LT1001N Lecture 2 2006 7

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Published on April 16, 2008

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LT1001N The Leisure and Tourism Environment:  LT1001N The Leisure and Tourism Environment Lecture 2A An Introduction to Cross-Cutting Themes Five leisure-related domains::  Five leisure-related domains: Mainstream Leisure Tourism and Travel Sport and Recreation Arts, Culture and Heritage Events What are Cross-Cutting Themes?:  What are Cross-Cutting Themes? Cross-cutting themes are broad themes, ideas or principles that apply to most of the leisure domains that we study They link these domains through common overall elements They are of broad significance and have considerable value in informing our general understanding Cross-cutting Themes in Context:  Cross-cutting Themes in Context You will meet Cross-cutting themes in two areas of the Module: In your portfolio – where, in each Section, Task C requires you to select one for discussion In the LT1001N Examination – where the second section asks about them Studying Cross-cutting Themes:  Studying Cross-cutting Themes You will study Cross-cutting themes in detail in Lecture 11 Here we simply introduce them briefly – to allow you to become sufficiently familiar with them to apply them to your Portfolio Required for Task C of each Portfolio Section This week, for instance, you need to select, exemplify and comment on a cross-cutting theme that applies to Section 1 – ‘The Mainstream Leisure Domain’ Seven Cross-cutting Themes We study seven cross-cutting themes altogether::  Seven Cross-cutting Themes We study seven cross-cutting themes altogether: Postmodern lifestyles Commodification Globalisation Impacts and sustainability Access and social inclusion Interpretation and leisure education Media influences and the growth of information technology (IT) Cross-cutting theme: Postmodern lifestyles:  Cross-cutting theme: Postmodern lifestyles The most complex of the cross-cutting themes Relates to the fast-paced, transient, ephemeral, action packed lifestyles that many people enjoy today Has many sub-themes within it These include: Postmodern lifestyles – sub-themes::  Postmodern lifestyles – sub-themes: Decentredness (having no central focus) Dedifferentiation (blurring of boundaries) Fragmentation and diffusion (inherent instability and constant change) Simulation and hyperreality (contrived, sensation based) Individualisation (personal solitary consumption) Time compression (condensed, concentrated) Consumption (of a leisure ‘product’) Reading about Postmodern Lifestyles:  Reading about Postmodern Lifestyles A simple short paper which will help you apply this to mainstream leisure (For this week’s portfolio Task C) is: Spink, J. (1994) ‘Leisure in the Postmodern City’ in: Leisure and the Environment. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 38-42. Cross-cutting theme: Commodification:  Cross-cutting theme: Commodification Converting the leisure-related experience into a saleable product Buying and selling it Packaging it Marketing and distributing it Leisure as a commodity Cross-cutting theme: Globalisation:  Cross-cutting theme: Globalisation Distributing the product in a world-wide market Knows no boundaries (dedifferentiation) of space, distance or time Multinational Advantages and disadvantages? Cross-cutting theme: Impacts and Sustainability:  Cross-cutting theme: Impacts and Sustainability IMPACTS A significant effect, either positive (beneficial) or negative (detrimental), caused by an identifiable factor or group of factors SCALE Local, regional, national, international, global TYPES Environmental Social Economic Cross-cutting theme: Access and Social Inclusion:  Cross-cutting theme: Access and Social Inclusion Ensuring that participation is open to all who wish to take part Identifying and removing barriers These may be personal, social or circumstantial Often part of a broader equal opportunities policy Cross-cutting theme: Interpretation and Leisure Education:  Cross-cutting theme: Interpretation and Leisure Education Related to access Removing barriers to understanding by offering explanations and interpretation Makes the experience more meaningful Uses tools such as written narratives, video clips, catalogues, labels Wide variety of contexts: tourism (brochures), sport (TV), arts (exhibition guides) Cross-cutting theme: Media influence and the growth of IT:  Cross-cutting theme: Media influence and the growth of IT Distribute information Raise awareness of opportunities