One (‘The Mainstream Leisure Domain’) Started on Portfolio Section Two (‘The Tourism and Travel Domain’)
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