Print and visual media Information technology – enormously influential Technological revolution ‘Information age’ Using Cross-cutting themes In your portfolio (Task C):  Using Cross-cutting themes In your portfolio (Task C) Select one cross-cutting theme of your choice that is appropriate for that particular domain e.g.: Impacts and sustainability: tourism and travel domain; events domain e.g.: Interpretation and leisure education: sport and recreation domain; arts, culture and heritage domain Try to use a range of themes in the portfolio as a whole LT 1001N The Leisure and Tourism Environment:  LT 1001N The Leisure and Tourism Environment Lecture 2B The Historical Development of Leisure Lecture Content:  Lecture Content Tracing the history of leisure Lessons from history: the evolution of leisure policy The emergence of traditional providers Themes and perspectives Factors affecting leisure development:  Factors affecting leisure development Leisure has not developed in isolation There are lessons to be learned from history Relevant contexts : Economic Social Political Geographic Technological Factors affecting leisure development:  Factors affecting leisure development History reveals changes related to : Evolving attitudes to leisure itself External factors What major impacts can we identify ? Can trace course of leisure development in : The public sector The commercial or private sector The voluntary sector Ancient civilisations:  Ancient civilisations Egyptian and Greek societies Pre-Christian Leisure a vital part of life Experienced by élite classes only Literature, drama, music Administered by a slave class Examples Greece Olympic Games - racing, long-jump, javelin Roman Empire Lavish entertainment, 200 days a year Colosseum in Rome, 300 thousand capacity Souvenirs, catering, popular mass culture Medieval and Pre-Industrial Britain (AD 1000-1700) - “The Dark Ages”:  Medieval and Pre-Industrial Britain (AD 1000-1700) - “The Dark Ages” Primitive agricultural society Based on rural and village communities Leisure linked to harvest periods and religious festivals Leisure pattern reflects cycles of sowing and harvesting Long work periods alternating with equally long leisure periods Christmas 14 days, Easter 7 days, harvest festivals and Saints’ days Medieval and Pre-Industrial Britain:  Medieval and Pre-Industrial Britain Holidays characterised by sports and drinking Animal sports - cock-fighting, bear-baiting Village games – tavern games, skittles, physical games of strength, tug-of-war Boisterous and rowdy Leisure and work bound up together - people worked long hours when required, but very long holidays too Growth of urbanisation:  Growth of urbanisation “Push factor” - advances in agrarian production, enclosure of common land “Pull factor” - employment in industry in towns and cities Together these resulted in a movement of people from land to the developing urban areas Industrialisation and Urbanisation (1800s):  Industrialisation and Urbanisation (1800s) Society gradually moved from a rural to an urban base Developing industrialisation was soon to transform economy and lifestyles “The Industrial Revolution” By 1851, for first time, majority of people lived in towns or cities (urbanisation) New way of life, alien to workers - the factory system Leisure in the Industrial Revolution:  Leisure in the Industrial Revolution Cunningham, H. (1980) Leisure in the Industrial Revolution London : Croom Helm Malcolmson, H. (1973) Popular Recreations in English Society 1700-1850 Cambridge : Cambridge University Press Work and Leisure in the Industrial Revolution:  Work and Leisure in the Industrial Revolution Factory system required a 6-day, 70-hour working week 4 public holidays, not 17 as before Harsh, dangerous, exhausting working conditions Strict timekeeping Work / leisure division for the first time Leisure serves as recovery from work Leisure in the Industrial Revolution:  Leisure in the Industrial Revolution Cramped living conditions in towns Crowded, insanitary, unhealthy No room for the popular pastimes which had evolved in village communities Folk football - violent, unruly Large spectator events - prize fighting, racing, public executions, fairs and wakes, animal baiting - attracted huge crowds Leisure in the Industrial Revolution:  Leisure in the Industrial Revolution Concerns expressed by landed gentry and emerging industrial middle class Perceived threat to public order (since masses rowdy, physical, violent, drunken) Discipline for new urban masses seen as crucial Legislation introduced to suppress popular recreations Early legislation:  Early legislation Repressive Purpose - social control Three aims To prevent instability and social disorder To reinforce work discipline in leisure time (cf. productivity concerns) To reduce absenteeism and drunkenness at work Control of recreation seen as essential to the maintenance of levels of production Repression of popular leisure:  Repression of popular leisure Control by both government legislation and local magistrates 1820 Licensing of beer houses - to combat adverse effects of drink 1833 Suppression of Blood Sports Act 1835 Cruelty to Animals Act Both prohibited working class cruel sports (cock-fighting, animal baiting) but still allowed hunting, fishing and shooting by the upper classes in society Repression of popular leisure:  Repression of popular leisure 1835 Highways Act - banned street football and entertainers Local authorities and police forces - clamped down on pugilism, gambling, prostitution, illegal drinking, and some traditional fairs and wakes Lord’s Day Observance Society and Temperance Movement prominent in these reforms 1854 - Banning of betting shops Positive legislation:  Positive legislation 1847, 1867 Factories Acts - protection for women and children Other legislation sought to create a healthier, more motivated workforce and to distract from “unwholesome” pastimes (Victorian ethos) 1845 Museums and Libraries Act 1846 Baths and Wash Houses Act (first health and hygiene, laundry - later, swimming) 1852 Recreation Grounds Act (provision of space) Positive legislation:  Positive legislation Case for positive state intervention in recreation established Recognition that repressive legislation not wholly successful Some activities go ‘underground’ Replaced by a more positive approach Supported by wealthy middle-class philanthropists - the “Rational Recreation Movement” The Rational Recreation Movement:  The Rational Recreation Movement “The taming of the work-force to the new economic system” (Clarke & Critcher) The Rational Recreation Movement:  The Rational Recreation Movement Generic term for a range of providers seeking to offer positive recreational alternatives ‘Wholesome’ leisure forms Considered to be a more effective ‘civilising strategy’ Value judgements ? Paternalistic ? The Rational Recreation Movement:  The Rational Recreation Movement Church of England - Sunday Schools offered day trips, educational visits, and recreational programmes Provision of public parks, libraries and museums by wealthy individuals The Mechanics’ Institutes - educational self-improvement Rugby and football - codified, rules, team discipline - ‘Muscular Christians’ - promoted ‘embrocation and evangelism’ ! Early 20th Century (1900-1939):  Early 20th Century (1900-1939) Foundation of the Welfare State under a Liberal government (1905) Growing recognition that the state had a responsibility to care for welfare of its citizens Health, housing, education, social security Period of social reform Early 20th Century legislation:  Early 20th Century legislation National Trust 1907 - access to land Town Planning Act 1909 - open spaces to be integrated into towns Forestry Commission Act 1919 - to include access for leisure purposes Physical Training and Recreation Act 1937 - provision of playing fields and gymnasia - fit fighting force (onset of World War 2) Growth of mass commercial leisure:  Growth of mass commercial leisure 1920s saw boom in commercial leisure Development of cinemas - huge audiences twice a week Football stadia - mass spectator sports - 20,000 at First Division match Growth of home-based leisure - radios, gramophone records, pianos and pianolas Continued throughout 1930s, cut short by war (1939-45) Post-war leisure (1945 – 1950):  Post-war leisure (1945 – 1950) Massive disruption to public and commercial leisure in war years - though some flourished (cinemas, dance-halls) Post-war reconstruction - gradual - housing, factories, schools - leisure not a priority Publication of the Beveridge Report (1942) “Social Insurance and Allied Services” Continuing development of the Welfare State under post-war labour Post-war leisure (1945-1950):  Post-war leisure (1945-1950) Post-war Labour government - Clement Attlee Policies for education, health, social security and leisure Education Act 1944 Establishment of Arts Council (1946) Countryside Act (1949) established National Parks Commission Post-war leisure (1950s):  Post-war leisure (1950s) Steady rise in standard of living Full employment throughout 1950’s Disposable income doubled 1951-72 Home ownership increased Introduction of mortgages (home ownership) Growth in DIY, gardening (home-based) Impact of television (1950s) – cinema closures, fall in football attendances Post-war leisure (1950s):  Post-war leisure (1950s) Introduction of 5-day week - “the weekend” as a unit of leisure time Rapid growth in car ownership Construction of motorways Growth in commercial leisure - eating, drinking, entertainment, dancing, nightclubs Emergence of teenage youth culture American influences - rock and roll Increasing affluence The leisure boom (1960s – early 70s):  The leisure boom (1960s – early 70s) ‘The Swinging Sixties’ - continued affluence, but rising inflation and growth of unemployment 1965 - Sports Council established 1974 - Local Government reorganisation (Wheatley report) Larger constituencies created Integrated services departments including leisure Recognition of leisure as a basic human right The leisure boom (1970s):  The leisure boom (1970s) Substantial increase post-1974 in local authority investment in leisure In 1972 : 30 municipal sports centres and less than 500 indoor swimming pools By 1978, 350 sports centres and more than 850 pools Notion of “recreational welfare” (Coalter) The leisure boom (1970s):  The leisure boom (1970s) Increasing professionalisation of leisure Formation of ILAM (1979) (Institute of Leisure and Amenity Management) Provision of university degree courses in Leisure Management Growth of structural mass unemployment (to almost 4 million) leads to speculation on a new “leisure age” The leisure age:  The leisure age Several influential texts published, rapidly became best-sellers : 1979: Jenkins and Sherman,“The Collapse of Work” (Eyre Methuen) 1981: Jenkins and Sherman,“The Leisure Shock” (Eyre Methuen) 1985: André Gorz,“Paths to Paradise on the Liberation from Work” (Pluto Press) 1976 to present day:  1976 to present day Economic recession Monetary collapse 1976 - Labour Government (Callaghan) accepts IMF loan, conditional on sharp reduction in public spending Welfare state under pressure 1979 Conservative Government elected (Margaret Thatcher) Leisure in the 80s – 90s:  Leisure in the 80s – 90s Youth unemployment Inner city problems Mass rioting in Brixton and Toxteth (1981) Leisure projects aimed at social control Sports Council – ‘Action Sport’ (inner cities) ‘Recreational welfare’ replaced by ‘recreation as welfare’ - safety-net provision Leisure in the 80s – 90s:  Leisure in the 80s – 90s Dominant political ideology of the “New Right” Emphasis on the individual, and on primacy of ‘market forces’ At odds with collective social welfare remit of many local authorities Rate-capping Public spending cuts Introduction of Compulsory Competitive Tendering (CCT) (1989) Leisure in the 90s - Commercial Sector:  Leisure in the 90s - Commercial Sector Commercial sector buoyant Continuing emphasis on home-based leisure: TV, video, computers, music, satellite, digital entertainment Interactive technology - home shopping Growth of leisure as consumption Growth of private leisure sector - e.g., health clubs Two-tier leisure - private consumers and public providers (cf. growth of a meritocracy) Leisure in the new Millennium:  Leisure in the new Millennium 1997 - Election of ‘New Labour’ Effective continuation of many Conservative policies - still market-led Local authorities : Replacement of CCT by ‘Best Value’ Change in role from direct provider to facilitator / enabler Private sector finance initiative (PFI) Encouragement of growth of partnerships (public/private and voluntary sector) Leisure in the new Millennium:  Leisure in the new Millennium Leisure: Redefined and reshaped under external pressures Technological developments leading to growth in new leisure forms Individualisation Commodification – ‘leisure as consumption’ Postmodern leisure (Rojek) LT1001N - Keeping ahead ! WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE DONE BY NOW:  LT1001N - Keeping ahead ! WHAT YOU SHOULD HAVE DONE BY NOW Read the Module Booklet, and ‘Your Portfolio Week-by-Week’ Revised last week’s lecture and made your own supplementary notes Bought the required text (Haywood) and read Chapter 1 (‘Dimensions of Leisure’) Prepared Readings One (Torkildsen/Rojek papers) for this week’s seminar Made a start on researching your first portfolio section (‘The Mainstream Leisure Domain’) IF YOU HAVE JOINED US LATE YOU ARE VERY WELCOME, BUT YOU NEED TO TRY TO CATCH UP ON ALL OF THIS STRAIGHT AWAY !

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